Changing leadership in Computer
and Information Services (CIS)
Emergence of India as the current world leader in CIS
Profe...
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

The motivation- changing leadership
Changing leadership in CIS
Ireland as a leader in CIS- the fa...
Changing leadership in Computer and Information
Services
(Based on exports in billions of US $)

Sunil Mani, Leadership in...
India has become the world’s largest exporter of computer and
information services in 2005 and has improved its position w...
Factors that enabled Ireland to be the world leader
in CIS- Three domestic factors

(i) National vision, public policy and...
Ireland – as a leader-Domestic factors

• (ii) Investing in education and human capital:
Ireland had a demographic dividen...
Ireland – as a leader- Domestic factors

• iii) Restructuring education system to meet the
needs of the industry: Engineer...
Ireland—leader: Two external Factors
• First, Ireland was a natural choice for US MNCs as the
country was English speaking...
Share of MNCs in Total Exports of Computer
and Information Services from Ireland
(in percent)

Sunil Mani, Leadership in C...
Growth performance of computer related
services- India
(Average annual growth rates and percentage share)

Sunil Mani, Lea...
Growing importance of Computer Software
Exports in India’s Exports (Share in percent)

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

11
India’s Current Account Deficit with and without
Software Exports
(Millions of US $)

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

12
Structure of CIS exports from India
(percentage share in total exports)

2007-08

2011-12
Engineering services
3%

So ware...
Distribution of Computer and Information Service Exports
from India according to the four modes of service exports

Sunil ...
Distribution of CIS exports according to Onsite
vs Offshore

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

15
Structure of the industry in terms of number
and size distribution of firms
•
•

•
•
•

•
•

Very weak database
According ...
Distribution of CIS firms according to size of
exports, 2010-11

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

17
Distinct features of CIS industry
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Highly export oriented- an industry with one of the highest expor...
1.Highly export oriented- an industry with one of
the highest export intensities

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

19
High Net to Gross Export Ratio- Low Import
Dependence

2013

97

2001

91

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

(

...
2.High rate of growth of exports over a long period of
time, however there has been a continuous fall in the
growth rate o...
3. Close interaction with discerning customers
abroad
• The main customers of India’s IT services are the leading
firms in...
4. Organised as clusters
• CIS production in the country mainly takes place in five
clusters, of which Bangalore is the mo...
CIS production in the country organised as clusters

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

24
5. Employs a small number of highly skilled
personnel

• The only official estimates of the number of
workers in the CIS i...
Productivity of the CIS industry has been rising over the
years
(Gross Value Added per worker in Rs in Millions of Rupees)...
CIS is one of the most productive service sector industries
in India, 2006-07
(Gross Value Added per worker in Indian Rupe...
6. Firms are of more recent vintage and in most cases
started by technology-based entrepreneurs
These ‘entrepreneurial’ fi...
7. A coevolving Sectoral System of Innovation
• At the core of this SSI is private sector firms which actually does the
pr...
Factors that have made India a world leader
1. Availability of a large quantity of especially
English-speaking engineers
2...
1. Availability of a large quantity of especially Englishspeaking engineers
•
•
•
•
•

•

India’s higher education system ...
2. Role of state

• (i) Improvement of physical infrastructure (establishment of
software technology parks, improvement in...
2. Role of state- (a)improvements in physical
infrastructure

• Regarding physical infrastructure, state
intervention has ...
2. Role of state- (b) creation of a domestic market for
CIS

• Recent attempts at E-governance (the 2006
initiated Nationa...
2. Role of state- (c )National Information Technology
Policy 2012
•
•

Finally the 2012 announced National Information Tec...
Extent of corporate income tax subsidy enjoyed
by CIS firms
IT Services
30

ITES/BPO

27.61

30
26.63

25
21.99

22.99

20...
3. Role of the market- NASSCOM
•

The NASSCOM was established in 1988.

