Chicano Studies in Arizona: Engaging Hot-Button Issues through the Arts
Engaging Hot-Button Issues Through the Arts:
The Battle for Chicano Studies in Arizona.
Imagined Histories, Possible Futures: A Time-Travel
Narrative Concerning The Cultural Practices of the
MestizoPeoples of the mysterious and faraway
Arizona House Bill 2281
A SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER SCHOOL IN THIS STATE
SHALL NOT INCLUDE IN ITS PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION
ANY COURSES OR CLASSES THAT INCLUDE ANY OF THE
-PROMOTE THE OVERTHROW OF THE UNITED STATES
-PROMOTE RESENTMENT TOWARD A RACE OR CLASS OF
-ARE DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR PUPILS OF A PARTICULAR
-ADVOCATE ETHNIC SOLIDARITY INSTEAD OF THE
TREATMENT OF PUPILS ASINDIVIDUALS.
CB (Chicano Bill) 1970
THE MEXICANAMERICAN COMMUNITY
MUST BE ACCOMPANIED
BY THE ROCK GROUP EL
OF VIVA TIRADO.
A Historical Background of Absolute and
1200-1521 CE: The Aztec Empire thrives in presentday central Mexico, pioneering the use of unattractive
crossover sport utility vehicles.
1492 CE: Christopher Columbus discovers the
fabled Western route to Asia: Get lost, stumble
upon the present-day Bahamas, and call it Asia.
1500 CE: A group of
images of human
sacrifice to public art
as a critique of
1520 CE: The Aztec capital
city of Tenochitlán suffers a
sharp decline after
Ullamaliztli player LeBrontl
Jamestli takes his talents to
1521 CE: Hernan Cortes wins the Viceroyship in
an election marred by the use of confusing
Papalotl ballots. The country pretty much goes
Transmission From A Future Culture
U.S. Census 2010…And Beyond
Total U.S. Population: 309 Million
Population of Hispanic Origin: 16 %
Projected Hispanic Origin Population 2050:
Projected Hispanic Origin as Percentage of
Total U.S. Growth: 60%
Source: Pew Hispanic Center
Arizona Population 2010: 6.5 Million
Hispanic or Latino Origin: 30%
Under 18 Population 2010: 1.63 Million
Under 18 Hispanic or Latino Origin: 46%
Pima County Population 2010: 980,000
Hispanic or Latino Origin: 35%
Tucson Unified School District
2010 100th Day Enrollment: 53,000
Hispanic Origin: 60%
MAS Enrollment, April 2011: 1,300
Hispanic Origin: 90%
Source: Cambium Learning Audit of TUSD Mexican American Studies Program, 2011
A Local History of Undisputed Accuracy and
1978: Lawsuit against TUSD citing discriminatory
practices results in Federal Court-ordered desegregation
program. The court order remains in place until 2008 and
TUSD remains under order to produce a follow-up plan.
1979: Mexican-American Playwright and Director Luis
Valdez Debuts “Stylish and culturally-specific WWII-era
clothing used as a symbol for the Mexican-American
community and its struggles against institutionalized
racism”. The play fails to catch on.
A Local History Cont'd...
1997: The Chicano Raza Mexican-American Studies
(CREMA) department is formalized due to student and
community advocacy and a Sponsorship from Avon, but
most people just call it the MAS (Mexican-American
Studies) department. Ethnic Studies programs at the
district level already include African-American Studies
and Native American Studies courses and soon grow to
include Asian/Pacific American Studies courses.
An Odd, Unusual, and Addictive Phenomenon Known as “Facebook”
A Local History Cont'd...
2006: During a period of heavy student activism
connected to the immigration reform rallies, labor and
civil rights activist Dolores Huerta appears at TUSD
flagship and MAS hotbed Tucson Magnet High School
and ignites controversy by stating that “Republicans hate
Latinos”. Some still believe to this day that she really said
“Republicans ate at Tino's”, a snooty upscale Pizzeria on
the East Side. Nevertheless, the words catch the
attention of Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom
Horne, a Republican.
A Local History Cont'd
2006-2010: Horne openly targets the TUSD MAS
program for elimination and explicitly uses this issue in
political campaign materials while running for Attorney
May 2010: HB 2281 signed into law (same session as SB
1070). The law targets one specific program in one
specific school district: MAS in TUSD. The penalty for
failing to comply with the law is 10% of state funding. The
power to decide compliance rests in the hands of Two
persons: the Superintendent of Public Instruction and his
The Actions of May 7, 2010
A Local History, Cont'd...
October 2010: 11 MAS teachers initiate a federal lawsuit
against the State. The Suit is ongoing.
November 2010: Horne elected Attorney General. John
Huppenthal, Republican, is elected Superintendent of
Public Instruction on promise to “Stop La Raza”, La Raza
being a nagging opponent in Call of Duty Online.
Where It Stands...
Early 2011: Superintendant Huppenthal orders an audit
to gather evidence of MAS non-complicance. The audit
finds no evidence of violation of state law in the MAS
program.Huppenthalfinds MAS in non-compliance with
April-May 2011: Students and the community protest at
TUSD board meeting after learning of board intentions to
bow to State demands and Dismantle the MAS program.
These Protests prompt the District to Appeal
Where It Stands...
September-October 2011: Administrative Law Judge
takes up the issue of TUSD vs. State Department of
Education. This hearing does not challenge the law, only
the interpretation of the law.
November 2011: Administrative Law Judge to make a
non-binding recommendation. Huppenthal will likely find
TUSD in non-compliance regardless of the Judge’s
finding, meaning that the teacher’s federal lawsuit will
begin in earnest.
2014: The Youth School Board becomes a reality
as MAS students and alumni mobilize and
propel a youth slate to victory.
2019: After a genetic study determines that maybe
about 1.3% of Chicanos are actually of Aztec
descent, Chicano Artists, T-shirt makers, and
the Mexican restaurant calendar industry are
sued for millions of counts of copyright
2050: People of Hispanic Origin Are the majority
of the U.S. Population shattering all previous
projections; they’ve been mixing like crazy.
“Brown” is formally added as a race in U.S.
Census form just to make it easier on everyone.
20??: The First Latino/a U.S. President, an Ethnic
Studies alum, is elected. Ethnic Studies are now
known simply as Studies.