INTERIOR DESIGN FINAL PROJECT Haydn Thomas ID 142- Fall 2011 Novermber 29, 2011
PART I- EGYPTIANS Key buildings- temples, tombs, mastabas, row houses, palaces, andpyramids. Materials and construction techniques- sun-dried mudbricks, stone/limestone, sandstone, and granite, massive structures withthick mud brick/stone walls, trabeated construction (system of columnsand lintels). Key motifs- Lotus and papyrus borders, spiral and rosettepatterns, fret, lotusbud, chevron, checkerboard, ankh, vulture, deities, griffin.
EGYPTIANS- (above) Chevron pattern on - Hieroglyphics(found on wall panels clothing in my house)- (below)Pyramids of Giza
PART II- GREEK AND ROMAN Motifs- Greek: vine patterns, palmette Key buildings- temples (based on andMycenean megaron), houses (2-4 honeysuckle, anthemion, antefix, rinceau, lostories), market centers. tus and palmette, greek key or fret Building materials and construction border, spiral wave, ram’s head and border.techniques- City separated by: sacred Roman: arabesque, cupids, pegasus, skull and swag, entablature, griffin and lion table(stone, marble), private, and public supports.areas; plaster, mosaics, trabeated Influences on subsequent cultures:architectural system; doric, ionic, and Classical designs were reintroduced incorinthian, tuscan, and Roman Western Europe during Renaissance, andcorinthian orders. later the Neoclassical period, also influences in American Federal style
GREEK AND ROMAN Greek andRoman columnsand components
PART III- BYZANTINE Key buildings- churches, cathedrals, religious buildings Materials and techniques- mosaics, stone sculptures, realgold tiles, dark interiors, domes, curved ceilings. Key motifs- rosettes, diamond and oak leafcarvings, religious figures, linen fold panels, crocketborder, trefoil and quatrefoil, windows with tracery.
BYZANTINE- (left) Mosaic at St. Mark’s Basillica (Italy)- (bottom left) Detailed columns with oak leaf carvings at St. Mark’s- (bottom right) Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (postcard)
PART IV- ROMANESQUE Key buildings- cathedrals, palaces, marketsquares, churches. Materials/Construction techniques- stone and marble orbrick carvings, and ornamentation, with massive roundarches Motifs- windows with tracery, rosettes, crocketborder, finials, linen-fold panel, carvings, trefoil, andquatrefoil.
ROMANESQUE - (far left) Vaulted structure - (top left) Roman aquaduct, imp ortant in function. – large arches. - (bottom left) Detailed arches , Leaning Tower of Pisa
PART V- GOTHIC Buildings- churches, cathedrals, large municipal buildingsthroughout France, England, and Italy. Materials and techniques- cross plan, flyingbuttresees, tracery windows; stone, stained glass, heavy oakfunrniture. Motifs- linenfold, crocket borders, window stonetracery, quatrefoil, trefoil, religious symbols.
