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MultiMulti--storeystorey
structural Steel Structuresstructural Steel Structures
www.onlinecivil.tk
Present By
J Thomas Bri...
BackgroundBackground
Steel has been used for constructing buildings in the westernSteel has been used for constructing bui...
Properties of steelProperties of steel -- Steel has the followingSteel has the following
properties, that makes it one of ...
The use of structural steel sectionsThe use of structural steel sections
The availability of steel sections in a varietyTh...
Standard structural steel sectionsStandard structural steel sections
www.onlinecivil.tk
Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame
ColumnColumn
connects to baseco...
Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame
Connecting HConnecting H--colum...
Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame
Connecting
beam to
column
Conne...
Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame
Simple cage frame cantilever frame
www.onlinecivil.tk
Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame
Propped cantilever frame
Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame
Wind-braced structures
Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame
Core structure
Characteristic of various kinds of structuralCharacteristic of various kinds of structural
steel framed structuressteel fr...
Principle factors affecting choice of framePrinciple factors affecting choice of frame
Structural Design considerationStru...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Structural characteristicsStructural ch...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Structural characteristics (continue)St...
Features of structural steel construction (cont.)Features of structural steel construction (cont.)
Construction aspectsCon...
Features of structural steel construction (cont.)Features of structural steel construction (cont.)
Construction aspectsCon...
StiffeningStiffening
members in themembers in the
form of outrigger,form of outrigger,
belt truss orbelt truss or
transfer...
Detail of the outrigger andDetail of the outrigger and
transfer truss system usedtransfer truss system used
in Cheung Kong...
The actual process inThe actual process in
installing the transfer trussinstalling the transfer truss ––
a temporary suppo...
The completion of theThe completion of the
belt/transfer truss andbelt/transfer truss and
outrigger at various stagesoutri...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction
Construction aspectsConstruction aspect...
Future development of using structural steel or
composite structures in Hong Kong
Instead of building very large and compl...
The use of standard structural
steel members in construction
www.onlinecivil.tk
Convenient products in market allowing
the use of very cheap and effective
ready-install structural steel members to
form ...
A hybrid structure in Melbourne, Australia with the mixed use of
Precast concrete, cast-in-situ concrete and steel composi...
Detail of the hybrid elements
www.onlinecivil.tk
End of presentationEnd of presentation
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Multi storey structural steel structures

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Multi storey structural steel structures

  1. 1. MultiMulti--storeystorey structural Steel Structuresstructural Steel Structures www.onlinecivil.tk Present By J Thomas Britto Dept of Civil Engineering
  2. 2. BackgroundBackground Steel has been used for constructing buildings in the westernSteel has been used for constructing buildings in the western world for more than 150 years. With the introduction ofworld for more than 150 years. With the introduction of standard sections by the end of 19standard sections by the end of 19thth Century, steelCentury, steel structures were getting much more popular as a choice ofstructures were getting much more popular as a choice of construction for highconstruction for high--rise buildings.rise buildings. The use of structural steel to construct started only in the 70The use of structural steel to construct started only in the 70’’ss in HK, below is some of the projects being completed:in HK, below is some of the projects being completed: 1.1. Park Lane Hotel (Causeway Bay, 1972)Park Lane Hotel (Causeway Bay, 1972) 2.2. Grand Hyatt & Harbor View Hotel (HKCEC Phase I, 1990)Grand Hyatt & Harbor View Hotel (HKCEC Phase I, 1990) 3.3. Bank of China Tower (Central, 1991)Bank of China Tower (Central, 1991) 4.4. Time Square (Causeway Bay, 1992)Time Square (Causeway Bay, 1992) 5.5. Lee Garden Redevelopment (ManuLee Garden Redevelopment (Manu--life Tower, 1997)life Tower, 1997) 6.6. The Center (Central, 1999)The Center (Central, 1999) 7.7. Cheung Kong Center (Central, 2000)Cheung Kong Center (Central, 2000) www.onlinecivil.tk
  3. 3. Properties of steelProperties of steel -- Steel has the followingSteel has the following properties, that makes it one of the most efficientproperties, that makes it one of the most efficient materials for use in building construction.materials for use in building construction. Favorable propertiesFavorable properties -- Strong: has a high strength/weight ratioStrong: has a high strength/weight ratio -- Versatility: adaptable and ductileVersatility: adaptable and ductile -- Cheap and plentifulCheap and plentiful -- Easy to cut, connect and fabricateEasy to cut, connect and fabricate Some drawbacksSome drawbacks -- Heavy and lengthy, not easy to handleHeavy and lengthy, not easy to handle -- Loss strength under higher temperatureLoss strength under higher temperature -- Easily get rust if not properly treatedEasily get rust if not properly treated -- Deflect under loadsDeflect under loads www.onlinecivil.tk
