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Simulation and analysis of HVDC on MATLAB and PSCAD


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simulation of HVDC system..
and make reliable of HVDC..
fault clearing in monitering system

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Simulation and analysis of HVDC on MATLAB and PSCAD

  1. 1. L. E. College, Morbi GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY “SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF HVDC” A Project Report On SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING Electrical Engineering SUBMITTED TO: L. E. COLLEGE, MORBI SUBMITTED BY: Student Name Enrollment No. Bhimani Vishal R. 100310109056 Patel Priyesh B. 100310109059 GUIDED BY:Prof. S. N. Purohit Electrical Department October 2013 L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI I
  2. 2. Lukhdhirji Engineering College, Morbi Gujarat Technological University CERTIFICATE This is to certify that 1. Bhimani Vishal R. 2. Patel Priyesh B. (100310109056) (100310109059) of final year Electrical Engineering students have satisfactorily and accurately completed their project work entitled “Project on Simulation And Analysis of HVDC system” for the subject code 170001 Project I in the 7th semester of academic year 2013-14 for the partial fulfilment of the award of the Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering at Gujarat Technological University. DATE:- PROF. S. N. PUROHIT PROF. A. K. JOSHI PROJECT GUIDE L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI HEAD OF DEPARTMENT II
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported us during the writing of this report. Our deepest thanks to S.N.Purohit the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of ours with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. We express our gratitude to our head of the Department Prof A.K.JOSHI for his invaluable support and encouragement at every stage. We also express our thanks to the Principal Prof. P. C. Vasani ,Lukhdhirji Engineering College, Morbi-2, for his constant support and encouragement. We would also thank our Institution and the faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. Name Sign Bhimani Vishal R. Patel Priyesh B. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI III
  4. 4. ABSTRACT: In HVDC system, transmission simulation causes controlling active and reactive power flow control. And transmission line under fault condition to located a fault part location. And solve the fault in transmission line. In HVDC system VSC controlling a thyrister valve temperature. Then better performance working thyrister cooling system. After HVDC simulation making a transmission line in steady state condition. And also system make a steady state condition. And in HVDC system harmonics filter controlling to monitor system. When harmonics high that time automatic shown a signal in monitor. And HVDC system stability making better. Controlling frequency in HVDC system. We are controlling HVDC system use through simulation. And using a different type of simulation software MATLAB, PSCAD. In HVDC we are take different-different condition and making a simulation. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI IV
  7. 7. LIST OF FIGURES SR.NO FIGURE CONTENT PAGE NO. NO 1 Fig.2.1 Monopolar link 11 2 Fig.2.2 Bipolar link 11 3 Fig.2.3 Homopolar link 12 4 Fig.3.1 Schematics of the dynamic model 14 5 Fig.3.2 The DC Circuit Arrangement Simulated by the 14 Dynamic Model 6 Fig.3.3 Simulation of HVDC transmission line on MATLAB 15 7 Fig.4.1 Three-phase harmonics filters 17 8 Fig.5.1 The PSCAD simulation environment 19 LIST OF TABLES SR.NO TABLE NO. CONTENT PAGE NO. 1. TABLE 6.1 L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 20 list of simulation VII
  8. 8. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AC - Alternating Current IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Junction Transistor VCS - Voltage source converter HVDC - High voltage direct current DC - Direct Current TDR - Time domain refeltomerer LCC -line-commutated converters L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI VIII
  9. 9. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION: The rapid increase in electricity consumption all over theworld is pushing the highvoltage alternating-current (HVAC) grid to operate very close to its limits. In addition to that, the Increased penetration of wind energy is presenting new challenges before the existing HVAC grid. In this new scenario, the idea of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) grid is emerging to provide a backbone to the existing AC networks and to facilitate the integration of bulk amount of power. Due to the lower losses in DC cables, HVDC transmissionhas become more popular than HVAC for long distance. The HVDC transmission can be based on either linecommutated converters (LCCs) or voltage-source converters (VSCs). Among them, VSCHVDC technology is particularly suitable for DC grid formation and integration of power station because it does not need any additional reactive-power support and does not depend on external voltage sources for commutation. In this project we introduced to you how work HVDC system by using MATLAB and PSCAD. And in HVDC system we introduced to simulation of transmission line, simulation of clearing fault, simulation