•

Right through its inception, the association ha...
4. Availability of new generation entrepreneurs with clear
corporate strategy

• The industry is led by new generation
ent...
5. Role of the diaspora in securing knowledge about
markets abroad, venture capital
• Saxenian (2006) was one of the first...
6. Interaction with discerning customers abroad
• Being a service-oriented industry, the seller is merely
executing specif...
STRATEGIES FOR MAINTAINING
LEADERSHIP
• Conventional Strategies
•
•
•

Increasing the share of software products in total ...
Trends in production of software products from
India (in millions of US$)

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

42
Trends in patenting in Computer implemented
inventions from Indian inventors at USPTO

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

43
Share of patents for computer implemented
inventions from India at USPTO

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

44
Trends in number of patents granted to domestic
CIS companies at the USPTO

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

45
Comparison between India and Ireland in software
patents at the USPTO

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

46
CIS has precipitated the growth of the Bioinformatics
industry in India (Total Sales in Rs Crores)

Sunil Mani, Leadership...
New strategies for maintaining leadership- 1

• Moving away from a few large sized deals to
multiple small sized deals
• T...
New strategies……leadership---2

• The Indian IT service firms have used cross
border M&A as a way of enlarging the scope
o...
New strategies……leadership---3

• The firms are also using the newer
technologies of cloud computing, social media
and dat...
Concluding remarks ---1
• India has emerged as a leader in IT services in 2005 and she has been
maintaining her leadership...
Concluding remarks ---2
• Availability of high quality software engineers
and a favourable incentive policy towards
MNCs w...
Concluding remarks ---3
• India, which had a copious supply of the key factor input, soon
started assuming this leadership...
Concluding remarks- 4
• Therefore the only way for the country to maintain her leadership is to be
very innovative and go ...
Concluding remarks- 5
• The initial factors that were favourable to the
growth of CIS are now slowly disappearing
with the...
THANK YOU

Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS

56
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Changing leadership in Computer and Information Services (CIS) - Emergence of India as the current world leader in CIS

