Malaria 4
Clinical Entomology
FACTM Pt 1
Tim Inglis
Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases,
PathWest Laboratory Me...
Malaria series
Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine
Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology
Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expe...
Study materials
Medical Entomology for Students.
M Service. 4th
edn. CUP, 2008.
ISBN 13: 9780521709286
• Recommended books...
Summary
Anopheles
– Mosquito – 30 important spp, of around 475
– Definitive host – Plasmodium spp sporogony
– Life cycle: ...
Life cycle
MOSQUITO HUMAN
proboscis
palp
antenna
eye
scutum
scutellum
halter
THORAX
HEAD
ABDOMEN
FORE-LEG
WING
MID-LEG
HIND-LEG
femur
tibia
claw
tar...
Anopheles
features
adult: biting angle
egg: air floats
larva: palmate hairs,
no siphon
pupa: spines
adult wing: wing scale...
Anopheles biting behaviour
• Sporozoite rate
• maximum = 1-5%
• circa 5-10 per bite
• Dusk to dawn (crepuscular, nocturnal...
Anopheles breeding
• Amplification in stages:
– Egg
– Larval instars
– Pupa,
– adult
• Eggs intolerant of desiccation
• Cl...
Anopheles species
• Australia: An farauti, An koliensis, An punctulatus
• Southeast Asia: An aconitus, An anthropophagus, ...
Control measures
• Personal: behaviour, clothing, repellent, bed nets
• Public health:
– Larval control
• Drainage
• Petro...
Emerging issues
• Changing distribution
• Insecticide resistance
• Wetlands
• Climate change
• Use of DDT
• DDT alternativ...
Malaria series
Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine
Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology
Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expe...
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Factm malaria 4

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notes of malaria for students of tropical medicine, and those working towards the FACTM part 1 exam

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Factm malaria 4

  1. 1. Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology FACTM Pt 1 Tim Inglis Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, WA
  2. 2. Malaria series Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expedition Medicine Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology
  3. 3. Study materials Medical Entomology for Students. M Service. 4th edn. CUP, 2008. ISBN 13: 9780521709286 • Recommended bookshelf • FACTM study notes • Specialist review articles • Self-assessment questions Blog http://micrognome.priobe.net Web www.priobe.net FACTM http://lifeinthefastlane.com/exams/actm-fellowship/
  4. 4. Summary Anopheles – Mosquito – 30 important spp, of around 475 – Definitive host – Plasmodium spp sporogony – Life cycle: multiple stages, fastest in tropics, susceptible to environmental change, opportunities for disease control – Other diseases: filariasis, some arbovirus infections The Anopheles mosquito is a self-propagating, self-propelled syringe armed to the teeth with malaria parasites.
  5. 5. Life cycle MOSQUITO HUMAN
  6. 6. proboscis palp antenna eye scutum scutellum halter THORAX HEAD ABDOMEN FORE-LEG WING MID-LEG HIND-LEG femur tibia claw tarsus Anopheles adult
  7. 7. Anopheles features adult: biting angle egg: air floats larva: palmate hairs, no siphon pupa: spines adult wing: wing scales adult head: long palps
  8. 8. Anopheles biting behaviour • Sporozoite rate • maximum = 1-5% • circa 5-10 per bite • Dusk to dawn (crepuscular, nocturnal) • Human or other animal (anthropophagic, zoophagic) • Inside or outside (endophagic, exophagic) • Resting outdoors or indoors (exophilic, endophilic)
  9. 9. Anopheles breeding • Amplification in stages: – Egg – Larval instars – Pupa, – adult • Eggs intolerant of desiccation • Clean water, generally permanent, only small amounts needed • Larvae sensitive to shadow & movement • Faster breeding at higher temperatures
  10. 10. Anopheles species • Australia: An farauti, An koliensis, An punctulatus • Southeast Asia: An aconitus, An anthropophagus, An balabacensis, An campestris, An culicifacies, An dirus, An donaldi, An flavirostris, An fluviatilis, An letifer, An leucosphyrus, An maculatus, An mimicus, An nigerimus, An sinensis, An sundiacus
  11. 11. Control measures • Personal: behaviour, clothing, repellent, bed nets • Public health: – Larval control • Drainage • Petroleum oil, Paris Green • Pyriproxifen • Bacillus thuringiensis • Mosquito fish – Adult control • Residual house spray: DDT, organophosphorus insecticides • Nets: ITNs, LLINs
  12. 12. Emerging issues • Changing distribution • Insecticide resistance • Wetlands • Climate change • Use of DDT • DDT alternatives
  13. 13. Malaria series Malaria 1 Clinical Tropical Medicine Malaria 2 Clinical Parasitology Malaria 3 Public Health, Travel & Expedition Medicine Malaria 4 Clinical Entomology The Anopheles mosquito is a self-propagating, self-propelled syringe armed to the teeth with malaria parasites.

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