COACHING FOR RESILIENCE - LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT UTILIZING CONCEPTS OF MEANING AND
MOTIVATION

Abstract:
Resilience is the...
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Religious activities
Social causes
Altruism
Enduring values/ideals
Traditions & Culture
Legacy
Fina...
Motivation Analysis. Finally, the application of the Existential and Motivation Analysis will be described
presenting the ...
COACHING FOR RESILIENCE
–
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT UTILIZING
CONCEPTS OF MEANING AND MOTIVATION
Thomas Mengel, PhD
Professor...
Overview
• Meaning and Motivation: Values (Viktor
Frankl) and desires (Steven Reiss)
• Existential and Motivational Analys...
Viktor Frankl: “Man’s Search for Meaning”
(1985)
Frankl suggested that we discover meaning
• in what we do by realizing cr...
Gary T. Reker (1996): Sources of Meaning
Profile (SOMP)
to identify and prioritize the following areas of
meaningful engag...
Sources of Meaning Profile (Reker, 1996)

ILA Conference 2013

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16 basic desires (strivings) based on Reiss 2000

ILA Conference 2013

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16 basic desires (strivings) based on Reiss 2000

ILA Conference 2013

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Sam Someone
Sam came into a self leadership seminar trying to better

understand his current frustrations about life and
l...
Strivings and values of Sam Someone (Based on Reiss, 2000)

ILA Conference 2013

9
Sources of Meaning Profile of Sam Someone
(Based on Reker, 1996)

ILA Conference 2013

10
Potential areas of tension for Sam Someone
Sam’s desires, values,
sources of meaning

Requirements of Sam’s
professional c...
Context, desires and values of Sam Someone
However, Sam also realized that his professional context
was conducive to satis...
Two main options of self and leadership development
forSam Someone

• Transitioning into a corporate training department
•...
Selected option

•
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•

Conversations between Sam, HR, and VP sales
Transitioning into a corporate training department
S...
References and contacts
Frankl, V. (1985). Man’s Search for Meaning. Pocket Books, New York
Mengel, T. (2012). ‘High Poten...
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Thomas mengel coaching for resilience - leadership development utilizing concepts of meaning and motivation

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Presentation "COACHING FOR RESILIENCE - LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT UTILIZING CONCEPTS OF MEANING AND MOTIVATION" on November 1, 2013 at the International Leadership Association Global Conference, Montreal, Canada.

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Thomas mengel coaching for resilience - leadership development utilizing concepts of meaning and motivation

