George Orwell's 1984

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Presentation on George Orwell's 1984 presented by Todd Hollst at Sinclair Community College, Dayton, Ohio. UPDATED 1-26-2017

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  • George Orwell's 1984

    1. 1. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    2. 2. Published in 1949 Released in 1984 George Orwell
    3. 3. About the Author: • Eric Arthur Blair, pseudonym George Orwell • Born in 1903 - died in 1950 • Born in India when it was a Britsh colony • Wrote 9 major books and 700 essays/artcles • He was a internatonal socialist • He was against Britsh imperialism • Fought in the Spanish civil war • He was a writer for BBC during WWII Actual manuscript from Orwell’s 1984
    4. 4. Major Characters • Winston Smith – novel’s protagonist; a civil servant who works at the Ministry of Truth and is responsible historical revision of all records. • Julia- Winston’s lover; works in the Ficton Department at the Ministry of Truth. She loves sex, which is against Big Brother’s laws. • O’Brien- A mysterious member of the Inner Party whom Winston falsely believes is a member of The Brotherhood, an underground resistance of ant-Party rebels. • The Party- ruling caste of Oceania; runs all branches of government, makes and enforces all laws and punishments. • Big Brother- perceived ruler of Oceania who may or may not really exist; posters of Big Brother’s face appear in public and bear the message “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU.” • Emmanuel Goldstein- presumed leader of The Brotherhood and is a frequent target of The Party’s “2 Minutes of Hate.”
    5. 5. 1984 Synopsis • 1984 (working ttle: The Last Man in Europe) was published in 1949 and is a dystopian novel about a collectvist totalitarian oligarchy called Oceania. • The Party, which is closely paterned afer the Soviet Bolsheviks, is lead by Big Brother. • The novel opens with the protagonist, a minor member of The Party named Winston Smith, commitng “thought crime” by keeping an illegal diary which describes his nightmarish life and hatred of The Party and Big Brother. • Winston falls deeper into his hatred of The Party. He begins to commit thought crime on a regular basis, but he knows that the Thought Police will eventually arrest him. • He falls in love with a co-worker named Julia who hates The Party as much as he. Eventually, both are coerced into commitng thought crime and atemptng to join a subversive group called The Brotherhood by trader in their midst. • This eventually leads to his arrest and torture in the dreaded “Room 101.” Winston sufers from musophobia and this fear is exploited untl fnally breaks and commits to following the Party.
    6. 6. 1984 Social Caste Big Brother has divided society into three social castes: the Inner Party (INGSOC, ruling party), Outer Party (Middle class, government bureaucrats), and Proles (Proletarians; Party members view them as animals). This division allows the Party to manipulate and control Oceania.
    7. 7. Geopolitical Map
    8. 8. Key “Orwellian” Terms • Two Minutes of Hate- daily required actvity of all Party members • Telescreen- two-way TV screens located in all Party member’s homes and public areas • Slogans- sayings that convey populist messages • Newspeak- the language spoken in Oceania • Doublethink- the act of holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously, fervently believing both. • Revisionism- changing history to ft the Party’s needs • Thought Crime- illegal thoughts • Thought Police- organizaton that monitors citzens and enforces Party rule • Junior Ant-Sex League- fanatcal group against sex as pleasure • Junior League - indoctrinaton of the youth (child spies)
    9. 9. Big Brother • “… Every success, every achievement, every victory, every scientfc discovery, all knowledge, all wisdom, all happiness, all virtue, are held to issue directly from his leadership and inspiraton…” ~Emmanuel Goldstein • The Theory And Practce Of Oligarchical Collectvism, Chapter 1, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH
    10. 10. Newspeak In 1984 Orwell introduced the words “newspeak” and “doublethink.” Newspeak- the ofcial language of Oceania and was devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc by deletng words, creatng words or replacing words with new meanings. Newspeak is "politcally correct" speech taken to its maximum extent. NEWSPEAK IS DESIGNED TO NARROW THE RANGE OF THOUGHT SEXCRIME- Having sex for enjoyment or to create a family of your own. Sex is only appropriate when performed to produce ofspring for The Party. CRIMETHINK- To even consider any thought not in line with the principles of The Party. THOUGHT CRIME- To commit the crime of illegal thought. JOYCAMP- Forced-labor camp. UNPERSON- Person that has been completely erased from existence and history by the government for breaking the law in some way.
