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Introduction to the Linux ecosystem


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A presentation explaining the Linux & Free and Open Source software ecosystem and the various challenges it faces from a distribution editor point of view : ISV attraction, Hardware compatibility... This is a unique presentation which has been given to Canonical sales team in 2007.

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Introduction to the Linux ecosystem

  1. 1. March 15, 2007 Ubuntu Linux Training © Copyright Thibauld Favre –
  2. 2. Today's Training Overview This morning : Theory Introduction to the Free & Open Source Software World Linux Distributions Explained The Hardware Support Challenge This afternoon : Hands on! Ubuntu Installation Package Management Ubuntu Usage Conclusion Objective of the day : Optimize your knowledge of Ubuntu Software – Desktop & Server
  3. 3. Introduction to the Free & Open Source Software World
  4. 4. Some History All began with a printer... Richard Stallman, American Launches the GNU Project in 1984 Linux, child of the Internet Linus Torvalds, Finnish First Linux kernel released as he was a student in 1991
  5. 5. Achievements IT accessible and affordable for everyone Fosters innovation Proprietary software players are bound to innovate “good­enough” isn't acceptable anymore from a proprietary software vendor New business models emerge, more customer friendly (service oriented) Open Source Software­as­a­Service
  6. 6. Threats Software patents Fear, Uncertainty & Doubt (FUD) Already in America, Japan Tough battle in Europe to fight software patents Content control Digital Right Management (DRM) Protecting Intellectual Property (IP) DMCA Digital Millennium Copyright Act Dissuasion strategy
  7. 7. Linux Distributions Explained
  8. 8. The Free & Open Source Software Galaxy Time 2005 F­spot Amarok Nautilus 2000 Gnome KDE 1995 MySQL X11 Sendmail GNU Tools 1991 kernel
  9. 9. Applications Organization & Dependencies Sugar CRM v1.2 Scribus v1.2.4 PHP Amarok v5 v1.4 Apache v1.3.35 Qt MySQL Kde Gnu tools v3.4 v5.0 v3.5 J2EE Kernel App v2.6.17 Jboss JAVA v4.0.5 v1.5 v7.1 Other toolkits Firefox GTK v2.0.1 v1.2 v2.1 Gnome v2.16 F­spot
  10. 10. What is a repository ? Time v5 v1.5 v1.2 Which applications to include? v2.6.18 v0.18 Which version of each application to include? v5.0.1 v4 v3.5 A Linux distribution repository v2.6.17 v0.17 v5 i.e. Edgy v1.4 v2.1 v2.16 v1.2 v1.1 v2.6.16 v2.15 A repository is a coherent and stabilized set of selected applications
  11. 11. Ubuntu repositories (i.e. Edgy) main restricted Key FOSS applications Free applications but with limitedcopyright maintained by Canonical employees maintained by Canonical employees i.e. Kernel, KDE, Gnome... i.e. Nvidia & ATI video drivers... commercial universe Commercial applications maintained by Canonical employees FOSS Applications maintained by the Ubuntu community i.e. Opera, Realplayer... i.e. TinyERP, Wine... multiverse custom Non­free applications Custom applications maintained by the Ubuntu community maintained by ?? i.e. Extra multimedia codecs, Microsoft fonts, Acrobat Reader, Java... May be dangerous to use
  12. 12. Ubuntu Server & [Ubuntu | Kubuntu] Desktop Ubuntu Server Kubuntu Desktop Ubuntu Desktop
  13. 13. A repository lifecycle Time Time backport v1.3 v1.5.1 bugfix v2.6.18.1 security v1.2.1 v5 v1.5 v1.2 v2.6.18 v0.18 v5.0.1 v4 v3.5 v2.6.17 Edgy repository v0.17 v5 v1.4 v2.1 v2.16 v1.2 v1.1
  14. 14. Debian Linux release mechanism Time Released 6th, june 2005 Sarge Released 19th, july 2002 Woody Released 14th, july 2000 Potato Free & Open Source software Debian Unstable Debian Testing Debian Stable releases
  15. 15. Ubuntu Linux release mechanism 26th, october 2006 6.10 ­ Edgy 1st, june 2006 sync 6.06 ­ Dapper 13th, october 2005 sync 5.10 ­ Breezy 6th, june 2005 Sarge 8th, april 2005 sync 5.04 ­ Hoary 20th, october 2004 sync 4.10 ­ Warty sync 19th, july 2002 Woody 14th, july 2000 Potato Debian Testing Debian Stable releases Ubuntu Stable releases
  16. 16. Linux Distributions release overview Time RHEL 5 Core 6 Core 5 Edgy Dapper Core 4 RHEL 4 Breezy Sarge Core 3 Woody Debian stable Fedora 10.2 Debian Debian Ubuntu 10.1 FOSS unstable testing stable SLE 10 10.0 OpenSuse
  17. 17. Linux distributions quick comparison Novell / Suse Main specificity : YAST Red Hat Main specificity : Leader Ubuntu Main specificity : Free Free & OpenSource Software
  18. 18. Windows platform development comparison Time Microsoft Adobe Intel Macromedia Symantec ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV ISV Windows XP
  19. 19. Challenge : Mixing proprietary & free software ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? FOSS
  20. 20. The Hardware Support Challenge
  21. 21. The Kernel APPLICATIONS Appli A Appli B Appli C Appli D KERNEL Module A Module B Module C Module D MACHINE HW A HW B HW C HW D
  22. 22. A political issue Linus [..] explained that while the user­visible Linux ABI tries to remain  static,  the  internal  ABI  is  not  at  all.  When  it  was  pointed  out  that  a  stable internal ABI would help binary­only module authors, he added : quot;It's not going to happen. I am _totally_ uninterested in a stable ABI for  kernel  modules,  and  in  fact  I'm  actively  against  even  _trying_.  I  want  people  to  be  very  much  aware  of  the  fact  that  kernel  internals  do  change, and that this will continue.quot; Kerneltrap – 9th, december 2003
  23. 23. What it means MACHINE KERNEL APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS KERNEL MACHINE Appli A Appli B Appli C Appli D Appli A Appli B Appli C Appli D upgrade 2.6.18 2.6.19 Module A Module B Module C Module A Module B Module C Module D HW B HW C HW B HW C HW A HW A HW D HW D
  24. 24. The Hardware Compatibility Challenge Hardware Compatibility A B v2.6.20 Dapper Driver B Hardware B v2.6.19 Breezy v2.6.18 Driver A Hardware A v2.6.17 Hardware Vanilla Kernel Stable Linux Vendor development Distribution kernel
  25. 25. Kernel lifecycle : 3 strategies Bugfixing (corrective maintenance) Pros: Safest and easiest way to proceed Cons: No new drivers are included, so the distribution quickly becomes “hardware obsolete” Who: Ubuntu, Mandriva Upgrading (evolutive maintenance) Pros: New drivers get included, the distribution is always “hardware up-to-date” Cons: Put the system stability at risk, new bugs can find their way in Who: Gentoo, Fedora Backporting Pros: The distribution stays up-to-date whithout sacrificing the system stability Cons: Requires heavy exponential work Who: Red Hat, Novell
  26. 26. Who we are? 2 former entrepreneurs 5