THE URBAN VISION BULLETIN: Special Feature : EcoCities : Driving India towards the age of sustainability. Urban Form Sustainable Next Generation Climate Change Building Buildings Urbanization Forums Livable Cities : $JHQGD October 2010www.theurbanvision.com ..... 4 .....7 .....14 .....18 .....12OurManohar-Prathima Common Future cally productive land or food stocks. In a persistent manner, urban sprawl continually consumes rural agricultural tracts, which in turn forces the displaced agriculturists to convert forestlands into farms, increasing deforestation and permanently altering the landscape. $QWKURSRFHQWULF SROOXWLRQ KDV D GHVWUXFWLYH HIIHFW RQ WKH SODQHW UH-“We have seen the enemy and he is us” sulting in global climate change and freak weather conditions. UrbanPogo by Walt Kelly. GHYHORSPHQW DOVR VLJQL¿FDQWO LPSDFWV HDUWK¶V KGURORJLFDO FFOHV OLNH WKH ÀRZ DQG VWRUDJH RI ZDWHU DV ZHOO DV WKH TXDOLW RI DYDLO- able fresh water.Experts predict that if current trends in population In over 10,000 years of existence, human civilization has progres- growth and land use continue, by 2050 the amount of available ar-sively become a potent environmental threat. With the onset of agriculture able land will be just over one-tenth of a hectare per person which8,000 years ago, we started to alter the natural landscape and with indus- WUDQVODWHV WR D IXWXUH ZLWK VLJQL¿FDQW VKRUWDJHV RI IRRG VWRFNVtrialization we began to change our atmosphere. In the present-day, popu-lation explosion human progress, which has become synonymous to “… We do not inherit the earthXUEDQL]DWLRQ KDV DPSOL¿HG WKH FRQVHTXHQFH RI RXU DFWLYLWLHV $OWKRXJKWKHUH LV D GH¿QLWH FRQQHFWLRQ UHODWLQJ QDWLRQDO OHYHO RI HFRQRPLF GHYHORS- from our ancestors; we borrow itment and urbanization- with cities steering a country’s progress and revo- from our children.” -Native ProverbOXWLRQL]LQJ FRPPXQLWLHV WKURXJK ¿VFDO JURZWK DQG VHWWLQJ WKH PDVV SRSX-lation free from poverty. Urbanization, on the other hand, also completely Practically all of earth’s ecosystems have now been destroyed ortransforms the ecosystem and contributes to environmental degradation. VHYHUHO DOWHUHG WKURXJK KXPDQ DFWLYLWLHV $FFRUGLQJ WR WKH µ:RUOG In the coming years, we are heading towards a critical Conservation Union’, 784 extinctions have been recorded since thehuman-environmental interaction. Urbanization does not only HDU WR WKH HDU
$W WKLV SRLQW WKH ORVV RI JOREDO ELR-have neighboring ecological effects but also greater so-called ORJLFDO GLYHUVLW LV DGYDQFLQJ DW DQ H[WUDRUGLQDU SDFH $FFRUGLQJ WR‘ecological footprints’ outside their local environs. Exhaus- some estimates, up to 150 species are becoming extinct every day.tive and widespread utilization of natural resources to sustain The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007b)urban economy has tremendous impacts on the environment. has also predicted that if temperature increases exceed 1.5-2.5°C, Urbanization contributes to deforestation, degradation 20-30% of plant and animal species assessed are likely to be atof atmosphere, has adverse impacts on water resources and biologi-
Page | 2 www.theurbanvision.comrisk of extinction. Earth as we know it might vanish. Our children WKH SRSXODWLRQ OLYLQJ LQ FLWLHV $V D UHVXOW ,QGLD KDV D WUHPHQGRXV RS-and grand children might only be able to see plants and animals portunity to leap forward into a new urban model by learning from thethat make our world so special in videos and pictures in the future. mistakes and successes of the more urbanized geographies of the world.Scientists say that Biodiversity loss might in the end threaten the veryexistence of human civilization. Biological diversity is crucial for the Cities are the answer! LWLHV UHSUHVHQW ERWK WKH ¿QHVW DQG PRVW WHUULEOH DVSHFWV RI KXPDQLW WR-life on our planet. Earth is more than just a home for 6.7 billion human day. Today’s Cities are full of poverty, but they also offer the best way tobeings. Today we often act in a way that assumes that earth is home rise above this challenge. Cities are important destinations of education,only to humans. This attitude is going to threaten our very survival. culture, commerce and economy. Cities are machines for making collabo-The earth’s ecosystem provides for and affects the food we eat, the air we ration easier and encourage innovation and creativity. On the other, prob-EUHDWKH DQG WKH ZDWHU ZH GULQN $ GLYHUVLW RI DQLPDOV SODQWV DQG RWKHU lems of overcrowding, crime, diseases and so forth are intense in cities.organisms perform critical ecosystems functions like distribute clean wa- In terms of Sustainability, Cities are also at the centre of theter to streams and rivers, hold soils together, maintain soil fertility, cycle environmental crisis; but they represent the best way for hu-nutrients, and shield humanity against harsh weathers conditions , pests PDQ EHLQJ WR VKDUH UHVRXUFHV HI¿FLHQWO DQG LQ D IDLU ZDand diseases. If we carry on losing biodiversity – Our children and grandchildren will have to deal with starvation, thirst, disease and calamity. In spite of our idealistic ideas about villages, it will be well-run,Bio Diversity loss and Climate Change are fun- HQHUJHI¿FLHQW FLWLHV WKDW XOWLPDWHO VDYH XV IURP RXUVHOYHV ,Qdamentally caused due to overexploitation of the developed economies with high levels of human developmentnatural capital. Both demand a radical policy response. Index - On an average people who live in small towns and villagesIn many ways, the ecological footprint of an individual is embedded in emit 50% more greenhouse gases than city folk. Taking into accountthe way a city / town is built. You and I may aspire to live a sustainable the current type of lifestyles, cities allow us to share resources andlife but the way the current social and economic structure functions might may just be the most sustainable form of human settlements.not allow us to. For instance, your ecological footprint will be dramati- Sustainable cities allow its citizens to live within their fair sharecally higher , if the city that you live in doesn’t allow you to walk and of the earth’s resources without giving up on the ‘urban’ lifestyle.did’nt have a good mass transit that you could use; or if the apartmentDQG RI¿FH RX LQKDELW ZDV IXQGDPHQWDOO QRW HFRORJLFDOO IULHQGO “If we can’t save our Cities, We won’t saveCan India show the way? Ourselves”- William E Rees The future of the human civilizations is going to be largelyGH¿QHG E WKH FKDUDFWHU RI LWV IXWXUH FLWLHV 7KLV LV HVSHFLDOO LPSRU- The current set of Indian cities is evidently failing. In many ways,WDQW WR UHÀHFW RQ DW WKLV SRLQW LQ WLPH DV KXPDQLW UHDFKHG D VSHFLDO they represent the worst aspects of urbanization. The dire and un-milestone this century by becoming a majority urban species. In bearable conditions of our cities have been a result of piecemeal IRU WKH YHU ¿UVW WLPH LQ RXU KLVWRU KXPDQNLQG KDV EHFRPH and small-scale interventions to gradually worsening conditionsa majority urban with more than half of the world’s population liv- over a long period of time. They are a result of a complete lack ofing in cities. The phenomenal rate of urban growth, increasing from long term strategic thinking. I am desolately going to declare that13% in the 1900’s to 29% in 1950, reach over 50% this decade. many of these cities will collapse in the next few decades if the cur-Nevertheless, India is still a majority rural nation with only 30 % of UHQW WUHQG RI VKRUW WHUP DQG TXLFN ¿[ VWOH RI WKLQNLQJ FRQWLQXHV
Page | 3 www.theurbanvision.com But the prospect of following this same small- scale andshort term thinking, when India gets ready to deal with an unprec-edented rate of urban growth in the coming decades is even gloomier. How unplanned Urbanization threatens$FFRUGLQJ WR WKH µ8QLWHG 1DWLRQV :RUOG 8UEDQL]DWLRQ 3URVSHFWV¶ WKH our future prosperitynext few decades alone will see the migration of 600 million Indians Energy Security.moving into urban areas. India’s cities will have to deal with a massive The next generation infrastructure investments need to steer clearLQÀX[ RI WHQV RI PLOOLRQV RI SHRSOH DW D VSHHG XQSDUDOOHOHG LQ KLVWRU of investing in private car centric road and related infrastructure So we still have the control in our hands. We can take on ur- that will push auto dependent spawled communities. This wouldbanization head on; and make most of the best components that cities rep- lock our future into a model where we will be highly are dependentresent and create a future that is inclusive, environmentally friendly and on fossil fuels. This can be disastrous for our economy given thathealthy. But if we don’t make a strategic plan to address this trend – we we currently import 70% of our petroleum.DUH OLNHO WR EH FUHDWLQJ D JORRP IXWXUH RI VRFLDO LQHTXLW DQG FLYLO XQ- Food Security.rest; a future of grave environmental and health crisis. Remember that Ur- Land is also a non renewable resource. We need to preservebanization is an irreversible process. The thinking or the lack of strategic arable or bio productive land so as to ensure food in the futurethinking on our part at this point may not be visible straight away but they for all of us and the future generations. China already seems toFDQ EH IDWDO LQ WKH ORQJ UXQ :H KDYH DOUHDG KDG WR GHDO ZLWK FRQVHTXHQF- have encountered this problem - China’s Ministry of Land andes of unplanned growth as seen in the decaying cities of today. Let us not Resources revealed that the country has lost 8 million hectares, orgo down that failed path as we get set for the future cities of our nation. 6.6 percent, of its arable land in the past decade. If we don’t plan our urbanization, we are likely to threaten our food security in theThe cities we erect today have the potential to either lock the society future. We need to recognize that urbanization degrades land andLQWR GHVWUXFWLYH RYHUFRQVXPSWLRQ DQG VRFLDO LQHTXLW RU DOORZ LWV we need to outline urban growth boundaries.citizens to live within their fair share of the earth’s resources withoutgiving up on a preferred lifestyle. The solutions may not be easyto implement but they do exist. It is believed that with the currenttechnology and systems, we could half our energy consumption,water use and the waste we produce. Real solutions are within our $ ZLQ ZLQ VLWXDWLRQgrasp and have the potential to create a path towards social, economic Sustainable Urbanism can be described as an integration ofand environmental sustainability. We have to learn from the failures ZDONDEOH DQG WUDQVLW GULYHQ XUEDQLVP DORQJ ZLWK HI¿FLHQW EXLOGLQJVand success of existing cities and develop a grand and bold vision to and infrastructure .In the end, sustainable urbanism also makes fortackle the impending urbanization. We have described some ideas D EHWWHU TXDOLW RI OLIH DQG D KHDOWKLHU FRPPXQLW :H EHOLHYH WKHwe need to adapt to turn cities into opportunities in this journal. principles of sustainable urbanism offer a win-win solution towards a society that caters to the social and economic needs of the society as well as preserves the earth’s ecological balance.