  4. 4. The use of structural steel sectionsThe use of structural steel sections The availability of steel sections in a varietyThe availability of steel sections in a variety of dimensional ranges provides theof dimensional ranges provides the designers with a wide variety of designdesigners with a wide variety of design options.options. These sections are manufactured inThese sections are manufactured in convenient shapes, sizes and thickness.convenient shapes, sizes and thickness. They can be readily fabricated,They can be readily fabricated, combined and connected to formcombined and connected to form unlimited possibility of designsunlimited possibility of designs
  5. 5. Standard structural steel sectionsStandard structural steel sections www.onlinecivil.tk
  6. 6. Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame ColumnColumn connects to baseconnects to base www.onlinecivil.tk
  7. 7. Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame Connecting HConnecting H--column to form continual columncolumn to form continual column Using splice plate Using welded joint www.onlinecivil.tk
  8. 8. Typical jointing details for structural frameTypical jointing details for structural frame Connecting beam to column Connecting beam to beam www.onlinecivil.tk
  9. 9. Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame Simple cage frame cantilever frame www.onlinecivil.tk
  10. 10. Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame Propped cantilever frame
  11. 11. Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame Wind-braced structures
  12. 12. Typical layout of structural frameTypical layout of structural frame Core structure
  13. 13. Characteristic of various kinds of structuralCharacteristic of various kinds of structural steel framed structuressteel framed structures In general, the performance of steel frameIn general, the performance of steel frame structure may be affected by the followingstructure may be affected by the following factorsfactors a)a) Length of spanLength of span b)b) Composition/continuity of spanComposition/continuity of span c)c) Methods of jointing the membersMethods of jointing the members d)d) Movement and deflection allowedMovement and deflection allowed When using inWhen using in lowhaslowhas very good and efficient.very good and efficient. Favorable properties of steelFavorable properties of steel -- Strong: has a high strength/weightStrong: has a high strength/weight ratioentifulratioentiful -- Easy to cut, connect andEasy to cut, connect and fabricatefabricategetget rust if notrust if not properly treatedproperly treated www.onlinecivil.tk
  14. 14. Principle factors affecting choice of framePrinciple factors affecting choice of frame Structural Design considerationStructural Design consideration nn Foundation considerationFoundation consideration nn Standardization of members or designStandardization of members or design nn Span and floor loadsSpan and floor loads nn Fire resistance requirementFire resistance requirement nn Maintenance considerationMaintenance consideration nn Integration of architectural & structural elementsIntegration of architectural & structural elements
  15. 15. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Structural characteristicsStructural characteristics 1.1. Steel has lower dead load (unless encased inSteel has lower dead load (unless encased in concrete)concrete) 2.2. Steel frame can easily to have the layout changed toSteel frame can easily to have the layout changed to suit new design than concrete, especially requiringsuit new design than concrete, especially requiring alteration after completion of the building.alteration after completion of the building. 3.3. Easily accommodate building movements for steel isEasily accommodate building movements for steel is a relatively flexible material and have greatera relatively flexible material and have greater adaptability to take up strain and deformationadaptability to take up strain and deformation 4.4. However, it is weaker in fire resistance for steel willHowever, it is weaker in fire resistance for steel will lose strength and deform serious at higherlose strength and deform serious at higher temperature (at 600temperature (at 600oo C or above). This can beC or above). This can be improved by applying fire resistant plasterimproved by applying fire resistant plaster www.onlinecivil.tk
  16. 16. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Structural characteristics (continue)Structural characteristics (continue) 5.5. Beams usually shallower in size than for concreteBeams usually shallower in size than for concrete BeamsBeams 6.6. Sections in various convenient type and size thusSections in various convenient type and size thus economical in design and useseconomical in design and uses –– refer to standardrefer to standard steel sectionssteel sections 7.7. Produce larger deflection & deformation (Bend)Produce larger deflection & deformation (Bend) under windunder wind –– this will causethis will cause uncomfortuncomfort to users ofto users of buildingbuilding 8.8. Steel has higher thermal expansion valueSteel has higher thermal expansion value 9.9. Rusting or corrosion problemsRusting or corrosion problems –– very strict antivery strict anti-- corrosion treatment has to be appliedcorrosion treatment has to be applied
  17. 17. Features of structural steel construction (cont.)Features of structural steel construction (cont.) Construction aspectsConstruction aspects 1.1. Quicker to erect and can be prepared offsiteQuicker to erect and can be prepared offsite –– inin workshop/factory environment with goodworkshop/factory environment with good production and quality controlproduction and quality control 2.2. Erection on site less affected by climaticErection on site less affected by climatic conditionsconditions –– without placing of concretewithout placing of concrete 3.3. Longer and highly coordinated planningLonger and highly coordinated planning –– requirerequire long time to make structural design, fabricationlong time to make structural design, fabrication and deliveryand delivery 4.4. Higher requirement in the control of dimensionalHigher requirement in the control of dimensional accuracy before and during construction (inaccuracy before and during construction (in fabrication and in erectionfabrication and in erection