    11. 11. Doublethink- the act of holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously, fervently believing both. Example: The classic "doublethink" example from Orwell was how "the Ministry of Peace concerns itself with War; the Ministry of Truth with Lies; the Ministry of Love with Torture; and the Ministry of Plenty with Starvaton." “To know and not to know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions which cancelled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them…” - Winston Smith, 1984 Doublethink
    12. 12. Worldview of The Party "In a way, the world-view of the Party imposed itself most successfully on people incapable of understanding it. They could be made to accept the most fagrant violatons of reality, because they never fully grasped the enormity of what was demanded of them…By lack of understanding they remained sane. They simply swallowed everything, and what they swallowed did them no harm, because it lef no residue behind…" George Orwell, 1984 Pg 156 I believe the society in 1984 has elements of both naturalism and theism. Individuality has been stripped away virtually leaving a “soul less” populaton. However, their “god fgure” was Big Brother, but in a very one dimensional way. In a very real sense they created their own religion, morals and values. Man, in this case Big Brother, has been made into God.
    13. 13. Science in 1984 "In Oceania at the present day, Science, in the old sense, has almost ceased to exist. In Newspeak there is no word for 'Science.' The empirical method of thought, on which all the scientfc achievements of the past were founded, is opposed to the most fundamental principles of Ingsoc.“ George Orwell, 1984 SCIENCE IS DEAD
    14. 14. 7 Institutions of Society How are they manifested in 1984?
    15. 15. The Individual• Individuality is stripped from all persons ~ "a naton of warriors and fanatcs, marching forward in perfect unity, all thinking the same thoughts and shoutng the same slogans, perpetually working, fghtng, triumphing, persecutng - three hundred million people all with the same face." • Avoid “ownlife” ~ "In principle a Party member had no spare tme and was never alone except in bed. It was assumed that when he was not working, eatng or sleeping he would be taking part in some communal recreatons; to do anything that suggested a taste for solitude, even to go for a walk by yourself, was always slightly dangerous. There was a word for it in Newspeak: ownlife, it was called, meaning individualism and eccentricity." • Personal pleasures forbidden ~ "Sexual intercourse was to be looked on as a slightly disgustng minor operaton, like having an enema.“ • Thoughts of dissent are met with extreme punishments ~ "A Party member lives from birth to death under the eye of the Thought Police. Even when he is alone he can never be sure that he is alone.” • YOU ARE ALREADY DEAD ~ "Never again will you be capable of ordinary human feeling. Everything will be dead inside you. Never again will you be capable of love, or friendship, or joy of living, or laughter, or curiosity, or courage, or integrity. You will be hollow. We shall squeeze you empty and then we shall fll you with ourselves.”
    16. 16. The Family • The family is undermined by the Party ~ “…cut the links between child and parent, and between man and man, and between man and woman.” • Children are indoctrinated by the Party ~ “…hardly a week passed in which the Times did not carry a paragraph describing how some eavesdropping litle sneak- “child hero” was the phrase generally used- had overheard some compromising remark and denounced his parents to the Thought Police.” • Sex is only for procreaton of new Party members ~ "We shall abolish the orgasm. Our neurologists are at work upon it now.” • Only focus and loyalty is to Big Brother ~ “There will be no loyalty, except loyalty towards the Party. There will be no love, except the love of Big Brother. There will be no laughter, except the laugh of triumph over a defeated enemy.”
