Low Carbon Transportation


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Some options for a desirable and sustainable transporation options I prepared for an energy class.

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  • Venture Capital Fund for Technology Demonstration:
    £ 5.0 mn 2 yrs at Johor-Bahru, Malaysia.
    Andy Rotary Engine: 12 hp/100cc;1500hp/12L;1.5mnhp/12kL
    All Fuels are burnt. Fit for Automotive, Rail, Ship, Jet, Missile
    1.Aero Jet Engine 1.5 m dia Propeller, 60 cm dia, 20 cm long,
    Andy Rotary Engine. 3000 hp, No compressor, No turbine.
    STOSL, VTOL 180 deg tilt able engines-2 no.Tail engine-1 no
    2.Truck 15 T, 240 hp, 200 kmph, 30 kmpl, 77.5 co2e g/km
    3.Truck 30 T, 240 hp, 100 kmph, 15 kmpl, 155 co2e g/km
    4.Ship 100 T, 1200hp, 330 knt,...15 kmpl, 1.55 Co2e g/t-km
    5.Yard, machine tools, help, consumables etc
    niraima1 at gmail com
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  • h2carblog.com
  • http://eipa.alberta.ca/media/40721/aeri%20bio-energy%20final%20report.pdf
  • Low Carbon Transportation

    2. 2. ZERO CARBON TRANSPORTATION IN B.C SOUTHWEST• Currently several electric railways in Greater Vancouver• 1 Tramway (used intermittently)• Large Trolleybus fleet in Vancouver Burnaby• Hydrogen fleet at Whistler• Private electric cars• Electric Bikes• Plug in Hybrids http://www.nowpublic.com
    3. 3. TROLLEYBUSES• Used in Vancouver: Tested in 1950s in Nelson and Victoria• Ridership increase 10%+• 10% Faster acceleration• Visual intrusion of wires• Cost of initial purchase higher
    4. 4. MORE TROLLEY BUSES• 60% reduction in primary energy use• Visible infrastructure, can anchor development like streetcar• About $1-2 Million per one-way kilometer• Can act as a low cost tram alternative • Quito, Ecuador T-bus
    5. 5. BUT WIRES ARE UGLY!• I don‟t think so• But Bombardier Primovecity uses inductive to bring charging under the road –inductive dynamic and stationary charging• Safe for Heart Pacemakers• Can recharge on the go, Need less infrastructure• Used in Ausburg,Germany for trams• Energy recovery by onboard batteries• Can be used for tramsbuscars Photo: Bombarier
    6. 6. OFF THE WIRE BUS OPTIONS• Proterra • Used in California • Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit• Opbrid system • Tested in Umea, Sweden (Cold winters) • 5-7 minutes charging • 10-15 KM range • Diesel APU
    7. 7. TRAMS• Light railtram more cost effective than light metro such as Skytrain• Cost substantially dependent on depth of excavation of underground utilities• $12 Million per Mile in Portland• Rail for the Valley proposal connects Surrey with Abbotsford CMA and Chilliwack • Interurban Right of Way is incredibly cost-effective ($6 million per km compared to Skytrain $100-140 million per km) Light Rail going through water feature in Houston, Texas
    8. 8. CARGO• Important to allow for development of economies of scale in manufacturing recycling• Modern standard of living depends on having ability to ship goods. No such thing as local television manufacturing• Low-Carbon freight transport is needed • Trolleytruck • Efficiency • Electric Fuel Cell Rail Photo: Prince George Railway and Forestry Museum Electric trains that once ran to Tumbler • Biofuels (gasp!) Ridge Coal Mines
    9. 9. POLICIES• Very High Fuel Tax on Trucks not running on electricity ($2-3 dollars per liter)• Long term phase-in of tax• Nationalization of railroad infrastructure to facilitate electrification and competition• Biofuel use should be discouraged • Cap on consumption • Strict sustainability criteria legislation • Road tax for non-essential biofuel use (Highway Journeys over 200 KM) bccommunitynews.com • Hydrogen fuel for most cases
    10. 10. TROLLEY TRUCKS• Dual-mode Vehicles with caternary• Hybrid Engine In German. Sorry Photos: http://trolleytruck.eu/
    11. 11. TROLLEYTRUCKS Photos: lLw Tech Magazine
    12. 12. CARGOCAP• Pipeline to transport EuroPallets• 36 Kmh (~35 hours Lower Mainland to Alberta Heartland)• Good for Metropolitan Regional Transport• Electrically driven• Proposed for Ruhr Valley, Germany• Getting trucks out of central cities.• Not a replacement for intercity• Minimal disturbance during construction
    13. 13. HYPERTRUCKS• Fuel Efficiency of Trucks could be doubled to 12.5 mpg assuming no fuel switching.