Page | 4 www.theurbanvision.com infrastructure, density and characteristics of the built environment. Urban Form is key to Lynch (1981) considers basic dimensions for the performance dimensions of the spatial form of a city. These are: Sustainability Nidhi Batra 1.How settlement form affects human sense, 7KH GHJUHH WR ZKLFK WKH VHWWOHPHQW IRUP ¿WV WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RI SHRSOH 3.How able people are to access activities, services etc, and 4.How much control people have over services/ activities/ spaces etc.E FRQRPLVW 6WHYHQ 6KHSSDUG DQG /($5 LQVWLWXWH KDYH HV-timated that based on the current pattern of development with Urban form has two principal alternatives. $ KLJK GHQVLW PL[HG XVH FHQWUDOL]HG XUEDQ IRUPperipheral development and of urbanized land- the built up area $ ORZ GHQVLW GLVSHUVHG XUEDQ IRUP RIWHQ GHSHQGHQW RQ $XWRPRELOHRI WKH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWU FLWLHV ZLOO LQFUHDVH IURP VTNPWR VTNP LQ 7KH UHDOLW RI WKLV µSUHVVXUH¶ RI GH-velopment is directly going to be on the resources that our cities ,I RX SODQ FLWLHV IRU FDUV DQG WUDI¿F RX JHW FDUVDUH GHSHQGHQW RQ LWV MXGLFLRXV XVH DQG HTXLWDEOH GLVWULEXWLRQ DQG WUDI¿F ,I RX SODQ IRU SHRSOH DQG SODFHV RXThis ‘Sustainable Ecological Urbanism’ observes cities asµ6VWHPV¶ $W SUHVHQW WKH FLW VVWHP LV µSDUDVLWLF¶ WKDW GLVUXSWV get people and places. - Fred KentWKH QDWXUDO HDUWK DQG LW SURGXFHV D GHWHULRUDWLQJ TXDOLW RIlife for all inhabitants. Cities are not self-sustaining resource Compact high density mixed use transit driven urban formsystems like natural eco-system. The land area of cities 7KH HQYLURQPHQWDO EHQH¿WV RI D FRPSDFW XUEDQ IRUP DUH VHHQ WR LQFOXGHcomprise only a tiny fraction (typically much less than 1%) reduced energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions following a lesserRI WKH WRWDO DUHD RI SURGXFWLYH HFRVVWHP UHTXLUHG WR VXVWDLQ demand for polluting modes of travel ( read private car) , reduced pres-the needs of urban human population (Source: Bill Rees). VXUH RQ JUHHQ¿HOG VLWHV DQG JUHDWHU XVH RI PRUH HI¿FLHQW WHFKQRORJLHVHowever, the solution still lies in this city-system where 7KH SURPXOJDWHG VRFLDO EHQH¿WV RI D FRPSDFW XUEDQ IRUP LQFOXGH Dcities need to optimize their production, resilience and greater availability of housing that meets peoples’ needs in a sustainableexpansion metabolism through spatial rearrangements. Each ZD LQFUHDVHG DFFHVV WR VHUYLFHV DQG IDFLOLWLHV OHDGLQJ WR EHWWHU TXDO-city has a different pattern of energy use which cumulatively ity urban environments. Mixed land use is the most sustainable typecreates the city’s metabolism. These patterns are associated of urban use, in that it increases the viability of services and transportwith economic development but more importantly with provision supported by high residential density. Mixed land use in thisforms of urbanism and other city building approaches. context refers to the intermingling of land uses to ease access and reduceCity’s infrastructure, physical layout and urban forms travel. Economically, it is argued that a compact urban form can lead togive structure to urban energy and the CO2 metabolism new business formation and innovation, which also attracts new residentsof not just day to day but over the life cycle of the city. Decentralized, low density sprawled urban formSustainable urban form implies an inter-linkage of Sprawl not only creates higher per capita cost of providing utilities, services,sound environmental, social and economic founda- and infrastructure to residents ; but often creates auto dependent communi-tions. It considers the principal elements of ur- WLHV WKXV LQFUHDVLQJ UHOLDQFH RQ IRVVLO IXHO GULYHQ HFRQRP $FFRUGLQJ WRban form - land use patterns, position/ transport
Page | 5 www.theurbanvision.comestimates, the resident of a high-density Dutch city produces 10 tonnes need to evolve urban form through participatory methods with stressof carbon dioxide pollution a year, compared with 20 tonnes produced on environment resource management, community development etc.by an auto centric north american resident in a standard low-density city. Conclusion There can never be a generalized blue print for a urban form towards“In developing-world cities, most of people PDNLQJ RXU FLWLHV VXVWDLQDEOH DQG OLYDEOH $OO HIIRUWV ZRXOG EH ODGHQdon’t have cars, so when you construct a good in planning, design, form, technology, infrastructure layout, business models, management, partnership and behavior. These solutionssidewalk, you are constructing equality. A side- DUH WR EH HYROYHG NHHSLQJ LQ PLQG WKH VSHFL¿FLW RI RXU RZQ FLWLHVwalk is a symbol of equality” Enrique Penalosa Important lesson can be learnt from the case example of Curitiba. Curitiba: Not just about Bus Transit SystemEvolving Sustainable Urban form for Indian Cities The sustainable form of Curitiba has evolved due to its own realities.Historic Indian cities were compact, pedestrianised, mixed Cited in the book by Jeb Brugmann – Urban Revolution is one such epi-use developments that at present are under threat of decay due VRGH RI HYROYHPHQW RI WKH FLW ,W FLWHV WKH HFRORJLFDO ÀRRG FRQWURO VVWHPto poor management and lack of infrastructure. Compact cit- of Barigui River in the city where ecological methods were incorporatedies are not new to the Indian mind, but for compact cities are GXH WR ODFN RI DYDLODEOH IXQGV UHTXLUHG IRU D FRQFUHWL]LQJ DSSURDFK DQGto deliver sustainable outcomes, they have to be well managed. LQVWHDG HYROYLQJ SURWHFWHG ULYHU FRUULGRUV IRUPLQJ FKDLQ RI ÀRRG ZDWHU It is blatantly clear that simply increasing densities and mixing uses collection basins with chains of lakhs and percolating water through aZLOO QRW OHDG WR VXVWDLQDEOH RXWFRPHV +LJK TXDOLW LQIUDVWUXFWXUH ‘graveled’ park. The initiative though was towards controlling majorneeds to be provided, public transport needs to be well managed, af- ÀRRGV LQ WKH FLW LW ZDV OLQNHG RQH E RQH OLNH D WKUHDG WR YDULRXV RWKHUfordable and reliable, noise and air pollution have to be maintained dimensions. The graveled park and chains of lakes served as necessaryat acceptable standards, basic services such as water, drainage and RSHQ VSDFHV UDLVLQJ WKH OHYHO RI JUHHQ VSDFH SHU SHUVRQ IURP WKHQ VTelectricity need to be provided, and levels of public facilities such IW SHU SHUVRQ WR VTIW LQ V )XUWKHU WKH ZKROH VSLQH ZDV XWLOL]HGas health care and education have to be appropriate for the high for more participatory activities such as waste collection, encouragingnumbers of city dwellers. Furthermore, urban environments have to use of public transit system, recreational development, participatorybe kept clean, safe and ‘livable’. Even in developed countries that developments wherein the children of nearby slums took managementhave good basic infrastructure, these standards are hard to achieve; in DFWLYLWLHV E WKHPVHOYHV LQ WKLV VSLQH $V D UHVXOW WKH GHYHORSPHQWGHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV LW PD EH PRUH FKDOOHQJLQJ $V %XUJHVV VWDWHV evolved with multiple complimentary purposes as a ‘Recreational-‘High demographic growth, low levels of economic development, high Social-Cultural-Educational-Ecological-Disaster Management System’.LQFRPH LQHTXDOLWLHV VPDOO XUEDQ EXGJHWV DQG VKRUWDJHV RI HQYLURQ-mental infrastructure, shelter and basic services have a critical effectRQ GHQVL¿FDWLRQ SROLFLHV DQG WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI SROLF LQVWUXPHQWV¶7KH TXHVWLRQ WKHUHIRUH LV WRZDUGV ¿QGLQJ WKH VXVWDLQDEOH XUEDQ IRUPIRU ,QGLDQ FLWLHV :KHQHYHU XUEDQ FRPSDFWLRQ DQG LQWHQVL¿FDWLRQ LVnot a solution, with Indian cites of high density, high urbanizationrate, high proportions of informal developments, lack of infrastructureDQG XUEDQ PDQDJHPHQW SUREOHPV PLJKW ¿QG D VROXWLRQ LQ µ3ROFHQWULFCity’ or the ‘Linear Transport Oriented’ model. Further all cites shall