  18. 18. Features of structural steel construction (cont.)Features of structural steel construction (cont.) Construction aspectsConstruction aspects 5.5. Demand greater transportation orDemand greater transportation or cranagescranages provisionprovision 6.6. Complicated quality assurance proceduresComplicated quality assurance procedures –– especially in the control of welding connectionespecially in the control of welding connection 7.7. Difficult to make connection with rigid structuresDifficult to make connection with rigid structures –– especially in composite structure in which RC coreespecially in composite structure in which RC core structure is involvedstructure is involved 8.8. More complex when building become moreMore complex when building become more gigantic and tallergigantic and taller –– due to the huge number ofdue to the huge number of structural members, some may be of very heavystructural members, some may be of very heavy section (e.g. those stiffening members)section (e.g. those stiffening members) 9.9. Induce more works at higher altitudeInduce more works at higher altitude www.onlinecivil.tk
  19. 19. StiffeningStiffening members in themembers in the form of outrigger,form of outrigger, belt truss orbelt truss or transfer truss istransfer truss is very difficult tovery difficult to install during theinstall during the constructionconstruction processprocess Outrigger tying up the coreOutrigger tying up the core wall and the outer framewall and the outer frame www.onlinecivil.tk
  20. 20. Detail of the outrigger andDetail of the outrigger and transfer truss system usedtransfer truss system used in Cheung Kong Centerin Cheung Kong Center
  21. 21. The actual process inThe actual process in installing the transfer trussinstalling the transfer truss –– a temporary support framea temporary support frame erected for the purposeerected for the purpose www.onlinecivil.tk
  22. 22. The completion of theThe completion of the belt/transfer truss andbelt/transfer truss and outrigger at various stagesoutrigger at various stages
  23. 23. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects –– highlight of somehighlight of some problemsproblems Delivery of structural steel member by ship Large member delivery to site waiting to hoisting up for erection www.onlinecivil.tk
  24. 24. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Hoisting of the structural steel member to the upper floor www.onlinecivil.tk
  25. 25. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Connecting steel members with RC element – an anchor frame may be required for making strong connection www.onlinecivil.tk
  26. 26. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects To connect floor to core wall – starter bars are to be provided within the core structure Constructing the composite floor in steel/RC composite structure www.onlinecivil.tk
  27. 27. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Very large component often in complicated shape www.onlinecivil.tk
  28. 28. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Huge amount of structural members make erection very complicated www.onlinecivil.tk
  29. 29. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects The existence of very complicated jointing in steel structure
  30. 30. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects –– highlight of some problemshighlight of some problems Required to perform works at very high altitude www.onlinecivil.tk
  31. 31. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Workers work at high altitude www.onlinecivil.tk
  32. 32. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Connecting large and complicate shaped components can be very difficult www.onlinecivil.tk
  33. 33. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Examples of location where unmatched dimension causing problem Concrete has to be trimmed to allow steel to pass through www.onlinecivil.tk
  34. 34. Features of structural steel constructionFeatures of structural steel construction Construction aspectsConstruction aspects Examples of location where unmatched dimension causing problem Roof truss and the decking not on the same level www.onlinecivil.tk
  35. 35. Future development of using structural steel or composite structures in Hong Kong Instead of building very large and complex building using composite manner, which resulted to very high cost in construction, the following ways may be adopted in order to achieve more cost effective application of technology in future. 1. Use more simple and straight forward design like regular steel frame structure in grid layout 2. Use more standardized components such as universal sections, lattice trusses or prefabricated standard sections in the design 3. Apply more to other types of building structure/construction as in many developed country like Japan, USA, or even Korea and Taiwan 4. Forming hybrid structure with other prefabricated elements www.onlinecivil.tk
  36. 36. The use of standard structural steel members in construction www.onlinecivil.tk
  37. 37. Convenient products in market allowing the use of very cheap and effective ready-install structural steel members to form various building systems
  38. 38. A hybrid structure in Melbourne, Australia with the mixed use of Precast concrete, cast-in-situ concrete and steel composite www.onlinecivil.tk
  39. 39. Detail of the hybrid elements www.onlinecivil.tk
  40. 40. End of presentationEnd of presentation

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