  1. 1. Changing leadership in Computer and Information Services (CIS) Emergence of India as the current world leader in CIS Professor Sunil Mani Centre for Development Studies Trivandrum, Kerala, India Annual Workshop at Think Innovation Foundation, Milan, Italy, November 21, 2013
  2. 2. Outline • • • • • • • • The motivation- changing leadership Changing leadership in CIS Ireland as a leader in CIS- the factors Overview of India’s CIS Distinct features of the industry Factors that enabled India to become a world leader in CIS Strategies for maintaining leadership: Conventional and New Concluding remarks Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 2
  3. 3. Changing leadership in Computer and Information Services (Based on exports in billions of US $) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 3
  4. 4. India has become the world’s largest exporter of computer and information services in 2005 and has improved its position wrt its immediate competitor, Ireland Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 4
  5. 5. Factors that enabled Ireland to be the world leader in CIS- Three domestic factors (i) National vision, public policy and creating a pro business environment: Two specific issues stand out here: First, Irish corporate income tax rates were one of the lowest in the developed world: at least 30 per cent age points lesser than in other major developed countries . Second, massive public investments in telecommunications infrastructure enabled Ireland to have a modern telecommunications infrastructure, which was ideal for the software industry Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 5
  6. 6. Ireland – as a leader-Domestic factors • (ii) Investing in education and human capital: Ireland had a demographic dividend of sorts compared to other European countries: 47 percent of the Irish population during the time was less than 29 years. Irish higher education policy responded to this by massively increasing the public expenditure on higher education. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 6
  7. 7. Ireland – as a leader- Domestic factors • iii) Restructuring education system to meet the needs of the industry: Engineering education was given a fillip with the establishment of a number of state run institutions. A number of degree programmes in computer science/software engineering was started during the time and as a result the total number of student enrolments in technology related disciplines consistently accounted for about 25 percent of total new entrants into the higher education sector Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 7
  8. 8. Ireland—leader: Two external Factors • First, Ireland was a natural choice for US MNCs as the country was English speaking and historically through the Irish migration route to the USA, the two countries had much in common. This led to a large number of US MNCs locating their computer software production in Ireland. • Second, was diaspora and international linkages. A significant number of Irish students who were trained in the US returned to take up positions back home. That coupled with a higher labour force participation of well trained Irish women made sure that the country had a copious supply of well trained labour force. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 8
  9. 9. Share of MNCs in Total Exports of Computer and Information Services from Ireland (in percent) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 9
  10. 10. Growth performance of computer related services- India (Average annual growth rates and percentage share) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 10
  11. 11. Growing importance of Computer Software Exports in India’s Exports (Share in percent) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 11
  12. 12. India’s Current Account Deficit with and without Software Exports (Millions of US $) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 12
  13. 13. Structure of CIS exports from India (percentage share in total exports) 2007-08 2011-12 Engineering services 3% So ware product development 10% BPO 20% IT Services 67% Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 13
  14. 14. Distribution of Computer and Information Service Exports from India according to the four modes of service exports Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 14
  15. 15. Distribution of CIS exports according to Onsite vs Offshore Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 15
  16. 16. Structure of the industry in terms of number and size distribution of firms • • • • • • • Very weak database According to registration data with Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on October 31, 2011, a total of 52, 577 firms are registered as IT service companies in the country, the majority of them being in Delhi, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. But majority of them are private limited. Only 1400 Firms are member of NASSCOM; NASSCOM publishes only a list of top twenty exporters. Over 90 per cent of the exports are contributed by large firms Growing importance of FDI into the sector: can be gauged from the the fact according to data from DIPP, during the period 2000 through 2013, the Computer and Information Services industry is the fourth largest recipient of FDI in India accounting for 6 per cent of the cumulative FDI inflows during the period. There is even a doubt that MNCs now dominate the industry in terms of exports. However most of the MNCs does not report their India centric data- Patent analysis lend some support to this doubt. Even according to the latest NASSCOM data, a few MNCs are already in the top 20- one even has become the 3rd largest. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 16
  17. 17. Distribution of CIS firms according to size of exports, 2010-11 Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 17
  18. 18. Distinct features of CIS industry 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Highly export oriented- an industry with one of the highest export intensities High rate of growth of exports over a long period of time Close interaction with discerning customers Organised as regional clusters Employs a small number of highly skilled personnel Almost all the firms are new(set up after 1991) and started by technology-based entrepreneurs A coevolving sectoral system of innovation Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 18