Page |6 www.theurbanvision.comSustainable buildings:$GLWL 1DUJXQGNDU 3DWKDN WR DUFKLWHFWXUH EOHQGLQJ GHVLJQ LVVXHV HQHUJ HI¿FLHQW PDWHULDOV FRQVWUXFWLRQ WHFKQLTXHV HIIHFWLYH EXLOGLQJ VVWHPV DQG WDNLQJ advantage of renewable energy supplies. It is a process which must be integrated into every phase of the construction project, T he construction industry is said to take up more from the beginning to end. To achieve true environmentally sensitive architecture, eco-friendly ideas need to be supportedthan half of the world’s energy. We may not be able to see it - butthe damages from cooling our buildings, illuminating and run- by everyone involved in the process from design to construction.ning the buildings or the energy used in production of building The awareness about effects of green-house gasesmaterials are starting to put a dent onto the earth’s atmosphere. and carbon footprints, which are prominent by-products of modern In India, statistics illustrate that about 20 to 25 percent living, have given the essential push towards developing technolo-of the total national energy demand is owed to manufacturing gies that will not only reduce the strain our buildings put on the en-PDWHULDOV UHTXLUHG LQ WKH EXLOGLQJ VHFWRU ZKLOH DQRWKHU SHU- vironmental resources but will also help put our ecosystem closercent goes into the running needs of the building. The Ministry of to its original state. There are some excellent prototypes of highPower research points out that about 20 to 25 percent of the total HI¿FLHQF EXLOGLQJV WKDW FDQ FRH[LVW LQ WKHLU HQYLURQPHQW ZLWKRXWelectricity utilized in government buildings in India is wasted due LPSDLULQJ LW ZKLOH SURYLGLQJ EHWWHU TXDOLW RI OLIH IRU WKHLU UHVLGHQWVto unproductive design features of buildings, whose fallout in an Organizations like IGBC (Indian Green building Council)DQQXDO HQHUJ UHODWHG ¿QDQFLDO ORVV LV RI DERXW ELOOLRQ 5XSHHV /(( 5DWLQJ 6VWHPV DQG 7(5,´V *5,+$ DUH DLPHG WRZDUGV PLOOLRQ 86
$V WKH ZRUOG HQWHUV DQ HUD ZKHUH HQHUJ IXHO driving making green of buildings. IGBC’s Green SEZ Ratingwood and other natural resources become increasingly scarce; System which is in addition to IGBC Green Homes and IGBCwe are being consistently pushed to act in a responsible manner. Factory Building are steps in right direction for the sustainable This reality has made forward looking cities highly futures of India’s large scale built environment. The develop-conscious of long term adaptability of modern structures. ‘Sustain- ment authorities in India like MCGM (Municipal CorporationDEOH EXLOGLQJV¶ LV WKH WHUP SRSXODUL]HG DV WKH UHVXOW RI WKHLU TXHVW of Greater Mumbai) are taking some steps towards their sustain-to create structures that do not create a drain on our eco system able futures. Their initiative –‘Eco-housing’ is developed tobeyond its capacity and thereby make our structures sustainable promote environmentally conscious developments in the city.LQ WKH ORQJ WHUP 7KH WHUP KDV EHHQ XVHG ZLWK YDULQJ GH¿QLWLRQV These initiatives promote green technologies like use of solarcontext and scope but its importance is being noted across the world. power, wind power, green roofs, passive design strategies, energy 7R VXP XS DQ µHFRVHQVLWLYH¶ EXLOGLQJ LQÀLFWV PLQLPDO IRRWSULQW HI¿FLHQW PDWHULDOV DQG HI¿FLHQW EXLOGLQJ VVWHPV DQG VWXGLHV VXJ-RQ WKH HQYLURQPHQW ZKLOH HQKDQFLQJ XVHU FRPIRUW DQG HI¿FLHQF % gest they have been effectively reducing the carbon footprints oflogically applying design principles that capture natural breezes and the buildings. The interest in such technologies around the world hasthe sun’s energy and light- energy uses in buildings can be reduced led to a lot of research and out of the box design ideas which weFRQVLGHUDEO $ EXLOGLQJ WKDW LV VXVWDLQDEOH KDUYHVWV OLJKW DLU DQG must call attention to and may be use according their applicability.ZDWHU E XVLQJ YDULRXV GHVLJQ WHFKQLTXHV 7KHUHIRUH HQYLURQPHQWDOO Some of the best known solutions in this area are in solar energyfriendly architecture tries to optimize the performance of a build- which could be easily used to become part of our daily life. Newing, preserves and protects important resources like water, land, solar cells are developed which are thin, colored, translucent andand energy. This is accomplished through an integrated approach ÀH[LEOH KDYH EHHQ GHYHORSHG E LQVWLWXWHV OLNH µ(FROH 3ROWHFKQLTXH
Page | 7 www.theurbanvision.comfédéral de Lausanne’. These solar cells are used to make proto-types for innovative functions like solar walls, solar refrigerators Delivering Sustainability in MassDQG HYHQ VRODU SXEOLF IXUQLWXUH ZKLFK FDQ JORZ DW QLJKW $PSOHavailability of sunlight in India and the shortages in our power in- Housing $FFRUGLQJ WR WKH 1DWLRQDO +RXVLQJ %RDUG¶V SURMHFWLRQV WKH VKRUW-frastructure, especially in distribution, make solar energy an attrac- age of housing units in India is expected to further shoot up totive option in making our buildings more livable and self-reliant. 80 million units between 2007 and 2012. Over 90 percent of this“Biomimetic” or “Regenerative” architecture, though at nascent housing demand is from low-income families. This crisis demandsstages, is another very promising idea which essentially aims at a revolutionary response from the government.Nonetheless, evenPDNLQJ EXLOGLQJV IXQFWLRQ OLNH HFRVVWHPV %LRPLPHWLF $UFKLWHF- with such high demands in the sector, the market driven private sec-ture applies insights from nature to the built environment which tor has not yet found it attractive to create affordable social housingVRPHWLPHV WUDQVODWHV LQWR PLPLFNLQJ VSHFL¿F IXQFWLRQV RI RUJDQLVPV due to sky high urban land costs and other systemic problems likeor their habitats. In other cases some buildings are conceived as XQDYDLODELOLW RI KRPH ¿QDQFH WR KRPH DVSLUHUV LQ WKLV VHJPHQWclosed-loop ecosystems that, like a forest, draw their energy from In the last couple of years there has been some level of activity in the areathe elements and produce zero net waste. Institutes like International of developing affordable housing sector from the private sector that have/LYLQJ %XLOGLQJ ,QVWLWXWH DUH GRLQJ D QRWDEOH MRE LQ WKLV ¿HOG %LR- started to engage with the idea of “opportunity that lies at the bottom ofPLPHWLF $UFKLWHFWXUH LV VHHQ DV D VLJQL¿FDQW IRUFH WKDW PD FKDQJH the pyramid”. Habitats Group is one such case in point. The developmentthe way we see our built environment. The aim of this methodol- group aims to shape communities that will be a catalyst towards a positiveogy is to ultimately have a built environment that works not as a social and economic change by delivering market driven mass affordablefoil for nature, but be as seamlessly integrated with it as possible. housing. Over the last 3 years they have experimented and worked onThe next concept creating waves in green building design is mass housing projects in North Mumbai. They were also the pioneers‘urban farming’, i.e. utilizing unused land in urban areas to who experimented on the ideal design of a small apartment units alonggrow herb fruits and vegetables for local consumption. Some ZLWK JOREDO FRQVXOWLQJ ¿UP 0RQLWRU *URXS ZKHUH WKH VHW XS WKH SLORWdesigners have taken this one step further by using vertical small apartment .The next step of investment and research in the groupand horizontal surfaces of buildings for urban farming. They is focused on sustainability and livability of mass housing. They are aim-are also developing green roofs into urban farms thus reduc- ing to develop mass replicable models that create better internal livinging heat island effect and also alleviating the food shortage. spaces as well as a pleasant outdoor environment for social interaction.Though many of these new concepts are at an experimental 6XVWDLQDEOH PDVV KRXVLQJ GHVLJQ UHTXLUHV D KROLVWLF DSSURDFK ZLWK D IRFXVstage, they are all products of painstaking research by institutes on multiple disciplines. New frontiers in structural design, sustainablefrom around the world. Combined together they do provide a architectural principles, community planning and construction manage-platter full of options for the designers and planners of modern ment ideas have to be embraced especially with reference to scale. “We,QGLDQ FLWLHV $V ZH SURFHHG WR EXLOG WKHVH VWUXFWXUHV PDQ RI are aiming to create replicable strategies that not only aid well-being ofwhom could be our legacy for the centuries to come, we hope we the resident but also reinforce local and regional ecological health. We arecan do so while keeping our societies debt-free from their ecosystem. attempting to understand ideas that can make “mass-scale” sustainable, pleasant humane. “says Chairman , Prashant Choksey , Habitats Group.