    17. 17. Religious Institutions The Religion of Oceania IS Big Brother and the PARTY Big Brother’s prime enemy, named Emmanuel Goldstein, may be Orwell’s insinuaton that religion does exist in this tme. The name “Emmanuel” in Hebrew translates to “God with us,” and “Goldstein” is a typical Jewish surname. SOURCE:htp://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/11401247
    18. 18. Education Systems The Junior Spies are an organizaton in which children have been trained to become the police and denouncers of their parents in the name of Big Brother. Children are taught only principles that Big Brother deems worth and necessary to further the Party. Reminiscent of the Nazi Hitler Youth.
    19. 19. Civil Government In 1984 The Ministry of Peace The Ministry of Truth The Ministry of Love The Ministry of Plenty
    20. 20. The Ministry of Peace Defense Dept Governs the Oceania province of Airstrip One and is in charge of the military and waging of war on Euroasia and Eastasia.
    21. 21. The Ministry of Love Gestapo Enforces loyalty and love of Big Brother through fear, repressiveness, brainwashing and torture. The Miniluv building is home to Room 101, a torture chamber in which the Party subjects prisoners to his or her own worst fears or phobias in order to break their rebellious spirit.
    22. 22. The Ministry of Truth The Media • Involved with news media, entertainment, fne arts and educatonal books • Disseminate Propaganda • Purpose is to rewrite history and change the facts to ft Party doctrine Departments: • Records Department (Recdep) • Ficton Department (Ficdep) • Propaganda Department (Propdep) • Tele-programmes Department (Teledep) • Research Department (Resdep) • Music Department (Musdep) • Pornography Department (Pornosec)
    23. 23. Ministry of Truth Propaganda "Day and night the telescreens bruised your ears with statstcs proving that people today had more food, more clothes, beter houses, beter recreatons -- that they lived longer, worked shorter hours, were bigger, healthier, stronger, happier, more intelligent, beter educated, than the people of ffy years ago. Not a word of it could ever be proved or disproved.” George Orwell, 1984
    24. 24. WAR IS PEACE FREEDOM IS SLAVERY IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH 1984 Doublethink Slogans
    25. 25. “WHO CONTROLS THE PAST CONTROLS THE FUTURE… WHO CONTROLS THE PRESENT CONTROLS THE PAST” 1984 Party Slogan
    26. 26. Two Minutes of Hate • Film and audio designed as a form of brainwashing to Party members • Message whips members into a frenzy of hatred for Emmanuel Goldstein, enemy of the state • Purpose is also to quench the citzens' subdued feelings of angst and hatred from leading such a censored lifestyle What to think and who hate.
    27. 27. 1984 Signs
    28. 28. 1984 Anthems Click here INGSOC Anthem via Youtube
    29. 29. The Ministry of Plenty Economic Organizations • Controls Oceania's planned economy • Oversees public access to food, supplies and goods • In charge of ratoning all goods • Central philosophy; it is easier to rule over a poor, weak populace than a wealthy, powerful populace • Ofen reports Big Brother has increased economic producton, even when producton has actually gone down
    30. 30. Why did Orwell write 1984? In the essay WHY I WRITE, published in 1947, Orwell says: “First I spent fve years in an unsuitable profession (The Indian Imperial Police, in Burma), and then I underwent poverty and the sense of failure. This increased my natural hatred of authority and made me for the frst tme fully aware of the existence of the working classes, and the job in Burma had given me some understanding of the nature of imperialism. Every line of serious work that I have has been writen, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratc socialism, as I understand it.” “My recent novel [Nineteen Eighty-Four] is NOT intended as an atack on Socialism or on the Britsh Labour Party (of which I am a supporter), but as a show-up of the perversions . . . which have already been partly realized in Communism and Fascism . . . The scene of the book is laid in Britain in order to emphasize that the English-speaking races are not innately beter than anyone else, and that totalitarianism , if not fought against, could triumph anywhere.” New York Times Book Review, July 1949
    31. 31. Why is 1984 Important? I believe that George Orwell’s 1984 is vitally important as a dystopian novel because the Party controlled media that he exposes in Oceania is not too far removed from that of our own society. Media has the ultmate infuence over nearly every facet of our lives and it is controlled by large corporatons whose motves are not always pure. As new technology increases so will our exposure to their rhetoric and commercialism. The politcians can say and do whatever they please but the media ultmately holds the keys to the message. While the nature of journalism is to inform citzens of truthful and tangible facts, the overlooked and mostly ignored reality is that the media are by no means a neutral party in the conveyance of the message. Agendas rule the disseminaton of informaton in our society and I believe that Orwell’s ultmate warning is that blind acceptance and a thoughtless proletariat will eventually fnd themselves in bondage- knowingly, or not. ~Todd Hollst
    32. 32. “If you want a vision of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face - forever.” ~George Orwell Do we live in an “Orwellian” world?