  1. 1. COACHING FOR RESILIENCE - LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT UTILIZING CONCEPTS OF MEANING AND MOTIVATION Abstract: Resilience is the ability to bounce back after a critical blow or crisis. It includes the motivation to rise from the ashes and to (re-)engage in meaningful living. Hence, developing resilience is crucial for both individuals and organizations. In this presentation, I will demonstrate how understanding human motivation in general and the Reiss Motivation Profile in particular can be utilized to coach for more resourceful resilience in leadership development. Summary: Resilience is the ability to bounce back after a critical blow or crisis. It includes the motivation to rise from the ashes (Masten, 2009). Motivation addresses the initiation, intensity, and persistence of human behavior (Geen, 1995). Understanding and being able to influence the factors that initiate, sustain, and change human behavior, are crucial to understanding and building resilience in particular as well as to leadership development in general. Developing resilience is crucial for both individuals and organizations. Interestingly, Maslow’s (1943) theory of motivation, although based on the often disputed psychodynamics introduced by Freud and Adler, still has a strong influence on leadership and leadership development (Shriberg, Shriberg, & Kumari, 2005). Surprisingly, the importance of Frankl’s (1959) research on “Man’s search for meaning”, and of Reiss’ (2000) presentation of “The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions” has not yet been fully recognized (Mengel, 2008). Frankl’s and Reiss’ work lead beyond Freud’s and Adler’s emphasis on pleasure and power and they set a new scholarly milestone based on scientific study rather than on an intuitive understanding and development of concepts of motivation. The human “Will to meaning”, the centerpiece of Frankl's (1988) motivational theory, and its application within Frankl's Existential Analysis, can serve as one significant component of building resilience and developing leadership. In particular, based on Frankl’s work Gary T. Reker (1996) has developed a scientific instrument – Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) – which allows individuals to identify and prioritize the following areas of meaningful engagement and value actualization:       Leisure activities Meeting basic needs Creative activities Personal relationships Personal achievement Personal growth
  2. 2.            Religious activities Social causes Altruism Enduring values/ideals Traditions & Culture Legacy Financial security Humanistic concerns Hedonistic activities Material possessions Relationship with nature Similarly, Reiss' (2000, 2008) model of 16 basic desires is only slowly finding its way into motivational theory in general and into leadership and leadership development in particular. The 16 motivators, goals and values include:                 Acceptance (the desire to avoid criticism and rejection), Beauty (the desire for beauty and aesthetic appeal), Curiosity (the desire for truth and knowledge), Eating (the desire for a variety of food), Family (the desire to raise children and to nurture), Expedience (the desire for purposefulness), Idealism (the desire for social justice), Interdependence (the desire for interdependence), Order (the desire for structure), Physical Exercise (the desire to move one’s muscles), Power (the desire for influence of will, Saving (the desire to collect), Social Contact (the desire for friendship), Status (the desire for prestige), Tranquility (the desire for inner peace), and Vengeance (the desire to get even). Given that the resulting Reiss Motivational Profile is a scientifically based profile of human desires and strivings, this approach can effectively complement Frankl's existential approach in the context of building resilience and of leadership development. This presentation will first introduce these two approaches to motivation and discuss how they may serve as a basis for meaningful leadership practice and development. In particular, it will show how the Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP; Reker, 1996), a scientifically developed instrument based on Frankl's work, allows individuals to identify and prioritize areas of meaningful engagement and value actualization. Furthermore, the presentation will demonstrate how the Reiss Motivational Profile (RMP) and the respective strivings and values of an individual may allow for a 'balanced' evaluation of capacities for resilience and leadership. Both, the SOMP and the RMP-strivings and values, are integrated into a coherent leadership development and coaching process based on an Existential and
  3. 3. Motivation Analysis. Finally, the application of the Existential and Motivation Analysis will be described presenting the case of the coaching client Sam Someone. References: Frankl, V. E. (1959). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Frankl, V. E. (1969). The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy. New York, NY: The World Publishing Company. Geen, R. G. (1995). Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, pp. 370-396. Masten, A. S. (2009). Ordinary Magic: Lessons from research on resilience in human development. Education Canada. Canadian Education Association, 49 (3): 28–32. Mengel, T. (2008). Motivation. in: Gosling, J. and Martura no, A. (eds.) (2008). Key Concepts in Leadership Studies. Milton Park, Oxfordshire, UK: Routledge. pp. 111-114. Reiss, S. (2000). Who am I? -The 16 basic desires that motivate our behavior and define our personality. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Reiss, S. (2008). The normal personality - A new way of thinking about people. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. Reker, G. T. (1996). Manual – Sources of Meaning Profile Revised. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada: Student Psychologists Press. Shriberg, A., Shriberg, D. L., & Kumari, R. (2005). Practicing leadership. Principles and applications (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  4. 4. COACHING FOR RESILIENCE – LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT UTILIZING CONCEPTS OF MEANING AND MOTIVATION Thomas Mengel, PhD Professor of Leadership Studies, University of New Brunswick; CEO, Reiss Profile Canada Corp. ILA Conference 2013 1