Page | 8 www.theurbanvision.comSustainable InfrastructureRitu Kruthika UHTXLUHV 1RW ORQJ DJR PRVW RI RXU FLWLHV ZHUH VHOI VXI¿FLHQW LQ PHHW- ing their water needs from the existing water bodies to supply water to urban areas. Today these water bodies have completely disappeared due to encroachment and other hazards. The local governing bodies have EHHQ VWUHWFKHG WR WKHLU OLPLWV WR ¿QG ZDWHU IRU WKH JURZLQJ XUEDQ SRSXOD-Today, majority of the urban activities rely on infrastructure tions. Groundwater in all cities alike has been exploited to the maximumsuch as power, telecom, roads, water supply, mass transporta- possible extent by the government as well as the private parties. Withtion, solid waste management and sanitation for their ef- cities expanding further away from the water source it is predicted that¿FLHQF ,W LV HYLGHQW WKDW JRRG LQIUDVWUXFWXUH KDV EHFRPH DQ water is going to be a very expensive commodity in the near future.important contributor in development and smooth running of any city. The International Hydrological Programme, a UNESCO initiative, noted:,Q PRGHUQ FLWLHV LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FDQ EH FODVVL¿HG LQWR +DUG DQG 6RIW LQIUD- ³,W LV UHFRJQL]HG WKDW ZDWHU SUREOHPV FDQQRW EH VROYHG E TXLFN WHFKQL-structure. “Hard” infrastructure refers to the large physical networks nec- FDO VROXWLRQV VROXWLRQV WR ZDWHU SUREOHPV UHTXLUH WKH FRQVLGHUDWLRQ RIessary for the functioning of a modern industrial nation, whereas “soft” FXOWXUDO HGXFDWLRQDO FRPPXQLFDWLRQ DQG VFLHQWL¿F DVSHFWV *LYHQ WKHLQIUDVWUXFWXUH UHIHUV WR DOO WKH LQVWLWXWLRQV ZKLFK DUH UHTXLUHG WR PDLQWDLQ increasing political recognition of the importance of water, it is in thethe economic, cultural, health and social standards of a country, such as area of sustainable freshwater management that a major contributionWKH ¿QDQFLDO VVWHP WKH HGXFDWLRQ VVWHP WKH KHDOWK FDUH VVWHP WKH VV- WR DYRLGVROYH ZDWHUUHODWHG SUREOHPV LQFOXGLQJ IXWXUH FRQÀLFWV FDQtem of government and law enforcement, as well as emergency services. EH IRXQG´(PHUJLQJ LWLHV DUH TXHVWLRQLQJ WKH HFRORJLFDO DQG ¿QDQFLDOIn emerging Indian cities providing basic services such as water sup- sustainability of big-pipe water, storm water, and sewer systems and areply, sanitation, waste management, public transportation particularly searching for “lighter footprint” more sustainable solutions. Pilot projectsto the urban poor are central to promoting environmentally sustainable are being built that use, treat, store, and reuse water locally and that buildGHYHORSPHQW DQG DQ LPSURYHG TXDOLW RI OLIH LQ H[SDQGLQJ FLWLHV XU- distributed designs into restorative hydrology. Rainwater harvesting is be-rently, in India, the urban population has outgrown the capacity of urban ing made mandatory in most of the cities but a more workable model withlocal bodies to provide and maintain basic civic services including a wider acceptance needs to be developed to get the maximum advantage.XUEDQ SRRU 7KLV KDV WKXV UHVXOWHG LQ SRRU TXDOLW RI OLIH VDQLWDWLRQ DQGincreased environmental pollution. The infrastructure is the backbone Solid waste recyclingof any city and the negative environmental and social impacts of poorly Waste management over the ages has been treated as a very linearconceived infrastructure investment will place additional burden on the process which involves collection and disposal creating health andcurrent and future generations. There by it is necessary to incorporate environmental hazard. With the ever increasing population Indiasustainable design to make improvements that do not deplete natural over the next decade is bound to face sever waste disposal problems.resources. This also broadly entails solid waste and sewerage recycling, The Indian policies do not examine waste as part of a cycle ofsustainable water management strategies as well as alternative energy. production-consumption-recovery. The new Municipal Solid WasteWater Management Management Rules 2000, which came into effect from January 2004,Water has emerged as one of the primary environmental concerns for failed even to manage waste in a cyclical process. With a majorthe 21st century. Many parts of the world are currently facing water chunk of rural population migrating into the cities the current andshortages, while others must contend with severe water pollution. future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically.Demand for water is growing in most of the Indian cities as every urban However the entire concept of waste management in India is miscon-FLWL]HQ UHTXLUHV DOPRVW GRXEOH WKH DPRXQW RI ZDWHU WKDW D UXUDO FLWL]HQ FHLYHG WKHUH LV DQ LQDGHTXDWH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI ERWK WKH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH
Page | 9 www.theurbanvision.comUHTXLUHPHQWV DQG WKH VRFLDO GLPHQVLRQV :DVWH FDQ EH ZHDOWK ZKLFK KDV In the coming years an integrated approach to sewerage disposaltremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban can lower the costs by connecting sewerage to waste water treat-poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling ment. Where in user fees for capital plus operations and mainte-rather than spreading pollution as has been the case. The waste from nance would be included in the project cost and approval processvarious sectors like domestic waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste, where the rich actually pay for these services. The options ofand others must be separated at source and must be sensibly sent to the on-site and off-site waste water treatment plans must be considered withright place for recycling. One of the major challenges that India will face UHVSHFW WR WKH SRSXODWLRQ GHQVLW DQG UHTXLUHPHQWV 5HXVLQJ JUH ZDWHUin the coming decade will be to educate and ensure that Industries and the IRU ÀXVKLQJ JDUGHQLQJ RU LUULJDWLRQ SXUSRVHV PXVW DOVR EH FRQVLGHUHGdomestic households to dispose waste sensibly. The future calls in forLQWHJUDWHG VROLG ZDVWH PDQDJHPHQW $Q QHZ LGHDV WKDW HPHUJH VKRXOG Alternative energyinclude a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared bymany stakeholders, including product manufacturers, consumers and com- India is facing a large demand-supply gap in Energy with average energymunities, the recycling industry, trade, municipalities and the urban poor. shortfall of 9% and peak demand shortfall of 14%. This could be a hugeSanitation Management deterrence to economic growth. The per capita energy consumption in,W LV REVHUYHG LQ WKH WHQWK ¿YH HDU SODQ WKDW WKUHH IRXUWKV RI ,QGLD¶V VXUIDFH India is in the region of 400 KWH per annum which is way lower thanwater is polluted and out of that 80% is due to sewage alone. India today developed world cities. This is going to change dramatically in the cominghas more than 20 cities which have recorded a population of more than years and our consumption will increase with economic growth. It is crucial PLOOLRQ ZKLFK LQFOXGH WKH PHWURSROLWDQ FLWLHV LQ ZKLFK WKH DQWLTXDWHG to ensure the judicious use of our copious renewable energy resourcessewerage system just cannot handle the rapid expansion. The sewerage such as hydro energy, biomass energy, solar energy and wind energy.systems were built to support a population of about 3 million in these The Indian government’s stated target is for renewable en-mega cities and cannot manage the present population close to 14 million. ergy to contribute 10% of total capacity and 4-5% of the elec-7KH $VLD :DWHU :DWFK KDV QRWHG WKDW ,QGLD LV PRVW OLNHO tricity mix by 2012. However, India still doesn’t have nationalto achieve its MDG sanitation target in the rural and urban ar- renewable energy policy which is an important agenda to set forward.eas. In 1990 a mere 43% of the urban population had improved Some states have incentives for renewable energy through the Renew-VDQLWDWLRQ DQG WKLV LV H[SHFWHG WR LQFUHDVH WR E $QG DEOH 3RUWIROLR ZKLFK UHTXLUHV HOHFWULFLW VXSSOLHUV WR SURYLGH D SHUFHQW-in the rural areas it was noted that only 1% received improved age of their supply from renewable resources. This tool is similar to thesanitation in 1990 and is expected to reach a target of 48% by 2015. Feed-in tariffs that accelerating the deployment of renewable energy in certain countries like Germany China and needs to be used more widely.Evidence indicates that only about 45% of the urban population in India hasaccess to sanitation facilities and there is much to accomplish to reach thegoal of 100% sanitation coverage for all. It has also been realized that thereLV D QHHG WR ORRN EHRQG FRYHUDJH WR WKH TXDOLW RI VHUYLFHV LQ WHUPV RI PDN-ing use of new advances in technology, use of low cost technology, use ofrecycled and more economical forms of user friendly technologies that canbe expanded beyond cities to reach small and medium towns in the country.