  19. 19. 1.Highly export oriented- an industry with one of the highest export intensities Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 19
  20. 20. High Net to Gross Export Ratio- Low Import Dependence 2013 97 2001 91 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 ( S e e g e n r r h x i r x e t s t % a o p n o p t s s r f o s o ) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 20
  21. 21. 2.High rate of growth of exports over a long period of time, however there has been a continuous fall in the growth rate of exports since 2004-05 Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 21
  22. 22. 3. Close interaction with discerning customers abroad • The main customers of India’s IT services are the leading firms in their respective fields. • It is generally held that majority of the Fortune 500 companies deal with Indian IT services vendors for their custom made software requirements. • This interaction with discernible customers have made Indian IT firms learn about new technology a, ways of doing business and above all improving their delivery mechanisms and project planning skills. • This is very much consistent with the results of innovation surveys which states that the main source of information on innovation to firms is interaction with customers Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 22
  23. 23. 4. Organised as clusters • CIS production in the country mainly takes place in five clusters, of which Bangalore is the most important • Clustering has the potential of increasing the innovative potential and productivity of firms constituting the cluster • The main channel through which spillovers occur is through movement of personnel between firms in the cluster • Literature on clusters show that historically driven or organic clusters (as against those which are created through public policy action) are more innovative. Leading clusters in CIS production such as Bangalore are historically driven clusters. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 23
  24. 24. CIS production in the country organised as clusters Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 24
  25. 25. 5. Employs a small number of highly skilled personnel • The only official estimates of the number of workers in the CIS industry is Report no: 529 , 63rd round of the NSSO. According to it, there are a total of 6,36000 (47116*13.5); • But it is one of the most productive service sector industries (productivity measured in terms of Gross Value Added per worker) in India and the productivity has shown some impressive increases over the years. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 25
  26. 26. Productivity of the CIS industry has been rising over the years (Gross Value Added per worker in Rs in Millions of Rupees) 3 2.5 2 Rs in Millions 1.5 1 0.5 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 2006 2007 2008 26
  27. 27. CIS is one of the most productive service sector industries in India, 2006-07 (Gross Value Added per worker in Indian Rupees) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 27
  28. 28. 6. Firms are of more recent vintage and in most cases started by technology-based entrepreneurs These ‘entrepreneurial’ firms are different from the conventional enterprises on a number of parameters. On three traits in particular the ‘entrepreneurial firms’ stand out from ‘conventional firms. (i) corporate governance: the entrepreneurial firms although established by a specific, very often, technically trained entrepreneur, are listed public limited companies with a wide shareholding. Having been listed in both Indian and foreign stock exchanges they are subject to more transparent disclosure practices regarding their operations and performance; (ii) technology-intensive industries: almost all the entrepreneurial firms operate in technology-intensive industries and mostly in service industries where the entry/barriers are low; and (iii): extent of globalization: most of the entrepreneurial firms are highly integrated with the global economy. Exports of these enterprises typically range between 30 to 95 per cent of its total sales. A combination of all the three has made these firms to be potentially more innovative rather than the rest. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 28
  29. 29. 7. A coevolving Sectoral System of Innovation • At the core of this SSI is private sector firms which actually does the production. • However, a closer examination of the sectoral system of innovation of the industry shows that many of the institutional support systems, which manifest itself in the form of a range of policy instruments, and infrastructural support systems have co-evolved with the success of the industry. • So the argument here is that the industry first achieved some successes and the government came forward to support it even further primarily in terms of improving the physical infrastructure and secondly in terms of providing the industry with a whole host of fiscal incentives. • One must particularly emphasize the nature of the interface between the industry association, NASSCOM, and the government in charting the growth trajectory of this sector. In addition lesser known entities such as the Project Management Institute have also been helpful Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 29
  30. 30. Factors that have made India a world leader 1. Availability of a large quantity of especially English-speaking engineers 2. Role of state 3. Role of the market- specifically the role of NASSCOM 4. Role of new generation entrepreneurs with a clear corporate strategy 5. Role of the diaspora 6. Interaction with discerning customers Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 30