of detecting harmonics waves and control, simulation of VSC, simulation of light line fault located, etc. Generally speaking, a DC grid can be defined as a VSC basedmulti-terminal HVDC grid, where several converter terminals are connected in parallel with the DC buses. The advantages of such a DC grid can be summarized as follows: a) Reduction in the number of converters compared to several point-to-point HVDC connections, b) Improved power flow control and energy trading, c) Reduction in the effect of intermittency for HVDC connections. The successful operation of a VSC-HVDC link dependsheavily on the control of gridconnected VSCs. Out of different control strategies; vector-current control is most commonly used by the industries due to its current limiting capability and efficient L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 9
  10. 10. decoupling of active and reactive powers. However, for a very weak network, the vector current control finds it difficult to produce expected results .As an alternative, a new approach called powersynchronization control has been proposed recently where,instead of conventional PLL, the synchronization of the VSC with the grid is done through the active power control loop. Due to this feature, the control strategy is capable of connecting to a very weak ac system as well as island system. In this paper power synchronization control has been applied for integrating to the three-terminal DC grid. HVDC converter build through a thyrister bridge then cause HVDC system circuit more complex. HVDC system is very useful in the latest electrical world because HVDC have a great reliability and lower losses. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 10
  11. 11. CHAPTER 2: HVDC SYSTEM AND SIMULATION 2.1:-TYPE OF LINK: Monopolar link Biopolar link Homopolar link 2.1.1:-MONOPOLAR LINK A monopolar system has only one conductor with ground as return conductor, and it is usefully of a negative polarity. It is suitable in submarine systems where sea water can be used as a return conductor. Fig.2.1Monopolar link L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 11
  12. 12. 2.1.2:-BIPOLAR LINK A bipolar system has a two conductor, one of positive and other of negative polarity. The mutual or ground point is maintain at a midpotential. Each terminal of a bipoalar system has two converter of equal voltage rating connected in series. Fig.2.2 bipolar link 2.1.3:-HOMOPOLAR LINK Homopolar system has two or more conductor with the same polarity. Additional advantages is lower corona loss and radio interference due to negative polarity on the line. Fig.2.3 homopolar link L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 12
  13. 13. 2.2:-HVDC COMPONANT 2.2.1:-VOLTAGE-SOURCE CONVERTERS (VSC) Onlythyrister valve are being using converter. This has increase a power handling capacity of the devices. 2.2.2:-CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS The transformer use in hvdc system before rectification of ac are term as converter transformer. The contain of harmonics in a converter transformer is much higher than conventional ac transformer. 2.2.3:-FILTER Harmonics are generated in HVDC transmission line due to respective firing of thyrister this are transmitted to the as network in which a dc link is embedded. 2.2.4:-SHUNT CAPACITORS (REACTIVE COMPENSATION) Reactive volt-ampere are generated in the process of conversion, due to delay in the firing angle of the converter station. 2.2.5:-DC CABLE In dc transmission there is no skin effect in the conductor because there is no variation of the current in the time for the same power handling capacity the size of the conductor required in DC transmission is small 2.3:-WHY NEEDS HVDC SIMULATION Increase efficiency Increase capability Increase stability System work long life Located any type of fault Active and reactive power flow control L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 3: SIMULATION OF HVDC TRANSMISSION LINE ON MATLAB 3.1:-DESCRIPTION OF THE HVDC LINK The principal characteristic of VSC-HVDC transmission is its ability to independently control the reactive and real power flow at each of the AC systems to which it is connected, at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). In contrast to line-commutated HVDC transmission, the polarity of the DC link voltage remains the same with the DC current being reversed to change the direction of power flow. This model shown on VSC-HVDC Transmission System Model represents a 10000 MVA, +/- 500 kV VSC-HVDC transmission link 3.2:-BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig.3.1 schematics of the dynamic model 3.3:-SIMULATED DYNAMIC MODEL Fig. 3.2 The DC Circuit Arrangement Simulated by the Dynamic Model L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 14