Page | 10 www.theurbanvision.comICT for Ecocities$QMXOL 3DQGLW reduce deployment time of the emergency response units. In the same time the communication network could be use to relay real-time infor- PDWLRQ EHWZHHQ GLVSDWFKHUV DQG ¿OHG XQLWV :KLOH GLVSDWFKHUV KDYH DFFHVV WR LQIRUPDWLRQ YLD GHVNWRS FRPSXWHUV ¿HOG XQLWV FDQ DFFHVV WKH network via handheld devices. Public safety services can also makeThe challenge of fast urbanization is opening the way for the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) combined with video analyticsdevelopment of highly “smarter” cities, as more and more of its and global positioning services in order to optimize deployment time.services rely on emerging technologies. The differentiating factor $OO RI WKHVH DOORZ IRU HIIHFWLYH LPPHGLDWH WUDQVLWLRQ RI GDWD VR WKDWthat can make cities “smart” is the integrated usage of informa- GLVWXUEDQFHV FDQ EH LGHQWL¿HG DQG FRQWUROOHG LQ DQ DJJUHVVLYH PDQQHUtion and communication technologies (ICT) in optimizing the In real estate ICT can help reduce operating costs by using manage-ÀRZ RI LQIRUPDWLRQ EHWZHHQ VHYHQ FULWLFDO FLW LQIUDVWUXFWXUH ment systems to automate heating, cooling and illumination. Throughservices: administration, education, healthcare, public safety, real motion, temperature, and weight censoring, lighting and cooling unitsestate, transportation, and utilities. By implementing initiatives FDQ EH FRQWUROOHG WR RSHUDWH DW WKH PRVW HI¿FLHQW OHYHOV )URP LQFHS-EDVHG RQ WKLV LQIRUPDWLRQ WR HQKDQFH HI¿FLHQF DQG SHUIRUPDQFH tion, computer modeling will help in building design and identifyingof these services to the citizen you create cities that are “smarter.” appropriate materials, architectural design as well adherence andFrom the administration point of view a smart city will have a reli- UHSRUWLQJ WR UHODWLYH JUHHQ EXLOGLQJ FHUWL¿FDWLRQV VXFK DV /((able system to reach the citizens effectively, to receive feedback, to 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ FDQ EHQH¿W IURP UHGXFHG WUDI¿F FRQJHVWLRQ DQG PRUH HI-collect data, to generate statistics and to properly communicate ¿FLHQW SXEOLF WUDQVSRUW E LPSOHPHQWLQJ VPDUW FRPSXWLQJ WHFKQRORJLHVpolitical decisions in a transparent manner. This will support like congestion pricing. By passing through electronically controlledGHFLVLRQV PDNHUV ZLWK WKH QHFHVVDU NQRZOHGJH UHTXLUHG WR PDNH tolls, drivers pay more to use more congested roads in rush hours. NotDFXWH DQG TXLFN GHFLVLRQV RQ FLW SODQQLQJ DQG PDLQWHQDQFH RQO LW UHGXFHV WUDI¿F FRQJHVWLRQ EXW UHGXFHV WKH HQYLURQPHQWDO LPSDFW8VH RI ,7 LQ HGXFDWLRQ VHUYLFHV ZLOO LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW DQG of the transportation service while raising funds for the public transport.experience while reducing costs. In developing countries, provid- Utilities can make use of smart grids to optimize water,ing internet access to the educational resources will increase at- gas and electricity consumption. Smart grids help iden-tendance, especially when targeting rural populations surrounding WLI ZDWHU OHDNV DQG HOHFWULFLW ORVVHV $OVR WUDQVSDUHQF LQ WKHthe city or individuals who cannot participate to daily courses. measurements towards the consumers can help in responsible usageUsage of digital content and collaboration technologies will reduce behaviors and improve demand side management. Replacement of theFRVWV ZKLOH SURYLGLQJ D KLJKHU TXDOLW DQG LPSURYHG H[SHULHQFH carbon-intensive fuels with renewable energy can also contribute toSmart healthcare systems can provide faster and more reliable services. “smarter” utilities by ensuring they are tapping into endless resources.Using scalable storage systems and wide communication platform, pa- For the success of a smart city project ICT must be at the core of citytient records con be stored and shared with any medical unit which planning and design. You cannot manage what you cannot measure,UHTXLUHV WKHP $OVR WKH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ SODWIRUP FDQ EH XVHG WR LP- and you cannot accurately measure in real time without effectiveprove response time in case of emergency services. This is key during ICT tapping into all aspects of your city and aggregating the data.a time where epidemics are spreading across cities and information ofpatient diagnosis is pivotal to diagnosing and treating new patients.Public safety can make use of communication technologies to
Page | 11 www.theurbanvision.comCitizen Watch: Introduction of an online Intern in the World’s GreenestCitizen Reporting and Fixing Tool City – Portland,Or,USA. The aim of the Young Urban Leaders program is to stir the next7KH 8UEDQ 9LVLRQ SDUWQHUHG ZLWK D 86 %DVHG WHFKQRORJ ¿UP 6HH generation of civic leaders in India. The program promotes solutionClick Fix and introduced an map-based transparent web report- driven insights and ideas to confront pressing urban challenges of India;ing tool in order to connect citizens to the government; and make as well as offer a platform for young leaders to work with and learnJRYHUQPHQW WUDQVSDUHQW $FFRXQWDEOH DV ZHOO DV HQDEOH FLWL]HQV from the most progressive cities of the world. It also achieves one of ourto organize themselves to the betterment of their community. On key aims of Knowledge Transfer from more urbanized part of the worldthe website, citizens are asked to report on any civic issue they feel as well as Capacity Building.needs attention. For instance, if there is a pothole outside your house, The program includes the following elementsRX FDQ FOLFN RQ WKH PDS WR VHW D ORFDWLRQ $OVR WDNH D SLFWXUH RI !5HLPDJLQH RXU LWLHV $ SODQQLQJ HVLJQ FRPSHWLWLRQthe pothole and upload it. Fill out a small form with details like the !$ 2QOLQH 3RSXODU YRWHaddress. Issues reported are recorded on a map for everyone to see, Multi City Expert Jury Forumsvote on, discuss. The Citizens can also set up watch areas for their !$ IXOO IXQGHG PRQWK LQWHUQVKLS SURJUDP LQ D SURJUHVVLYHcommunity groups and local government agencies to solve the civic international “Model” City.Problem. The aim is to get citizens involved and ensure that they con-tribute to their city’s betterment and not just sit back and criticize it. Interested in Nation Building?“The tool is also in essence redistributing governance in the hands of Apply now: www.theurbanvision.com/yulpeople and we believe that it allows citizens to constructively workwith the government to solve civic problem. We would also webHQDEOH WKH FRPPXQLW WR FRPH WRJHWKHU WR ¿[ VPDOOHU LVVXHV LQ WKHLUcommunity. ” Said Prathima Manohar , Founder , The Urban Vision.“On behalf of SeeClickFix we are truly excited to have a partner inIndia that can bring the social mission of open civic communication Look out for the Podcasts ofand government accountability to a new community. We are excitedWR VHH ,QGLDQ FLWL]HQV UHSRUWLQJ WKH SUREOHPV WKDW WKH ZDQW ¿[HG LQ Building Livable Cities 2010 ontheir community as well as working together to solve some of thoseproblems on their own.” Said Ben Berkowitz, Founder , See Click Fix. our websiteBe a Change Driver :www.theurbanvision.com/citizenwatch www.theurbanvision.com/multimedia
