22nd feb iii ba literature


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22nd feb iii ba literature

  1. 1. 22 nd February 2011 III B. A. Literature John Dryden
  2. 2. Dryden, John Question Bank <ul><li>What is the function of poetry according to Dryden? </li></ul><ul><li>Sum up the views of Dryden on Dramatic Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden’s Views on Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden’s Responses to Epic </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden’s view on Unities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dryden, John Question Bank <ul><li>6. Dryden considered the unities of time and place too rigorous- Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>7. Dryden’s remarks on tragic hero </li></ul><ul><li>8. Dryden’s Views on Satire. </li></ul><ul><li>9. In spite of the scattered nature of his criticism </li></ul><ul><li>no literary problem that confronted his age escaped Dryden’s criticism </li></ul><ul><li>10. Why does Dr. Johnson consider Dryden as the father of English Criticism </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1.Function of Poetry <ul><li>The final end of poetry was delight </li></ul><ul><li>Delight is the chief end of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction can be admitted in the second place </li></ul><ul><li>The delight of serious plays is to affect the souls </li></ul><ul><li>The poet is neither a teacher nor a bare imitator but a creator </li></ul><ul><li>Having nature as his raw material, the poet produces a new thing altogether </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Dryden’s View on Dramatic Poetry <ul><li>In his Essay of Dramatic Poesy Dryden defends tragi-comedy on the basis that both joy and pain lie in close proximity to each other </li></ul><ul><li>In A Parallel of Poetry and Painting he comes out strongly against tragi-comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden is for avoiding the scene of death in the stage </li></ul><ul><li>He would allow other physical actions such as battles and duels </li></ul><ul><li>He gives different interpretations to the unities </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. D’s View on Tragedy <ul><li>His remarks on tragedy are contained in the Preface to Troilus and Cressida called The Grounds of Criticism in Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>His definition is similar to Aristotle’s </li></ul><ul><li>But he differs in the interpretation of pity and fear </li></ul><ul><li>To expel arrogance and introduce compassion are the effects of tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>To affect purgation within few hours is doubted </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4. D’s Responses to Epic 1 <ul><li>Epic is superior to tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Epic does not lack anything that tragedy contains </li></ul><ul><li>Pride humbled, virtue rewarded and vice punished </li></ul><ul><li>In two respects they differ </li></ul><ul><li>1. tragedy’s message in a shorter compass </li></ul><ul><li>2. stage is handicapped </li></ul><ul><li> to show many things </li></ul>
  8. 8. D’s Responses to Epic 2 <ul><li>Visual effect of the tragedy is denied to the epic </li></ul><ul><li>For visual effects poets alone can take credit for it </li></ul><ul><li>What cannot be presented on the stage can be presented in epic through words </li></ul><ul><li>More beauty is lost in the performance </li></ul><ul><li>A worthless play well acted may succeed in the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic poem is the greatest work of </li></ul><ul><li>human nature </li></ul>
  9. 9. D’s Responses to Epic 3 <ul><li>Epic’s </li></ul><ul><li>1. Action is greater </li></ul><ul><li>2. Structure more elaborate </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Characters more dignified </li></ul><ul><li>4. Language more exalted </li></ul><ul><li>5. Episodes more varied </li></ul><ul><li>6. Effects more lasting </li></ul>
  10. 10. D’s Responses to Epic 4 <ul><li>D disagrees with Aristotle’s insistence on morals in epic </li></ul><ul><li>On Choice of words in epic: </li></ul><ul><li>sublime subjects </li></ul><ul><li>with sublimest </li></ul><ul><li>expression </li></ul><ul><li>To make use of more rhetorical devices such as: metaphor, hyperbole etc </li></ul>
  11. 11. D’s View on Unities 1 <ul><li>D against accepted interpretation of the three unities such as: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the plot should be single </li></ul><ul><li>2. the time of action 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li> 3. place the same throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of place not mentioned by Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of time is violated by Terence </li></ul><ul><li>There is a logic behind the unity of action which requires a plot to be a coordinated whole </li></ul><ul><li>It does not affect the unity when a sub-plot is introduced as one more part woven in to the main design </li></ul>
  12. 12. D’s View on Unities 2 <ul><li>The strict adherence to unity of time and place lead to dearth of plot and narrowness of imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the time of the plot does not affect the unity </li></ul><ul><li>The scene of the play need not be confined to one place </li></ul><ul><li>D considered the unity of time and place too rigorous </li></ul>
  13. 13. 6.Dryden considered the unities of time and place too rigorous- Discuss <ul><li>Action is constrained because of the time factor </li></ul><ul><li>In tragedy it is much difficult to adhere to these unities </li></ul><ul><li>Because in tragedy the design is weighty and the persons great </li></ul><ul><li>In comedy unities wont affect much </li></ul><ul><li>It will not allow the plot to mature </li></ul>
  14. 14. 7. D’s Remarks on Tragic Hero <ul><li>Should be true to life </li></ul><ul><li>He must be one capable of exciting pity and fear </li></ul><ul><li>He must be exalted in rank </li></ul><ul><li>Virtuous to be able to excite pity for his misfortune </li></ul><ul><li>Tainted in one particular </li></ul>
  15. 15. 8. D’s View on Satire <ul><li>It is a species of heroic poetry </li></ul><ul><li>It follows the epic in its design </li></ul><ul><li>The satirist should choose one folly or vice </li></ul><ul><li>Fine raillery is the manner preferred by D </li></ul><ul><li>Verse is more suitable for satire </li></ul><ul><li>He prefers the verse of ten syllable for satire </li></ul>
  16. 16. 9. <ul><li>On Verse forms </li></ul><ul><li>On Stanzas </li></ul><ul><li>On meter </li></ul><ul><li>On Unities </li></ul><ul><li>On subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>His criticism has a wide compass </li></ul>
  17. 17. Father of English Criticism <ul><li>First taught to determine upon principles the merit of composition </li></ul><ul><li>Others before him only presented occasional views </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Jonson only mere jottings of few things </li></ul><ul><li>England had great writers before Dryden but not great critics </li></ul><ul><li>Touched upon wide range of issues concerning literature of his time </li></ul>
  18. 18. To be continued