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Wines are of three kinds, Sparkling Wines, Fortified Wines and Still Wines
Wine should not be drunk the moment it is opened. It should be ideally tasted 5 minutes after it is opened.

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  1. 1. 25Wines
  2. 2. • Wines are fermented juice of fresh grapes• Their popularity is increasing.• Wine bars have also become popular• Red wine is known to be excellent for the body and to ward off heart diseases• It is not uncommon for wines to be served at business meetings
  3. 3. There are three kinds of wines• Sparkling Wines• Still Wines• Fortified Wines
  4. 4. Sparkling Wines• There are commonly called “Champagne” although it is only the sparkling wines that are made in the Champagne district of France that are permitted to be called “Champagne”• All other sparkling wines are stated to be made in the “methode champenosie”• In this process the wine (after it is made) undergoes a secondary fermentation in the bottle where the gas trapped dissolves in the wine and when opened , the gas is released in the form of bubbles
  5. 5. Still wines• These can be white, red or rose.• The wine can be dry, medium or sweet• White wines can be made from both red and white grapes – White wine produced from white grapes is called Blanc do Blancs – White wine produced from red grapes is called Blanc do Noirs
  6. 6. • When black grape skin is kept in fermentation tanks, the juice absorbs the red pigment and turns it into red wine• If the grape skin is kept for a short time then a pink or rose wine emerges• Dry and medium dry terms are used to describe the relative sweetness of wine• A dry wine is one that is not sweet
  7. 7. Fortified Wines• Fortified wines are the result of fermenting very ripe grapes• Then strengthening the wine at a decisive point in the fermentation process with addition of grape brandy distilled from the same grapes• Sherry and port are prime examples
  8. 8. Vintage Wines• A vintage is a one year’s harvest• It does not mean very old wine• By a combination of weather conditions, the grape quality of a particular year may turn out to be particularly good.• Wine made from the grapes of that year are called vintage• Vintage wine also means there is no blending of a previous year’s wine
  9. 9. Aromatized Wines• Aromatized wines are also called aperitif or flavoured wines• These are infused with herbs, barks, roots and other flavouring• Vermouth and Dubonnet are two such wines
  10. 10. Young & Old wines• An old wine is one that has been aged to mature for a long period to develop its complex characteristics and aroma• Red wines are stored for much as 15-20 years• The only exception is Beaujolais which is drunk when it is fresh, crisp and fruity
  11. 11. Grape Varieties• The two types of wines that are mostly drunk are white and red wine• White wines are lighter and more frivolous• Red wines are heavier• Over the years red wines fade in colour from purple to ruby to brick red and finally deep red.• White wines gradually darken in colour to yellow and pale gold
  12. 12. White winesWines from the following grapes are as follows:1. Chardonnay – sweet wine. A very popular white wine2. Chennin Blanc – Good acidity level, thin skin and high natural sugar3. Muscat – dry wine4. Sauvignon Blanc – aromatic dry wine5. Semillon – Dry and sweet wine6. Ugni Blanc – fruity taste7. Pinon Blanc – Tastes appley, buttery, fresh and leafy
  13. 13. Red Wine1. Cabernet Sauvigon: rich in colour, aroma and depth2. Gamay: Wine to be drunk fresh3. Merlot: nicely coloured wines, rich and soft in fruit4. Pinot Meunier : fruity appeal5. Pinot Noir: Rich velvety and smooth wines6. Cabernet Franc :rich wine7. Shiraz : heavy tasty wine. Suitable with Indian food
  14. 14. Wine glasses
  15. 15. What to look for in a wine glass• The glass should be clear so that the colour of the wine can be examined and appreciated• The glass should have a long stem so that the temperature of the hand does not affect the temperature of the wine• The glass should be of reasonable size so that it fills good quantity of wine• The top of the glass should funnel inwards so that the wine stays inside when moved around in the glass
  16. 16. Tasting wines• Wine should not be drunk as soon as the bottle is opened• One should taste it ideally 5 minutes after it is opened• The first thing that should be seen is that the cork should be wet• If the cork is dry then the wine has turned stale• Never smell the cork• Smelling of wine helps ascertain the aroma and flavour of the wine
  17. 17. • The funnel of the glass should turn inwards• The wine glass should be held by the stem• Wine is smelt with one or two deep whiffs• Old wine smells less fruity but more intricate and subtle• These mature elusive smells are known as bouquet
  18. 18. Serving of WineThe logical progression of wine serving is1. White before red2. Young before old3. Dry before sweetHowever this depends on the food and the occasion
  19. 19. WINES• Wine should be enjoyed at the right temperature • White 6 to 8 degrees c • Rose 10 to 12 degrees c • Red 14 to 16 degrees c• Wine is drunk before food and as an accompaniment to food• White or light wine does not go well with Indian food• Red wines does not go well with sea food• Light wines go well with food that are lightly cooked
  20. 20. Course by course• Hors d’oeurves • Crisp, dry and light, fruity• Soup • Dry for light soups, Madeira for thick soups, dry white for medium bodied soups• Pate • Light red• Seafood • Crisp, dry white• White meats • Light fruity red or medium/dry white• Red Meats • Red• Orinetal Spicy • Dry white or fruity rose• Pasta • Light fruity Red• Vegetarian • Soft or light reds and rose• Desserts • Wines with equal sweetness• Cheese • Fruity red for soft cheese, dry fruity white for medium, red for hard cheese
  21. 21. Storing left over wines• Wine can be consumed the next day if it is kept sealed• Wine can be stored in the fridge for about 2 days• Use vaccumisers to create an empty space above the wine and protects it from oxidization
  22. 22. Storing wines• Wines should be stored with bottles lying down on their sides to keep the cork always moist.• If the bottle is kept upright, the cork will shrink and dry out – resulting in the wine being unable to breathe• The perfect storage temperature for wine is between 5C to 18C• Wine should ideally be kept in darkness.• Unopened bottles should not be stored in the fridge for more than 4 days before consuming it
  23. 23. Corked winesA defiled wine is called corked wine. Theircharacteristics are:– A vinegary taste that burns the throat– A brown tinge in a white wine or deep brown in a red– The cork smells of sherry– A musty, moldy or decaying taste– No redeeming aroma– Cloudiness or murkiness
  24. 24. Cloudy Wine• Cloudy red wine can suggest that there may be something wrong or it could be that the sediment in the bottom of the bottle has been disturbed• If there are doubts of the quality of the wine, ask the wine waiter to taste it• If it is bad the wine will be replaced