Page | 12 www.theurbanvision.comNext Generation towns which can then translate into a future with multiple networks of GQDPLF VPDOO FLWLHV WKDW FDQ ERDVW RI HI¿FLHQF DQG KLJKHU TXDOLW RI OLIH Making of a new EcoCityUrbanization in India Lavasa, the new city envisaged as In- GHSHQGHQW ,QGLD¶V ¿UVW KLOO FLW LV D UHFHQW H[DPSOH RI VXFK D$GLWL 1DUJXQGNDU 3DWKDN 3UDWKLPD 0DQRKDU private participation in city building. Strategically located near Mumbai and Pune, Lavasa is taking its form on 25,000 acres of ODQG ,W LV D SKDVHG GHYHORSPHQW FRQVLVWLQJ RI ¿YH WRZQV DQG LV E YHQ WKRXJK PHJDFLWLHV ZLOO SOD D VLJQL¿FDQW UROH based on the principles of ‘New Urbanism’ and ‘Biomimicry”. Lavasa is being developed by the Indian Infrastructure major HCCin India’s urban future, patterns of growth suggest that most of India’surbanisation will take place in smaller cities and towns; those with (Hindustan Construction Company), will create 5 new towns in thea population of less than 500,000 as established in the UN World mountains about 45 minutes from Pune over the next decade. TheUrbanization Prospects. In other words, growth will come increas- master plan of Lavasa was conceived by internationally known designingly from building brand new urban centres. This facet of urban growth FRQVXOWDQWV +2. 86$ ZKR FRQFHSWXDOL]HG WKH FLW¶V PDVWHU SODQrepresents a great challenge and a great opportunity at the same time. ZLWK D IRFXV RQ WKH ORFDO VLWH FRQGLWLRQV DQG HQYLURQPHQWDO LQÀXHQFHV $W SUHVHQW DV ZH FDQ VHH WKDW WKH JRYHUQDQFH PHFKD- /DYDVD KDV DOVR ZRQ WKH µ$ZDUG RI ([FHOOHQFH¶nism for planning and implementation in India is weak. Cities and towns from the highly revered Congress of New Urbanism. The masterlack the resources, the skill-set and the technical expertise to cope with plan of Lavasa ensures that the natural open spaces are protected,rapid urbanisation. On the other hand, since these smaller urban centres so that the ‘hill station appeal’ is not lost. Reforestation, greenare in an early phase of growth, they present a grand opportunity to en- roofs, bioswales, rainwater harvesting, utilization of environmen-gage new, innovative and sustainable ideas and technologies to urbanise. tally responsible material in buildings are a few practices in use at However, at this point, in spite of the urgency Lavasa. The master plan ensures the adaptability of land uses in viewof their need, new towns being planned by the Indian government of changing market demands so as to ensure economic sustainability.DUH IDFLQJ GHODV GXH WR WKH WSLFDO EXUHDXFUDWLF SUREOHPV $ORQJ ‘Biomimicry: Ecological Performance Standards for City BuildingZLWK VXFK KROGEDFNV LW LV DOVR EHFRPLQJ LQFUHDVLQJO GLI¿FXOW IRU WKH Private sector driven City Building has also allowed applicationprivate sector- be it developers, architects or planners, to deal with the of forward looking practices like ‘Biomimicry’ principles in cityalready existing planning regulations often set by government admin- SODQQLQJ IRU WKH ¿UVW WLPH LQ WKH ZRUOG LQ /DYDVD /DYDVD¶V FLW¶Vistration while applying innovative solutions for sustainable growth. VHFRQG WRZQ 0XJDRQ ZLOO EHFRPH WKH ZRUOG¶V ¿UVW UHJLRQ WR GUDZ Hence the emerging trend of private sector participation in inspiration from the concepts of Biomimicry in design and architecture.FLW EXLOGLQJ PD MXVW SURYLGH DQ HIIHFWLYH IUDPHZRUN WR HI¿FLHQWO GULYH Biomimicry is an emerging discipline that studies nature’s best ideasinclusive and sustainable urbanization of India. Private participation in and then imitates these designs and processes to solve human prob-city making allows India to leverage the full potential of Urbanization lems. Principles inspired from nature can change the way we harnessand make it work as part of our growth strategy in a faster and more energy, repair the environment, feed the world and heal ourselves.HI¿FLHQW SDFH 7KH FUHDWLRQ RI QHZ FLWLHV E WKH SULYDWH VHFWRU FDQ Janine Benyus - World-renowned biologist and co-founder of Bio-absorb at least part of the 600 million people that are set to be added mimicry Guild conducted a 3-day charrette in Lavasa to conceive thisinto India’s urban centers over the next 4 decades. The government can ground breaking masterplan . The Biomimicry Guild has been help-also set macro guiding principles of sustainability inclusivity in these ing companies and communities discover, examine, understand and
Page | 13 www.theurbanvision.com Next Generation Ecocities Masdar city ,Q $EX KDEL UHFHQWO FRPSOHWHG LWV SKDVH RQH GHYHORSPHQW DQG WKH UHVLGHQWV have started moving into the city. Masdar City is planned as clean-technology cluster designed by Foster+ Partners that aims to be one of the world’s most sustainable urban devel- RSPHQWV SRZHUHG E UHQHZDEOH HQHUJ ,W LV ORFDWHG DERXW NP IURP GRZQWRZQ $EX KDEL and will be home to companies, researchers, and academics from across the globe. Songdo IDB is developed on the 1500 acres of reclaimed land in South Korea is another example of efforts towards sustainable city development with private sector involvement. Songodo IDB aims to be leader in South Korea’s ‘low carbon green living efforts’. Like Lavasa and Masdar, Songodo IDB too is utilizing principals of water harvesting, grey water reuse and technologies to avoid or reduce commute distances./DYDVD LV D SODQQHG FLW ELOOHG DV ,QGLD¶V ¿UVW KLOO FLW VLQFH ,QGHSHQGHFH and exist. Lavasa is a brilliant attempt towards creating a human dwell- ing to emulate nature’s ideas. We need many more Lavasas in the worldemulate nature inspired strategies, with the aim of designing sustainable in order to ensure we last longer on planet earth” She had earlier stated.products and processes that create conditions conducive to all life. This revolutionary idea attempts to look at the City offering the same ecosystem services as the wild or natural areas surrounding it. The idea is³+RZ GR GUDJRQÀLHV RXW PDQHXYHU RXU EHVW KH- to have cities perform like ecosystems, not just look like them. In tangiblelicopters? How do hummingbirds cross the Gulf terms , this type of city will harvest resources like water , sun’s energy and wind. Buildings, hardscapes, landscapes and infrastructure of the commu-of Mexico on less than one tenth of an ounce of nity will come together to grant the same level of life-sustaining ecosystemfuel? How do ants carry the equivalent of hun- services as a natural ecosystem. It’s the step toward having building and in- frastructure projects that not only meet their own needs—they actually givedreds of pounds in dead heat through a jungle? back to the natural world. The ultimate ambitious goal for the Lavasa is toHow do termites maintain constant temperature create a human settlement that actually enhances local ecology by function- ing at least as well as a healthy, highly functioning moist deciduous forest.of 86º F in their habitat through heat and cold? It is a bold goal which can bring on transformative change to our world and7KH DQVZHUV WR WKHVH TXHVWLRQV ZLOO EH WKH VROXWLRQ WR actually show the world a new model of sustainable human settlements.so many of our problems. It is time we learnt about na- The Lavasa development is going to look for inspiration for designture, not with an intention to control, but with an inten- from the brilliance of the moist deciduous forest ecosystem —animals,WLRQ WR ¿W LQ DQG ODVW IRU JRRG ³H[SODLQV -DQLQH %HQXV plants, microbes, and other ecosystems. These ideas will then driveShe was especially excited about implementing biomimicry prin- innovative design of buildings, hardscapes, and landscapes in this newciples in city planning , given that cities are at the heart of the city. The Ecological Performance Standards being developed also in-Climate Change Eco System loss crisis today. “Today, we need tends to assist those native species most in need of help, by attempting,corporates and business leaders to choose the path less trodden. We for instance, to provide vital corridors for their shelter and migration.need new ideas and we need to revolutionize the way we live, create