    33. 33. What is Propaganda? • The term propaganda frst appeared in 1622. The term was coined when Pope Gregory XV for Propagatng the Faith. • Propaganda was then as now about convincing large numbers of people about the authentcity of a given set of ideas. • The term in neither positve or negatve but has been tarnished by its discriminatory usage in the past. • Propaganda ofen delivers loaded messages designed to produce an emotonal response rather than a ratonal response. • Misuse includes appeals to fear, statements of prejudice, black and white fallacies, disinformaton, demonizing the enemy, fag- waving, intentonal vagueness, oversimplifcaton, and “scapegoatng.”
    34. 34. Propaganda Techniques • Bandwagon: Pump up the value of 'joining the party'. • Card-stacking: Build a highly-biased case for your positon. • Glitering Generalites: Use power words to evoke emotons. • Name-calling: Denigratng opponents. • Plain Folks: Making the leader seem ordinary increases trust and credibility. • Testmonial: The testmony of an independent person is seen as more trustworthy. • Credibility Transfer: Associate the leader with trusted others. SOURCE: The Insttute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA)
    35. 35. Propaganda Slogans of Our Time
    36. 36. Demonizaton of Enemies President Bush coins term “Axis of Evil” Popular media jumps on the bandwagon and helps spread the confrontatonal rhetoric.
    37. 37. Demonizaton of Enemies The faces of “evil” become iconic and rebuked fgures.
    38. 38. Demonizaton of Politcal Foes
    39. 39. Politcal Correctness (Orwell’s Newspeak Repackaged) “PC” is term which denotes language , ideas, policies, and behavior seen as seeking to minimize social and insttutonal ofense in occupatonal, gender, racial, cultural, sexual orientaton, disability, and age-related contexts Some cultural anthropologists believe that “PC” is derived from the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis which states that a language determines thought. In other words, the words we use to talk about other people or policies can infuence thought and behavior.
    40. 40. Politcal Correctness (Orwell’s Newspeak Repackaged) Broken Home - Replaced by Dysfunctonal family Bum - Replaced by Homeless Person Crazy - Replaced by the term Mental Illness Foreign Food - Replaced by Ethnic Cuisine Garbage Man - Replaced by Sanitaton Engineer Illegal Aliens – Replaced by Undocumented Workers Secretary - Replaced by Administratve Assistant Sex Change - Replaced by gender re-assignment
    41. 41. Doublethink & Doublespeak Defniton of DOUBLETHINK: a simultaneous belief in two contradictory ideas Webster’s Dictonary Example of Doublespeak: The War on (fll in the blank) The term justfes to the public government spending on an issue which will fnancially beneft someone, somewhere. The War on Drugs benefts law enforcement with extra operatonal funding. The War on Terror benefts military technology and defense contractors. The War on Cancer benefts medical research facilites and pharmaceutcal companies. The War on Poverty benefts the poor but also benefts the agencies and NGO's tasked with the administraton of services. All the while these societal problems are never completely resolved and the spending and rhetoric contnues from generaton to generaton.