    14. 14. FUEL CELL BIG RIGS• Used in Los Angeles to avoid pollution at port• UPS delivery truck smaller though• Can replace vast majority of trucking where direct grid connection and batteries aren‟t viable• Hydrogen has lower energy efficiency
    15. 15. Highly efficient, light but safe cars are imperative to achieve a medium-termsustainable energy future. Making cars light makes renewably fuels such aselectricity increasingly viable.. CLEAN CARS
    16. 16. HYPERCAR -LIGHTWIEGHTING EFFECTS• Light-weight but strong carbon fiber construction• Carbon fibre expensive material, cheap to make into cars• RMI modelled a Revolution SUV comparable to 2004 Audi Allroad • 58% fuel use reduction • 1.6% price increase over Audi Allroad
    17. 17. THE HYPERCAR CONCEPT nexusilluminati.blogspot.com
    18. 18. LIGHT WEIGHTING AND COST• As VW notes, low-cost carbon-composite automotive structures could cut the weight of a car by 40% (most firms say 50–65%) and body parts by 70%, making this approach “cost effective even if the manufacturing costs per part are still expected to be higher” (Page 56, Winning the Oil Endgame)• Making cars lightweight and efficient makes greener fuels such as hydrogen more economically and technically viable
    19. 19. HYBRID / FUEL-CELLHYPERCAR• 66 MPG 107 MPG• 72% 83% reduction in fuel use for hybrid/ fuel cell hybrid• Light-weighting 2.4X improvement for 1.6% cost increase• 7.4% / 31.9% cost increase
    20. 20. RESISTANCE• Bottom of car is source of most resistance!• Low-resistance, but high traction tires• Take home: cars can heat less air and pavement to fry the planet less
    22. 22. ELECTRIC CARS• Earliest Auto Technology• Limited Range• Recharging Times• Cost of storage high • Batteries Tea Anyone? In the Electric Horseless • Supercapacitors Carriage, perhaps… GM photo
    23. 23. MORE ELECTRIC CARS• Key economic driver: cheap available “fuel”• Night-time charging• Allows for carbon capture and storage• Combination of options for electric vehicles best • Hydrogen greencar.com • Batteries • Direct connection to grid (inductive charging )
    24. 24. ydrogen is a carbon-free energy carrierllowing a fuel infrastructure that is easilyonverted to renewable energy sources HYDROGEN CARS
    25. 25. HYDROGEN OPTIONS• Can be used to drive Cars, Buses, Ferries, Planes, Boats, Bikes, Airships• Fuel cell round trip efficiency at best 45%• But storable• Good for many applications except small planes
    26. 26. CHALLENGES• Capital replacement cycles for long- lived assets limits adoption rate• Initial hydrogen source from reformed natural gas• Hydrogen might be cost up to the efficiency equivalent of $1.28 per liter nanopedia.case.edu
    27. 27. WILL HYDROGEN EVER BE AFFORDABLE?• 2/3rd reduction in pricey platinum use• Current cost of $225 per KW of fuel cell „engine‟ system• Hydrogen Fuel Cells 2.5 times more efficient than Internal Combustion Engine• 2015 Target• h2carblog Photo: Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.