Page | 14 www.theurbanvision.com0U $MLW *XODEFKDQG KDLUPDQ /DYDVD RUSRUDWLRQ /WG DI-¿UPV ³5LJKW IURP LQFHSWLRQ RXU YLVLRQ IRU /DYDVD ZDV YHU “BattlingClimate Change Forum: The Urban Vision ‘s the Sea Level rise”clear. We wanted to create a living space where man and natureco-exist in harmony while ensuring both, economic and envi-ronmental sustainability. Janine and her team along with HOK Experts urged Indian cities to adopt measures to deal withhave brought this vision to life. Today, we are working briskly the imminent devastating effects of Climate Change in aWRZDUGV EXLOGLQJ WKH ZRUOG¶V ¿UVW PRGHO WRZQ EDVHG RQ SULQFLSOHV symposium titled “ Battling the Sea Level rise : Lesson forof Biomimicry at Mugaon in Lavasa. We hope this experiment will developing World Cities “ held in University of California,be a precedent to many future towns and cities across the world” Berkeley as part of The Urban Vision’s “Climate Month”Towards Transformative change: New Models of City Building celebration between September 15 – October 15 last year.Lavasa is part of the family of new model cities sprouting around The symposium was co-hosted by Urbanism think-tank “The Urbanthe world that are breaking conventional barriers and setting 9LVLRQ´ *OREDO $UFKLWHFWXUH ¿UP *HQVOHU DQG %HUNHOH (QHUJnew city building paradigms and ecological standards. Other Resource Collaborative. Speakers included Will Travis, Executive Di-JOREDO H[DPSOHV LQFOXGH 0DVGDU LQ $EX KDEL RU 6RQJRGR ,% rector of Bay Conservation and Development Commission ( BCDC)in South Korea. These projects have the potential to be a game 0DWWKHZ +HEHUJHU 3DFL¿F ,QVWLWXWH RDXWKRU RI WKH UHSRUW RQchanger for our future world and may just show humanity the sea level rise in California; Michel St Pierre, Director of Planning ,way forward in terms achieving the values of true sustainability. Gensler ; Prathima Manohar , Founder , The Urban Vision ; and Maria.Lavasa, Masdar and Songodo are path breaking projects which 3D] *XWLHUUH] $VVLVWDQW 3URIHVVRU RI $UFKLWHFWXUH DW 8 %HUNHOHoffer the much needed developmental precedent and action leader- 7KH RQJRLQJ µDOLIRUQLD OLPDWH $GDSWDWLRQ 6WUDWHJ UDIW¶ LV DPRQJVKLS WRZDUGV VXVWDLQDEOH FLW EXLOGLQJ $V DQ XUEDQLVP HQWKXVLDVW WKH ¿UVW H[DPSOH RI D WDFWLFDO SODQ IRU DFWLRQ E D JRYHUQPHQW DJHQFone cannot ignore the impact these cities will make on our future to adapt to extreme climate events and sea-level rise. The panelistsurban development and also on professionals involved in the highlighted the ‘California Strategy Plan’ and looked at ways itscity design planning. These cities are attempting to put many model can be employed in developing world cities. The symposiumDFDGHPLF FRQFHSWV LQWR DFWLRQ $V LQ DQ GHYHORSPHQW WKHUH DUH VSHFL¿FDOO DGGUHVVHG LGHDV DQG VROXWLRQV WKDW FLWLHV KDYH WR HPEUDFHset to be many challenges in making these visions into reality. But to become resilient to the daunting impacts of Climate change.WKHVH FKDOOHQJHV DUH VXUH WR VHHP WLQ ZKHQ FRPSDUHG WR WKH LQÀX- Will Travis from BCDC, which was one of the key agencies that cre-ence and impact these projects will have on the future of cities. DWHG WKH DOLIRUQLD OLPDWH $FWLRQ 3ODQ RXWOLQHG WKH XUJHQW QHHG IRU adapting our communities to climate change impacts and a future of³/DYDVD RUSRUDWLRQ /LPLWHG LV SURSRVLQJ VXEMHFW WR UHFHLSW RI UHTXLVLWH DSSURYDOV PDUNHW FRQGLWLRQV DQG RWKHU FRQVLGHUDWLRQV D SXEOLFLVVXH RI LWV HTXLW VKDUHV DQG KDV ¿OHG D UDIW 5HG +HUULQJ 3URVSHFWXV ZLWK WKH 6HFXULWLHV DQG ([FKDQJH %RDUG RI ,QGLD ³6(%,´
ZKLFK LV extreme climate events “Even if the world turned off all its poweravailable on the website of SEBI at www.sebi.gov.in and the websites of the Book Running Lead Managers at http://www.icicisecurities.FRP ZZZNPFFFRLQ ZZZPRUJDQVWDQOHFRPLQGLDRIIHUGRFXPHQWV DQG ZZZD[LVEDQNFRP $Q SRWHQWLDO LQYHVWRU VKRXOG QRWH WKDW plants, stopped using all its cars; even if we managed to halt all ourLQYHVWPHQW LQ HTXLW VKDUHV LQYROYHV D KLJK GHJUHH RI ULVN DQG VKRXOG UHIHU WR WKH VHFWLRQ ³5LVN )DFWRUV´ LQ WKH UDIW 5HG +HUULQJ 3URVSHFWXV127 )25 5(/($6( 38%/,$7,21 25 ,675,%87,21 ,1 :+2/( 25 3$57 ,1 25 ,172 7+( 81,7( carbon emissions- it’s still going to get warmer for at least 50 more67$7(6 $1$$ 25 -$3$1These materials are not for publication or distribution, directly or indirectly, in or into United Sates(including its territories and possessions, years due to the current level of carbon in our atmosphere which willany state of the United States and the District of Columbia). These materials are not an offer of securities for sale into the United States,DQDGD RU -DSDQ 7KH VHFXULWLHV UHIHUUHG WR KHUHLQ KDYH QRW EHHQ DQG ZLOO QRW EH UHJLVWHUHG XQGHU WKH 86 6HFXULWLHV $FW RI DV contribute to changes in our environment including sea level rise. Weamended, and may not be offered or sold in the United States, except pursuant to an applicable exemption from registration. have to start building climate resilient communities” said Mr. Travis. 0DWWKHZ +HEHUJHU IURP WKH 3DFL¿F ,QVWLWXWH VSRNH DERXW WKH impacts of climate change and said “There is a need to avoid the
Page | 15 www.theurbanvision.comunimaginable, and manage the unavoidable. We can expect a range ofimpacts to the natural and human environment including storm surges; SustainableTransportation KeyLQFUHDVHV LQ FRDVWDO ÀRRGLQJ LQFUHDVHG FRDVWDO HURVLRQ /RVV RI SURS-erty, economic and social disruptions; Potential loss of wetland habitat.” to Climate Change Mitigation The Urban Vision ‘s Climate Change Forum:Mr. Travis also said that coastal cities will have to think aboutbuilding a lot of levies to protect their low-lying zones. Mr. Tra-vis also called on city and national governments to halt development The Urban Vision in partnership with Columbia Business School’s Energy club, Social enterprise club and Green Businessin areas that were vulnerable to sea surges or were below sea level. club hosted a forum on sustainable transportation in Colum-Some 360 million urban residents living in coastal zones risk exposure to bia University, New York City as part of The Urban Vision’ssea surges as ocean levels rise by approximately 1 meter through the 21st “Climate Month” celebration between September 15 – Octobercentury. Developing world cities which are often characterized by poor in- 15 2009 leading up to the historic Copenhagen Summit lastformal settlement will be highly vulnerable. Ten of the developing world’s year . This Sustainable Transportation forum highlighted sev-15 largest cities are in low-lying coastal areas vulnerable to rising sea levels HUDO SURMHFWV DQG LQQRYDWLYH SURFHVVHV WKDW ZRXOG EHQH¿W XV LQor coastal surges. “Given its vast shoreline, the impact will be especially FOLPDWH FKDQJH PLWLJDWLRQ ZKLOH LPSURYLQJ WKH RYHUDOO TXDOLW RI OLIHsevere in India. Coastal Cities like Mumbai and Chennai will be at the heart Prathima Manohar from The Urban Vision set the tone of theof the crisis. However, given the early stage of India’s Urbanization with meeting by reminding the audience of some facts like climateRQO RI WKH FRXQWU EHLQJ 8UEDQ WKHUH LV DOVR DQ XQLTXH RSSRUWXQLW change being greatest challenges faced by our planet and citiesfor India to plan for the future and steer clear of developing in vulnerable EHLQJ DW WKH KHDUW RI WKLV SUREOHP $ERXW RI FDUERQ HPLV-and hi-risk areas” said Prathima Manohar , Founder , The Urban Vision. sions can be attributed to the cities, and automobiles contributeMichel St Pierre, Director of Planning, Gensler spoke about the need to the half of carbon emission. Prathima added that while otherto come out with innovative urban models so that the world can look at sectors like industry have been able to reduce carbon emissions;urbanization as the way to solve this crisis “We are reliant on our cities the transport sector has steadily increased their carbon emissions.to sustain