  31. 31. 1. Availability of a large quantity of especially Englishspeaking engineers • • • • • • India’s higher education system especially at the tertiary level is offered, by and large, in English only. Although the system was biased in favour of science-based subjects, over the last twenty tears or so engineering education has expanded, most of them through privately run engineering colleges (Mani, 2002). The graduates of these colleges became natural candidates for appointment by IT companies. Encouraged by the success enrolments increased in subjects like Computer Science and Information Technology. The industry has sometimes expressed doubts about the quality of these engineers, but given the low level of technical skills required for the initial set of projects, the quality available appears to have been adequate. Moreover all the leading companies have their own in-house training capability for bringing the recently recruited engineers to the standards required by them. In fact the ability of the higher education system to outturn qualitatively improved graduates will be the crucial factor that will determine the future competitiveness of the industry. Fortunately, various qualitative improvement plans are underway = National Skill Development Corporation Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 31
  32. 32. 2. Role of state • (i) Improvement of physical infrastructure (establishment of software technology parks, improvement in telecommunications infrastructure; • (ii) development of domestic market through essentially the diffusion of e-governance initiatives); and • (iii) Fiscal incentives for export promotion, establishment of Special Economic Zones; • (iv) Overall policy Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 32
  33. 33. 2. Role of state- (a)improvements in physical infrastructure • Regarding physical infrastructure, state intervention has been in the form of establishing Software Technology Parks of India (STPI). Established in 1991, there are now (2012-13) 53 STPIs covering the whole country and provides the much-needed physical infrastructure that is needed for software production and exports. In fact, its importance could be gauged from the fact that almost 80 per cent of the software exports from India emanates from the units located in the STPIs. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 33
  34. 34. 2. Role of state- (b) creation of a domestic market for CIS • Recent attempts at E-governance (the 2006 initiated National E-governance Plan, NeGP being the most important), although still at a very rudimentary stage, are giving a fillip to the domestic market for IT services. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 34
  35. 35. 2. Role of state- (c )National Information Technology Policy 2012 • • Finally the 2012 announced National Information Technology Policy aims to make India a global hub for IT and IT enabled services by 2020. Further , the policy also, inter alia, aims to: (i) increase revenues of IT and ITES industry from 100 billion dollars currently to 300 billion dollars and expand exports from 69 billion dollars currently to 200 billion dollars by 2020; • (ii) gain significant global market-share in emerging technologies and services; and promote innovation and R&D in cutting edge technologies and development of applications and solutions in areas like localization, location based services, mobile value added services, Cloud Computing, Social Media and utility models. • Further, in addition to the central government individual state governments are also providing a variety of incentives for IT service firms. • One must also mention the attractive incentives for NRIs to back ventures in India and also the recent efforts to establish standards for skill development through close working with the IT industry. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 35
  36. 36. Extent of corporate income tax subsidy enjoyed by CIS firms IT Services 30 ITES/BPO 27.61 30 26.63 25 21.99 22.99 20 22.94 18 20.89 19.05 18.99 20 15.99 In percent 15 24.38 25 13.39 12 Extent of tax subsidy (%)* 11.1 10 6.38 Effective tax rate (%) 13.1 9.51 10 18.89 15.1 15 In perecent 15 11.8 21.34 7.36 8.07 5 5 0 2007 2008 Effective tax rate (%) 2009 2010 2011 2012 Extent of taxsubsidy (%)* Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 36
  37. 37. 3. Role of the market- NASSCOM • The NASSCOM was established in 1988. • Right through its inception, the association has been relentlessly working to improve the brand image of Indian software industry. This perhaps is its most important contribution. • It also serve as a broker of ideas and market by promoting networking, exchange of best practices, placing buyers and sellers in contact with each other etc. • No other industry association in India has been NASSCOM-like in being very proactive. A specific area where NASSCOM has been successful has been enabling Indian IT services to secure the necessary quality certifications so that they can improve their interface with potential customers abroad. • Another important contribution is brand and image building. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 37
  38. 38. 4. Availability of new generation entrepreneurs with clear corporate strategy • The industry is led by new generation entrepreneurial firms is an important factor explaining the leadership position. • The entrepreneurs themselves are well trained having gone to some of the best engineering schools in the country and therefore had the right skills and ideas to take the industry along a growth path. • This strong internal capacity for decision-making and strategic vision has been very helpful in achieving the leadership position Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 38
  39. 39. 5. Role of the diaspora in securing knowledge about markets abroad, venture capital • Saxenian (2006) was one of the first to emphasise this aspect. • Nanda and Khanna (2010) has also explored the importance of cross-border social networks for entrepreneurs in India’s IT services industry for getting leads to new business and accession finance and especially venture capital. • Large number of Indian expatriates has done extremely well in some of the leading centres for IT in the world like Silicon Valley. Many of these entrepreneurs have been source of new ideas and markets for friends and relatives back home. • Later on they have also become a source for venture capital these VCs have financed a number of IT-based ventures in India (Mani and Bartzokas, 2004). • Needless to add these VC financiers were also able to provide the crucial strategic thinking for these new ventures, securing the right kind of markets abroad etc Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 39