  15. 15. 3.4:-SIMULATION BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig.3.3 simulation of HVDC on MATLAB L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER 4: SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE HARMONIC FILTERS 4.1:-DESCRIPTION In HVDC installations, AC harmonic shunt filters are used to: 1) reduce harmonic voltages and currents in the power system, 2) supply the reactive power consumed by the converter. To illustrate these concepts, a 1000-MW (500 kV, 2kA) HVDC rectifier is simulated. The HVDC rectifier is built up from two 6-pulse thyristor bridges connected in series. The converter is connected to the system with a 1200-MVA Three-Phase transformer (three windings). A 1000-MW resistive load is connected to the DC side through a 0.5 H smoothing reactor. The filters set is made of the following four components of the powerlib/Elements library: - one capacitor banks (C1) of 150 Mvar modeled by a "Three-Phase Series RLC Load", - three filters modeled using the "Three-Phase Harmonic Filter" (1) One C-type high-pass filter tuned to the 3rd (F1) of 150 Mvar (2) one double-tuned filter 11/13 th (F2) of 150 Mvar (3) one high-pass filter tuned to the 24th (F3) of 150 Mvar The total Mvar rating of the filters set is then 600 Mvar. A three-phase circuit breaker (Brk1) is used to connect the filters set on the AC bus. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 16
  17. 17. 4.2:-BLOCK DIAGRAM: Fig.4.1 three-phase harmonics filters L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 17
  18. 18. CHAPTER 5: SIMULATION OF LINE FAULT LOCATOR ON HVDC LIGHT ELECTRODE LINE ON PSCAD: 5.1:-SUMMERY In this bachelor thesis, cable fault locators are studied for use on the overhead electrode lines in the HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Light project Caprivi Link. The cable fault locators studied operates with the principle of travelling waves, where a pulse is sent in the tested conductor. The time difference is measured from the injection moment to the reflection is received. If the propagation speed of the pulse is known the distance to the fault can be calculated. This type of unit is typically referred to as a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer). The study is performed as a computer simulation where a simplified model of a TDR unit is created and applied to an electrode line model by using PSCAD/EMTDC. Staged faults of open circuit and ground fault types are placed at three distances on the electrode line model, different parameters of the TDR units such as pulse width and pulse amplitude along with its connection to the electrode line are then studied and evaluated. The results of the simulations show that it is possible to detect faults of both open circuit and ground fault types with a suitable TDR unit. Ground faults with high resistance occurring at long distances can be hard to detect due to low reflection amplitudes from the injections. This problem can somewhat be resolved with a function that lets the user compare an old trace of a “healthy” line with the new trace. The study shows that most of the faults can be detected and a distance to the fault can be calculated within an accuracy of ± 250 m. The pulse width of the TDR needs to be at least 10 μs, preferable 20 μs to deliver high enough energy to the fault to create a detectable reflection. The pulse amplitude seems to be of less significance in this simulation, although higher pulse amplitude is likely to be more suitable in a real measurement due to the higher energy delivered to the fault. The Hypotonic TDR 1150 is a unit that fulfil these requirements and should therefore be able to work as a line fault locator on the electrode line. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 18
  19. 19. 5.2:-SUMMERY OF SIMULATION A fault on the pole line can be detected on-line by detecting the incoming travelling waves in each station, by comparing the arrival time of waves in the two stations the location can be determined. However, as the voltage on the electrode lines is approximately zero or very low, this method is not applicable. The aim of this study is to find equipment that can detect the location of the fault along the electrode line. It can be off-line equipment, i.e. does not need to locate the fault when the link is in operation. The fault locator will inject a pulse into the line and detect the time when the reflected pulse comes back. The simulations should answer a number of issues which affect the ability to locate a fault. How different types of faults, distances to faults, pulse amplitude, pulse width affect the ability to locate a fault. The simulation should also elucidate the existence of any interference from parallel lines. 5.3:-SIMULATION DIAGRAM Fig.5.1The PSCAD simulation environment L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 19
  20. 20. 5.4:-SIMULATIONS Table 1 shows a list of the simulations. The simulations are done by changing oneparameter at a time to be able to study changes. Table 5.1, list of simulation No. Item Issue Simulations 1 Fault type High resistance faults may be hard to detect. Is the amplitude ofthe reflection big enough to detect? 2 Distance to fault How does the distance from themeasuring point to the fault affectthe result? 3 Pulse width How do different pulse widthsaffect the result? 4 Pulse amplitude How do different pulseamplitudes affect the result? 5 Connection How does the connection of the TDR to the line affect the result? 6 Parallel line How does a parallel line inoperation affect the result? 7 Electrode station How does the connection of Configuration theline to the electrode affect theresult? 8 Does a high voltage Arc reflection pulseincrease the performance of the TDR? L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 20