GOTHIC- (top left) Quatrefoil inspired wall design- (bottom left) Rose window at National Cathedral in Washington, DC- (right) Gothic architecture, Vault
RENAISSANCECountry Key buildings Materials and construction Motifs Furniture techniques introductions and developementsItaly Villas Brick/stone or plastered Arabesque, Sgabello, sedia walls with frescos, walnut gadroon, laurel (small furniture leaf, festoon, upholstered guilloche, chairs), cartouche, rosette savonarola, cassone, credenzaFrance Chateaux Heavy materials, stone, Lozenge, Fleur de Caquetoire, bricks, walnut furniture lis, geometric armoire panel.England Country houses Homes had a long gallery/ (shared with Baluster turnings, hallway, tall walls of other styles), used wainscot chair, windows, oak paneling, many classical turnings, drop pargework ceilings. motifs leaf tablesSpain Houses (casas) House designed around Wrought iron, Freilero, armario, central patio with wrought geometrical vargueno, iron grille work, Moorish patterns wrought iron influence. bases
RENAISSANCE - (top right) French motif- Fleur de lis - (top right) Biltmore Estate in Ashville, NC, French Renaissance - (left) Broken pediment- furniture form of Renaissance
BAROQUECountry Key characteristics Key motifs Furniture Buildings PART VII- BAROQUE introductions and developmentsItaly “decoration on top of Pedestal legs, The dome, St. Peter’s, Palaces, decoration”, carvings, flemish scrolls, grand furniture homes, mosaics, paintings, gold. ornate carvings pieces, classical cathedrals of religious moldings figures and cupidsFrance Fabric on walls, used Square pedestal Canape, ormolu Palaces, color of gold, Louis XIV leg, flemish “c” mounts, Lois XIV homes, scroll and “s” chair. chateaux scrollEngland Turnings, large panels, n/a Veneering, exclusive Cathedrals, Grinling Gibbons use of walnut, banquet carvings, use of walnut, marquetry and laquer halls, homes, Jacobean, William and work, “harmony of palaces. Mary furniture”
BAROQUE French Baroque Interior: • Ornate interiors • Dramatic use of texture through color (light and dark for contrast) • Marble and checkerboard floor • Plaster/stucco ornamentation • Gold gilded on furniture, walls, ceilings • “Decoration on top of decoration” • Elaborate wall treatments, fabric
BAROQUE - (bottom left) Versailles Hall of Mirrors (French Baroque) - (above) French Baroque piano, with ormolu mounts - (top left) End table with turnings (English Baroque)
PART VIII- ROCOCO Buildings- Houses, municipal buildings Key characteristics of style- shell motif, influence of MadamePompadour (Louis XV), defined rooms, fabric wall panels andmirrors, England regected Rococo and adopted Georgian style ofarchitecture Motifs- scrolled foot, shell motif, cabriole leg, fan motif “Design for women” England- Chippendale (Chinese influence)(mahogany), Palladianinfluence, Queen Anne (walnut, splat back)
ROCOCO- (left) Queen Anne dining chair- (bottom left) Fan motif (English rococo)- (bottom right) French Louis XV inspired chair
PART IX- NEOCLASSIC Buildings- Homes, mansions, state/capital and government buildings Key characteristics- fabric walls, drapery, curved lined chairs, ceiling and floor reflected indesign, fan windows, pediments, dentil moldings, white woodwork, classical inspiration Motifs- fan motif, pediments, dentil work, influences from Greece and Rome, rosetteblock, lyre, cornucopia, medallion and square back, wheat, bellflower, paterae, prince of Walesplume, urns England- Regency, Hepplewhite (shield back), Sheraton (square back), Adam Brothers USA- Federal Style (Georgian), American Empire France- Louis XVI, Directoire, French Empire Bringing back of classical elements in altered forms Neoclassic interior- dark colors, wallpaper, painted motif walls, classical elements ofancient Greece and Rome
NEOCLASSIC- (right) Hepplewhite chair- English Neoclassic- (bottom left) Hitchcock side table- American Federal- (bottom right) Petit Trianon at Versailles in France- French Neoclassic
PART X- VICTORIAN Buildings- homes and mansions Characteristics- nostalgic reinterpretation, lots of sentimental andhistorical ornamentaions, Substyles: Gothic Revival,RococoRevival, Eastlake style Furniture and develpoments- Bentwood (steam bending of wood) andThonet, Belter, use of iron and plateglass (Eiffel Tower) Interior- Rococo rinceau patterns, cabriole leg, asymmetricaldesigns, love of fringe and knick-knacks, high ceilings, crownmoldings, ornate fireplaces.