  5. 5. Overview • Meaning and Motivation: Values (Viktor Frankl) and desires (Steven Reiss) • Existential and Motivational Analysis (EMotiAn) – The Case of Sam Someone ILA Conference 2013 2
  6. 6. Viktor Frankl: “Man’s Search for Meaning” (1985) Frankl suggested that we discover meaning • in what we do by realizing creative values (e.g., creating something at work or in our learning environment), • in what we experience by realizing experiential values (e.g., experiencing meaningful relationships in our personal and professional lives), and • in what we believe and think by realizing attitudinal values (e.g., developing new and healthy attitudes when suffering professional setbacks or personal crises). ILA Conference 2013 3
  7. 7. Gary T. Reker (1996): Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) to identify and prioritize the following areas of meaningful engagement and value actualization: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Leisure activities Meeting basic needs Creative activities Personal relationships Personal achievement Personal growth Religious activities Social causes Altruism ILA Conference 2013 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Enduring values/ideals Traditions & Culture Legacy Financial security Humanistic concerns Hedonistic activities Material possessions Relationship with nature 4
  8. 8. Sources of Meaning Profile (Reker, 1996) ILA Conference 2013 5
  9. 9. 16 basic desires (strivings) based on Reiss 2000 ILA Conference 2013 6
  10. 10. 16 basic desires (strivings) based on Reiss 2000 ILA Conference 2013 7
  11. 11. Sam Someone Sam came into a self leadership seminar trying to better understand his current frustrations about life and leadership and to identify what to do about them. • 35 year old manager of a sales-team in major insurance company. • married and has two children at the age of 5 and 7. • degree in social work and a teacher certificate. • Because he could not find work in his trained profession he started selling insurances and worked his way up into his current position. • While he is quite successful and earmarked by his superiors as a high potential, he does not feel to be ‘at the right spot’. ILA Conference 2013 8
  12. 12. Strivings and values of Sam Someone (Based on Reiss, 2000) ILA Conference 2013 9
  13. 13. Sources of Meaning Profile of Sam Someone (Based on Reker, 1996) ILA Conference 2013 10
  14. 14. Potential areas of tension for Sam Someone Sam’s desires, values, sources of meaning Requirements of Sam’s professional context Thinking, theory, learning about many things Practical knowledge, focused on financial management Service orientation, participative leadership Directive leadership, goal and achievement orientation Time for family, work-life balance Long hours, extensive travelling, career-orientation Engagement in community projects (church and village) Long hours, extensive travelling, career-orientation ILA Conference 2013 11
  15. 15. Context, desires and values of Sam Someone However, Sam also realized that his professional context was conducive to satisfying the following desires and living the respective values: • Enjoying meaningful relationships with colleagues and customers • Helping customers and team members to achieve financial security • Figuring out innovative solutions for customers and his sales team members • Securing a livelihood for himself and his family ILA Conference 2013 12
  16. 16. Two main options of self and leadership development forSam Someone • Transitioning into a corporate training department • Exploring leadership opportunities in community based non-profit organizations ILA Conference 2013 13
  17. 17. Selected option • • • • Conversations between Sam, HR, and VP sales Transitioning into a corporate training department Senior Coach, Director of mentoring program Exploring leadership opportunities in community based non-profit organizations as a future option ILA Conference 2013 14
  18. 18. References and contacts Frankl, V. (1985). Man’s Search for Meaning. Pocket Books, New York Mengel, T. (2012). ‘High Potential’ can be deceiving – Utilizing the Reiss Motivational Profile® in HR and Leadership Development. FMI Journal June 2012. Mengel, T. (2012). Leading with ‘emotional’ intelligence – Existential and Motivational Analysis in leadership and leadership development. Journal on Educational Psychology 5(4):24-31. Reiss, S. (2008). The Normal Personality. A New Way of Thinking About People. Cambridge University Press, New York. Reiss, S. (2000). Who am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personality. Berkley Books, New York. Reker, G. T. (1996). Manual-Sources of Meaning Profile-Revised. Student Psychologists Press, Peterborough. tmengel@unb.ca; www2.unb.ca/~tmengel; www.reissprofile.ca ILA Conference 2013 15

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