  40. 40. 6. Interaction with discerning customers abroad • Being a service-oriented industry, the seller is merely executing specific IT service requirements of the buyers. • Most of these buyers, as noted earlier, are leading firms in the world in their own respective fields. • So this buyer-seller interaction, which is deeply embedded, has been a great source of new ideas, technologies and practices to the sellers. • In fact this has given rise to a number of small and medium sized companies, which are leaders in their respective domains Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 40
  41. 41. STRATEGIES FOR MAINTAINING LEADERSHIP • Conventional Strategies • • • Increasing the share of software products in total exports Increasing in the generation of new technologies- as evidenced by increased US patenting Leading to the creation of technological capabilities in new domains- for example leading to the emergence of considerable design expertise in the Bioinformatics, Aerospace and Automotive sectors • New Strategies • • • Size of deals Enlarging skill sets- acquisition of new skills through M&A Taking advantage of newer technologies • New Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 41
  42. 42. Trends in production of software products from India (in millions of US$) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 42
  43. 43. Trends in patenting in Computer implemented inventions from Indian inventors at USPTO Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 43
  44. 44. Share of patents for computer implemented inventions from India at USPTO Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 44
  45. 45. Trends in number of patents granted to domestic CIS companies at the USPTO Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 45
  46. 46. Comparison between India and Ireland in software patents at the USPTO Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 46
  47. 47. CIS has precipitated the growth of the Bioinformatics industry in India (Total Sales in Rs Crores) Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 47
  48. 48. New strategies for maintaining leadership- 1 • Moving away from a few large sized deals to multiple small sized deals • The firms are also enlarging their skill sets so that they can offer a full range of services (ranging from infrastructure services to consultancy and from low end application development to high-end integrated IT solutions) to their potential clients thus reducing the search and transaction costs of their customers. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 48
  49. 49. New strategies……leadership---2 • The Indian IT service firms have used cross border M&A as a way of enlarging the scope of their markets abroad, in dealing with protectionist tendencies especially in the USA, and in acquiring skill sets that they do not possess and which are difficult to be built up in the short run. – For instance, the 2008 acquisition of Axon by HCL Technologies have made the latter possess an increased technological capability Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 49
  50. 50. New strategies……leadership---3 • The firms are also using the newer technologies of cloud computing, social media and data analytics to their advantage. Also is the ability to tap into new business models such as Software as a Service (SaaS). Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 50
  51. 51. Concluding remarks ---1 • India has emerged as a leader in IT services in 2005 and she has been maintaining her leadership ever since that year. • It is not immediately clear as to who was the first leader in IT services. Both United States and Germany and the United Kingdom are obvious candidates. • However, since the mid 1990s, Ireland has emerged as a clear leader if leadership is measured in terms of exports of IT services. She maintained that position for very nearly ten years. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 51
  52. 52. Concluding remarks ---2 • Availability of high quality software engineers and a favourable incentive policy towards MNCs were two of the important factors, which lead to the country becoming a leader. • So production of IT services was almost entirely in the hands of foreign companies. Once these favourable factors reversed and other locations like India become more Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 52
  53. 53. Concluding remarks ---3 • India, which had a copious supply of the key factor input, soon started assuming this leadership in 2005 onwards. • A key difference between India and Ireland is the fact production of CIS in India is concentrated in domestically owned companies as against MNCs in the case of Ireland. • Although it must be added that the share of MNCs in the production of CIS and indeed in patenting is clearly on the rise. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 53
  54. 54. Concluding remarks- 4 • Therefore the only way for the country to maintain her leadership is to be very innovative and go up the value chain. • Fortunately one can see that the firms are beginning to take innovation seriously and are putting in place strategies to achieve it; low but increasing levels of software patenting by domestic companies is one such indicator. • If this strategy of innovation based growth is carried forward, India is likely to maintain its leadership in CIS for a very long time to come. • The main challenge therefore is in improving the quality of our engineering education in the country. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 54
  55. 55. Concluding remarks- 5 • The initial factors that were favourable to the growth of CIS are now slowly disappearing with the increase in the salary levels of software engineers. Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 55
  56. 56. THANK YOU Sunil Mani, Leadership in CIS 56

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