    42. 42. Afer White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer exagerated the Inauguraton crowd atendence, Trump spokeswoman Kellyanne Conway (pictured lef) brushed of critcism by claiming Spicer was merely ofering “alternatve facts.” “Alternatve facts” is doublespeak for LYING. Incidently, afer the Meet The Press interview, the sales of Orwell's 1984 shot to the number one spot on Amazon. Source: htp://www.usatoday.com/story/news/naton- now/2017/01/25/orwells-1984-leaps-top-amazon-bestseller- list/97031344/ Alternatve Facts
    43. 43. Doublethink & Doublespeak Today American Interest - Implied: The interest of Americans Actual: The interests of those in power or the corporatons who helped put them in power. Feminist - Implied: One who wishes to be more feminine Actual: One who wishes to be more masculine or destroy the diferences between the sexes. Free Electons - Implied: Freedom to vote for whom ever you want Actual: Freedom to vote for one of two candidates/partes. Afrmatve Acton - Implied: Acton which is correct Actual: The act of giving preferental treatment to a group of people; apartheid, racism.
    44. 44. Indoctrinaton of American Youth “Indoctrinaton” itself is not necessarily a negatve. It's merely the idea of assimilatng young people into believing and behaving in accordance with social norms or traditons. The queston, however, is who determines those social norms and why?
    45. 45. • “Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers and our country. Amen.” Herrick’s Prayer, circa 1955 US Supreme Court Case Engel v. Vitale 1962 htp://www.tme.com/tme/magazine/artcle/0,9171,825685,00.html Indoctrinaton of American Youth
    46. 46. Corporate Branding Tells you what and how to think
    47. 47. “Infotainment” Informaton-based media content or programming that includes elements of entertainment, for example fashy graphics, music, model-like presenters, is an efort to enhance popularity with audiences and consumers.
    48. 48. Big Brother & Technology
    49. 49. SMILE…
    50. 50. Informaton Awareness Ofce Established in 2002, IAO’s Total Informaton Awareness program focused on applying surveillance and informaton technology to track and monitor threats to the United States. The plan would have established enormous computer databases that would gather and store the personal informaton of everyone in the United States, including personal e-mails, social network actvites, credit card records, phone calls, medical records, and numerous other sources, without any requirement for a search warrant. Following public critcism the mass surveillance system was defunded by Congress in 2003, however several IAO projects contnued to be funded and merely run under diferent names SOURCE: htp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informaton_Awareness_Ofce
    51. 51. • PHILADELPHIA - (AP) A Philadelphia-area school district agreed Monday to pay $610,000 to setle two lawsuits over secret photos taken on school-issued laptops. The Lower Merion School District admited it captured thousands of webcam photographs and screen shots from student laptops in a misguided efort to locate missing computers. 10/12/2010 htp://www.lexisnexis.com/COMMUNITY/LITIGATIONRESOURCECENTER/blogs/newsheadlin es/archive/2010/10/12/pa-school-setles-2-webcam-spy-lawsuits-for-610k.aspx Sanctoned Web Cam Home Invasion
    52. 52. The Eyes of the WORLD SOURCE: www.privacyinternatonal.org Includes: Public Surveillance Workplace Surveillance GPS Tracking Internet Tracking Financial Tracking
    53. 53. Amazon Erases Orwell Books From Kindle “In a move that angered customers…. Amazon remotely deleted some digital editons of the books [1984, Animal Farm] from the Kindle devices of readers who had bought them.” NY Times, 7/18/2009
    54. 54. Todd Hollst and presented this PowerPoint presentaton atTodd Hollst and presented this PowerPoint presentaton at Sinclair Community College in the Fall of 2011.Sinclair Community College in the Fall of 2011. This slideshow is posted to ofer suggestons on how toThis slideshow is posted to ofer suggestons on how to prepare a college level book review PowerPointprepare a college level book review PowerPoint presentaton.presentaton. It's also posted to scare the hell out of you.It's also posted to scare the hell out of you.

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