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  1. 1. Subsea Umbilicals and Power CablesSTEEGE Lecture STEEGE Lecture 44 Thursday 10th April 2008 Darren Patel Director d.patel@bpp-tech.com BPP-TECH www.bpp-tech.com
  2. 2. Subsea Umbilicals and Power CablesContents Contents 1. Introduction to BPP-TECH 2. Description of Subsea Umbilicals and Power Cables 3. Technology Drivers 4. Engineering Challenges 5. Steps to Mitigate Risk 6. Advances in Design 7. Concluding Remarks and Questions
  3. 3. www.bpp-tech.comCompany Overview BPP-TECH Specialist engineering consultancy, research and product development services to the offshore hydrocarbon, marine and insurance industries • Trading since 1981 • Offices in London, Houston and Aberdeen • Research and product development • Flexible pipes, risers, umbilicals & cables • Floating offshore systems • Risk assessments, failure studies, claims, losses and expert witness work
  4. 4. Company Overview Subsea Umbilicals and Power Cables BPP-TECH carries out: • Specialist design and analysis services for the oil and gas industry • Research and product development • Independent risk and failure studies, claims, losses and expert witness
  5. 5. Subsea EquipmentSystem Types
  6. 6. Deep Water System TypesSystem Types (Source – Offshore Magazine “2006 Deepwater Solutions & Records for Concept Selection Poster”)
  7. 7. Oilfield Developments - The EnvironmentField Developments
  8. 8. Subsea Power CablesPower Cables Subsea power cables transmit electric power between platforms, subsea equipment and the shore
  9. 9. Subsea UmbilicalsUmbilicals A subsea umbilical is an assembly of hydraulic hoses which can also include electrical cables or optic fibres, used to control subsea structures from an offshore platform or a floating vessel
  10. 10. Subsea power cablesPower cable components
  11. 11. Subsea UmbilicalsUmbilical Components
  12. 12. Recent DevelopmentsTechnology Drivers Technological advances have largely been driven by the following: • Rising demand for oil and gas • Green concerns • The need to extract hydrocarbons in deeper water • Improved reliability and safety • Extended service life
  13. 13. Deep water requirements are driving a trend towards:Engineering Challenges • The development of sophisticated design tools • More dynamic applications • Field specific umbilicals and power cables • Smaller, leaner, light weight designs • Fatigue resistant, high strength metallic materials • Polymers that are resistant to the effects of ageing
  14. 14. What can go wrong?Engineering Challenges 1. Incidents during transportation or installation 2. Design flaws 3. Incorrect usage 4. Fatigue failure 5. Manufacturing problems 6. Damage from shark attacks and marine growth 7. Accidental damage Many of the risks are interrelated
  15. 15. Results of a reliability study on electrical cables in umbilicalsEngineering Challenges
  16. 16. Mechanical Failure ModesEngineering Challenges • Excessive axial tension or torque • Excessive bending • Crushing by excessive external pressure • Hose/tube bursting by excessive internal pressure • Layer separation and instability • Birdcaging • Loop formation and kinking • Mechanical degradation - wear and fatigue • Material degradation-exposure to adverse agents, temperatures and pressures • Problems with terminations
  17. 17. Developments in cross section design and optimisationDesign Tools to Reduce Risk
  18. 18. Field Specific Design DevelopmentsDesign Tools to Reduce Risk Cross section design modeling Obtain distribution of loads Design Optimisation Dynamic simulations Obtain component stresses and strains Service life estimations
  19. 19. Umbilical DevelopmentsAdvances in Design • Higher pressure internal hoses • Increasing use of steel tubes instead of thermoplastic hose • Fatigue resistant, high strength metallic materials • Polymers that are resistant to fluid permeation • Inclusion of high speed optical fibre • Improved armouring techniques
  20. 20. Umbilical DevelopmentsAdvances in Design DUCO Conventional Umbilical DUCO Steel Tube Umbilical
  21. 21. Subsea Power Cable DevelopmentsAdvances in Design There is an increasing requirement for: • Higher voltage, higher power • Dynamic, light weight, deep water cables • High flexibility (e.g. for wind and wave energy generation) The power cable industry needs to respond by developing: • New light weight, fatigue resistant conductor materials • Electrically stronger insulation that is resistant to the effects of aging • Improved armouring materials
  22. 22. Dynamic Power Cable DevelopmentAdvances in Design Joint Industry Project
  23. 23. Advances in Design 3-Phase a.c. Submarine Power Cable for: • 132kV, 525A, 100MW • Deep water • Long service life • Aggressive environment
  24. 24. Dynamic Power Cable Development Joint Industry ProjectAdvances in Design Work programme • Cable reliability survey • Conductor fatigue testing • Cross Section Design • Evaluation of Dynamic Performance • Design optimisation • Full scale manufacture and testing
  25. 25. Renewable Energy Wind and wave energy generation projects are also driving developments in submarine power cableAdvances in Design technology. Pelamis
  26. 26. Conclusions • Reliability of subsea systems from the mudline toConclusions the sea surface is critical to production in terms of control and flow assurance • Umbilicals and power cables are key components • Materials and design tools have developed significantly over the last decade to meet tougher demands from deeper water and renewable energy applications • There is a history of installation problems, material defects and incorrect designs leading to significant losses
  27. 27. tyvm Thank you for your attention! Darren Patel, BPP-TECH d.patel@bpp-tech.com