    28. 28. 126 Kwh/ 100 miVs.30 Kwh/ 100 mi
    29. 29. If wind electricity is Primary electricity, overall efficiency is 63% Assumes Carnot Law – Combined Cycle Gas Turbines 50% better
    30. 30. 70% more reasonableNot comparable due to the use of wind resources
    31. 31. NO IDEAL ANSWERFUEL CELL BATTERY• Low efficiency • High efficiency • 1.26 Kwh per mile • Limited Range• Very fast Recharging 3MW • Long recharging times compared to• 70% electrolysis efficiency fossil fuel• Storage solvable • Battery swap might be a solution• High cost • Cheap Fuel • 10 cents per KWh electricity * 56 KWH of electricity per KG H2 = 5.60 per KWH for power alone • $8-10 for wind hydrogen per KG
    32. 32. THE GOAL: CHEVY VOLT + FUEL CELL• Replace Internal Combustion Engine with Fuel Cell 400-500 KM range for hydrogen storage.• Ford Edge Hyseries Hybrids• Can drive 40 kilometers of electricity alone• When battery depletes to 40% hydrogen takes over an recharges• Total range 360 kilometers (Full hydrogen and charge),• 4.5 kilograms of hydrogen http://www.greencar.com/• ZERO CARBON is POSSIBLE
    33. 33. WHAT ABOUT HYDROGEN STATIONS ANDPIPELINES?• Rocky Mountain Institute notes that hydrogen can be produced from natural gas in decentralized fashion• Halving of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of hydrogen produced from natural gas• Decentralized reformation is the most cost effective.• In longer-term converting natural gas pipelines could be an option• Hydrogen could be used to power fuel cells to drive resistance heaters and heat pumps when there is insufficient wind and high heat demand Photo: Ecofriend
    34. 34. BIOENERGY• Generally considered to be carbon- neutral… but complex accounting due to increasing carbon storage at advanced ages• Opportunity of not storing in carbon• Biomass CCS (Azar et al, 2008)• BC Forest 12 Mt(dry).yr 20% of fossil fuel could be displaced by forest residuals 191 PJ/year in BC from forest waste• Cellulosic Biomass potential in Photo: ESAGOR flickr‟s photostream Alberta– 380 to 420 petajoules
    35. 35. FUEL OPTIONSLots of issues with biofuelsFocus on BTL• Diesel• Kerosene• DME
    36. 36. DME FOR LOGGING SOME MARINE Energy - Industry 0.55 Transport - Cars 0.25 Transport - Trucks 1.5 Transport - Marine 0.1 Transport - Aviation 0.08http://www.me.umn.edu/centers/cdr/reports/E3_Kittelson.pdf
    38. 38. BIO-METHANE FROM WOOD• Wood is gasified, cooled, cleaned to remove tars, chlorine and other contaminants• Syngas conversion to SNG with catalysts (Large-Scale)• Total efficiency of Wood to Methane Energy is around 50-75% Photo: ECN
    39. 39. FT DIESEL FUELS• Drop-in Fuel (works with existing equipment)• Kerosene SunDiesel• Some electricity cogeneration• 40-50 efficien t% (SNG higher at up to 70%)
    40. 40. BIOENERGY: LIMITED RESOURCE• Not enough bioenergy to meet all of BCs and Alberta‟s needs need• Bioenergy does have large production potential 100-200 EJ per year • Limited in Canada due to cold climate• We should remember that trees and in particular functioning forest ecosystems have a variety of values• Deadwood is extremely important for biodiversity• REMBEMBER THE WOOD DUCKS! rivermud.blogspot.com
    41. 41. INTERCITY RAIL• Painfully slow• No electric intercity rail• Slow due to track quality and regulatory environment requiring heavy railcar. Unbalanced superelevation• Private ownership of railbed• Europe generally has public track ownership • Banedanmark in Denmark • public investment
    42. 42. TRAINS• Advance control systems to allow safe operation at higher speeds to encourage modal shift• Electric Caternary on mainlines• Hydrogen hybrids on remainder of network http://en.wikipedia.org/
    44. 44. DIESEL TRAINS• 25% less CO2 than flying• Low load factor + outdated safety regulations• 90% of the time in idle• But better than trucks• Greyhound is better energy wise  en.wikipedia.com
    45. 45. ELECTRIC TRAINS• Great Power• Great Speed• 75% Breaking energy recovery on equipped trains• A wonderfully efficient and pleasant way to get around• On the right the Pagatag my favourite thing in the world when I was 4. Photo: Anders Lagerås
    46. 46. AVIATION• 70% fuel intensity reduction • Double-bubble• Hydrogen long-term• Biofuels may be an option • FT fuels from cellulose • Gasification + bioreactors • FT fuels drop-in • Perhaps 80% CO2 reduction en.wikipedia.org • Lower cruising altitudes to reduce Non-CO2 forces