VICTORIAN - (left) Thonet, bentwood rocking chair - (bottom left)Korner’s Folly in downtown Kernersville, NC (Victorian style home) - (below) Rosewood furniture typical of Victorian era, inspired by Belter
PART XI- ARTS AND CRAFTS Buildings- homes and business buildings Began in England, William Morris (Morris chair) Characteristics- quality, use of local woods, simple, revolutionagainst machine age, “mission style” Key furniture introductions and develpoments- Morris chair, oakwoods, furniture made with the quality first Interior- cozy, warm colors, earth tones, simple local woods. Highquality
ARTS AND CRAFTS- (left) William Morris (arts and crafts designer) wallpaper- (bottom right) Gustav Stickley chair- (bottom left) Bungalow style house
PART XII - ART NOUVEAU Buildings- homes, business/office buildings Characteristics- swirling lines, forms from nature, influences from:nature, japanese prints, rococo, and islamic arts, “beauty and function”, “artand industry”, newness, change of role for women in arts, stained glass, largeuse of woods. Furniture introductions and developments- Macintosh, Horta, Guimard(designers)- chairs with unique wood/design, Tiffany-glass anddecorations, asymmetrical curvy designs Interior- curvy asymmetrical furniture, stained glass windows, uniquewoods, warm earth tone colors
ART NOUVEAU- (left) Art Nouveau style doorway and window- (middle) Wallpaper typical in Art Nouveau styled homes- (right) Art Nouveau storage piece, curved lines, organic design.
PART XIII - PRAIRIE STYLE Buildings- homes, mansions, office buildings, temples, churches Characteristics- straight lines, simple designs, inspiration fromnature, emphasis on the horizontal, motifs derived from nature Furniture introductions and developments- early chair and dining roomtable, later chairs, midway garden chairs, use of plywood, glass, metal/steel Interiors- light, airy, use of earthy colors, straight lines, use of manywoods, nature inspired Frank Lloyd Wright- prominent designer of prairie style, designedfurniture and architecture
PRAIRIE STYLE - (left) prairie style light fixture - (bottom left) Origami chair by Frank Lloyd Wright - (right) modern interpretation of a prairie style home - (bottom right) Frank Lloyd Wright home in Oak Park
PART XIV- ART DECO Buildings- home, businesses, hotels, and offices Characteristics- sleek, geometric, cubistic, machine age, jazz influence, shapes ofthe Bauhaus School and streamlined styling of modern technology combined withpatterns and icons taken from the Far East, ancient Greece andRome, Africa, India, and Mayan and Aztec cultures, came from excitement overdiscoveries/finds in Egypt Furniture introductions and developments- steel frames for structre, use of glassand metal, leather, streamlined Interiors- simple with pops of color, pastels (Miami, South Beach) brightcolors, metal , glass, straight lines, and simple designs
ART DECO- (left) Art Deco inspired light- wall sconce- (bottom left) Transat chair by Eileen Gray and Jean Badovici- (bottom right) Art deco hotel in South Beach Miami
PART XV- INTERNATIONAL STYLE Buildings- glass houses, skyscrapers, offices, business buildings Characteristics- use of glass, steel, simple geometric forms Furniture introductions and developments- use of steel andglass, Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, molded fiberglass, andplastic, stackable chairs Interiors- glass window walls, steel, glass used in many differentelements, colors: white, simple designs
INTERNATIONAL STYLE- (left) Bertoia chair at Father and Sons (Downtown Raleigh)- (bottom right)Weissenhof Museum- (below) Alvar Aalto’s stacking stools
PART XVI - POSTMODERN STYLE Buildings- homes, hotels, businesses, office buildings Characteristics- sculptural, hi-tech, emphasis onergonomics, classic materials (granite, hardwood floors) Classics with a twist, “less is a bore” Furniture introductions and developments- “inflatablefurniture”, non-conventional furniture forms, Robert Stern, FrankGehry, Michael Graves, Maya Lin (all designers) Interiors- sectional sofas, entertainment centers, granite, hardwoodfloors, unconventional seating/chairs
POSTMODERN STYLE- (left) Frank Gehry “wiggle” chair- (bottom left) Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, designed by Frank Gehry- (bottom right) Maya Lin inspired kids furniture (by Knoll)