  21. 21. CHAPTER 6: ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATION 6.1:-ADVANTAGES System stability. Lesser corona loss and radio interference. Greaterreliability. Bulk power long distance transmission. Tower size and cost. Control harmonics. Independent control of active and reactive power Capability to perform the AC voltage or reactive power flow control at points of interconnection to the power system No need for heavy reactive power compensation Significantly smaller footprint Reliable operation with a weak or even passive system, including black start 6.2:-DISADVANTAGES Cost of converting station. Reactive power requirement. Less overload capacity. Loss in cooling system. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 21
  22. 22. Absence of suitable circuit breakers 6.3:-APPLICATION Power station work reliable System gives dynamic controlling System controlling as a monitoring system L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 22
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS: We can control the HVDC active and reactive power Controlling the harmonics and give protection of HVDC system. And simulation of HVDC transmission line located any type of fault. Also controlling frequency and other dynamics characteristics HVDC simulation software are MATLAB, PSCAD. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 23
  24. 24. REFERENCES: [1] Weimers, L. "A New Technology for a Better Environment," Power Engineering Review, IEEE, vol. 18, issue 8, Aug. 1998. [2] Schettler F., Huang H., and Christl N. "HVDC transmission systems using voltage source converters – design and applications," IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, July 2000. [3] Lindberg, Anders "PWM and control of two and three level high power voltage source converters," Licentiate thesis, ISSN-1100-1615, TRITA-EHE 9501, The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1995. [4] Sadaba, Alonso, O., P. SanchisGurpide, J. Lopez Tanerna, I. Munoz Morales, L. MarroyoPalomo, "Voltage Harmonics Generated by 3-Level Converters Using PWM Natural Sampling," Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 2001, IEEE 32nd Annual, 17–21 June 2001, vol. 3, pp. 1561–1565. [5] Lu, Weixing, Boon-TeckOoi, "Optimal Acquisition and Aggregation of Offshore wind Power by Multiterminal Voltage-Source HVDC," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 18, pp. 201–206, Jan. 2003. [6] Sao, K., P.W. Lehn, M.R. Iravani, J.A. Martinez, "A benchmark system for digital time-domain simulation of a pulse-width-modulated D-STATCOM," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 1113–1120, Oct. 2002 L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 24
  25. 25. [7] Arrilaga, J., High Voltage Direct Current Transmission, IEEE® Power Engineering Series 6, Peter Peregrinus, Ltd., 1983. [8] Lidong Zhang, Lars Dofnas, "A Novel Method to Mitigate Commutation Failures in HVDC Systems," Proceedings PowerCon 2002. International Conference on, Volume: 1, 13–17 Oct. 2002, pp. 51–56 [9] ABB AB (2010) Easy introduction for laypersons [Electronic] ABB AB Available: <> [2010-04-06] [10] ABB AB (2010) Caprivi Link Interconnector [Electronic] ABB AB Available: <> [2010-04-06] [11] Hileman, Andrew R (1999) Insulation Coordination for Power Systems Marcel Dekker [12] Gill, Paul (2008) Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing CRC Press [13]Hipotronics (2010) Products - Cable Fault Locating Equipment [Electronic] HipotronicsAvailable:[2010-04-06] [14] Megger (2010) PFL40A-1500 [Electronic] Megger Available: <> [2010-04-06] L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 25
  26. 26. [15] ABB AB 1JNL100119-686 HVDC Protection System Unpublished manuscript ABB AB [16] ABB AB 06MR0005 Rev.00 Caprivi Link Interconnector Converter Stations Project Volume 3 [17] G. Asplund, B. Jacobson, B. Berggren and K. Linden, “Continental overlay HVDCGrid,” CIGRE 2010, [18] M. Callavik, “HVDC Grids for offshore and onshoretransmission,” EWEA Offshore Wind Conference, 2011, [19] E. Koldby and M. Hyttinen, “Challenges on the road to an offshore HVDC grid,” Nordic Wind PowerConference, 2009, [20] L. Zhang, L. Harnefors, and H.-P. Nee, “Powersynchronization control of gridconnected voltagesource converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 809– 820, May 2010. [21] L. Harnefors, M. Bongiornos, and S. Lundberg, “Inputadmittance calculation and shaping for controlled voltage-source converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 3323–3334, Dec. 2007. [22] L. Zhang, L. Harnefors, and H.-P. Nee, “Modeling and control of VSC-HVDC links connected to island systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 783–793, May 2011. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 26
  27. 27. [23] L. Zhang, L. Harnefors, and H.-P. Nee, “Interconnection of two very weak AC systems by VSC-HVDC links using power-synchronization control,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 344–355, February 2011. [24] R. Pena, J. C. Clare and G. M. Asher, “Doubly fed induction generator using backto-back PWM converters and its application to variable-speed wind-energy generation”, IET Proc. Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 231-241, May 1996. [25] W. Qiao, R. G. Harley and G. K. Venayagamoorthy, “Coordinated reactive power control of a large wind farm and a STATCOM using heuristic dynamic programming”, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 24, issue 2, pp. 493-503, 2009. L.E. COLLEGE-MORBI 27