us and we need to enhance their sustainable growth so that (DUO -DFNVRQ $VVRFLDWH LUHFWRU DW 6NLGPRUH 2ZLQJV DQG 0HU-they can mitigate and adapt to climate change” he said. Prof. Maria-Paz rill (SOM) showcased the projects and design ideology of SOM.Gutierrez, UC Berkeley shared a innovative interdisciplinary research Earl focused on two main projects: – Tyson’s corner in Fairfaxinitiative intersecting architecture and bio-engineering called BIOMS that County, Virginia and Maytas forest Hills, Hyderabad. SOM wasshe founded which was looking at creating new types of human settlements involved in developing a master plan with a focus on transit forthat were inherently resilient. “The research is based on bio-mimicry Tyson’s Corner. The plan was to introduce four new metro sta-principles. Nature has always adapted to the volatility of its own self. For tions on the site to reduce the automobile dependency and increaseinstance – Look at how Mangroves combat storm surges. We are studying SHGHVWULDQ WUDI¿F 7KH FRQFHSW RI WKLV GHVLJQ ZDV WR GHYHORS Dthe principles of nature that can be used in the design of the built environ- pedestrian friendly neighbourhood for community living whilement as a way to deal with the devastation of climate change.” She said. including the infrastructure associated with these metro rail stations. The design programme for Maytas Forest hills included a spe- cial economic zone and only two site accesses. The integration of this project to the Hyderabad city depended on the local / regional buses, which would enter the site through these main ac-
Page | 16 www.theurbanvision.comFHVV SRLQWV $ PDMRU URDG ORRS ZKHUH ORFDO UHJLRQDO EXVHV ZRXOG ing IBM technology of dynamic pricing mechanism reduced carbonrun was created with the accesses and a smaller internal loop was HPLVVLRQV WUDI¿F FRQJHVWLRQ DQG LQFUHDVHG WKH XVH RI SXEOLF WUDQVLWGHVLJQHG WR LQWHUVHFW WKH PDMRU ORRS ZKHUH WKH HQHUJ HI¿FLHQW 7KH FLW RI $WODQWD LV DOVR LQ WKH SURFHVV RI LPSOHPHQWLQJ FRUGRQHGbuses serviced the internal site area. The proposal had highest SULFLQJ RQ LWV KLJKZD , ZKLFK LV QRWRULRXV IRU WUDI¿F MDPVdensity around the special economic zone to facilitate residences for $DURQ 1DSDUVWHN WKH HGLWRU LQ ±FKLHI RI 6WUHHWVEORJ WDONHG DERXW WKHpeople to live where they work. The plan also included watersheds challenges of sustainable transportation in New York City (NYC).to harvest rainwater, preserved existing orchards and used lo- $YHUDJH 1HZ RUNHU HPLWV RI WKH JUHHQ KRXVH JDVVHV DV FRPSDUHGcally available material to reduce the community’s carbon footprint. WR DYHUDJH $PHULFDQ EHFDXVH RI WKH ZHOO FRQQHFWHG WUDQVLW VVWHPVFred Kent the Founder and President for People for Public Places $DURQ VXJJHVWHG VRPH DOWHUQDWLYH VXVWDLQDEOH WUDQVSRUW VROXWLRQV WR(PPS discussed concepts of place-making which involved using reduce the green house gas emissions further. Bike infrastructure forthe community to develop public spaces. PPS works on ideas like $PHULFDQ FLWLHV ZDV DQ LGHD VXJJHVWHG LQ SUHVHQWDWLRQ ZKLFK VKRZHGthe comfort, place-making, power of 10, zealousness of public, and very successful examples from Germany and Paris and NYC. Bus rapidacknowledging community is an expert to develop places in cities. transit system was another successful idea which was used in BogotaPower of 10 concept advocates that each community needs to have DQG ODWHU LQ FLWLHV OLNH 6DR 3DXOR $XFNODQG DQG 3DULV 7KLV WSH RI PDVV10 places with things to do, 10 destinations to go to and 10 such transit system was said to be more sustainable than the way buses arecommunities would make a region interesting. Fred discussed the PDQDJHG DW SUHVHQW 6RPH RWKHU LGHDV $DURQ FRYHUHG ZHUH SDUNLQJcase study of downtown New Hampshire where PPS was successful PDQDJHPHQW E SULFLQJ DQG DYDLODELOLW WUDI¿F FRQJHVWLRQ SULFLQJ RQin creating a people friendly place with their approach of involving XUEDQ URDGV DQG PDNLQJ VWUHHWV PRUH OLYHDEOH $DURQ ZHQW RQ WR H[SODLQthe community. Fred introduced some experiments in the presentation WKH VLJQL¿FDQFH RI KDYLQJ OLYHDEOH VWUHHWV DQG JDYH VRPH H[DPSOHV RIZKLFK GH¿HG WKH JHQHUDO QRWLRQ RI WUDI¿F IXQFWLRQLQJ 7KHVH FKDQJHV efforts taken around the world for the cause like Parisian Summer grid-in road design by PPS have proved to reduce crashes according to lock on the Pompidou expressway, Williamsburg walks in NYC, Sumerthe data collected. Fred also went on to explain the sustainability of VWUHHW HYHQW LQ 1 DQG SXEOLF VSDFH UHFODPDWLRQ LQ 7LPHV 6TXDUHtraditional markets, shop fronts and suggested using green design as The last contributor of the evening was a medical practitioner froma integrated concept as compared to the specialised type of design. NYC, Dr. Joseph Habboushe who was also working on a new tryp ofDQ ROOLQV ,%0 86$ VKRZFDVHG KRZ WHFKQRORJ FDQ EH XVHG mass transit idea to solve the crisis of transit in sprawled cities. JoeLQ VKDSLQJ VXVWDLQDEOH IXWXUH RI WUDQVSRUWDWLRQ $Q DYHUDJH SHUVRQ presented a proposal for perpetual express train to address the sprawltoday experiences increased commute time to work which is a non- FLW RI /RV $QJHOHV ZKLFK KH DQG KLV FROOHDJXHV GHVLJQHG $Q LQWHUHVW-productive time for the commuter. To address this concern IBM is ing feature of this design was allowing the passengers would be able toworking on tools for congestion management which would reduce transfer between trains via while trains are in motion, eliminating thecommute time. Dan explained infrastructure solutions like cordoned need to transfer at the station. This idea, if implemented will dividedpricing or dynamic pricing for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes. WKH FLW RI /$ LQWR ZHOO FRQQHFWHG SHGHVWULDQ IULHQGO QHLJKERXUKRRGV6ROXWLRQV WR SUHGLFW WUDI¿F MDPV EDVHG RQ WUDI¿F PRWLRQ DUH DOVR EHLQJ of 10 min radius each having a stop for perpetual express train system.implemented which would predict a jam up to 90 minutes before traf-¿F DFWXDOO VWRSV 7KLV VVWHP LV EHLQJ XVHG LQ 6LQJDSRUH DQG JLYHVcommuters an opportunity to choose the best available route duringFRQJHVWLRQ 7KH FDVH VWXG RI GRZQWRZQ 6WRFNKROP WUDI¿F LQYROY-
Page | 17 www.theurbanvision.comBuilding Livable Cities 2010 to sustainable transport as well; and this is a vital issue to address cli-EcoCities : Driving India towards the age of sustainability. mate change as transport is responsible for almost 40% of the any FLW¶V HQHUJ XVH )RU ,QVWDQFH $ SHUVRQ ZKR OLYHV LQ $WODQWD RU /$ which are sprawled – auto centric cities typically has an ecological footprint of 13-14 while a resident of a high-density / compact mass- transit driven walkable city like Barcelona has an ecological footprint I ndian cities are increasingly becoming worse places to live of 3 or 4. The session will identify links between urban morphologyin. Our cities are today marked with rising pollution, dwindling and sustainable urbanism. It will outline strategies that shape compact,green spaces, dearth of basic amenities services, short- dense, mixed- use transit-driven and walkable city development models.age of affordable housing and a complete decay of public Built Environmentspaces and infrastructure. Building Livable Cities is a multi city Sustainable buildings are a key component of sustainable cities asinvestigation on ideas that can make Indian cities Livable. The almost 40% of the energy use is any city is owed to consumptioninitiative is an urgent call for action across the nation to push in buildings. In this segment , we will look at ideas that attempt toIRU SROLFLHV WRZDUGV VXVWDLQDELOLW DQG EHWWHU TXDOLW RI OLIH optimize the functioning of a building; that preserve and protect$V SDUW RI WKH LQLWLDWLYH VPSRVLXPV ZLOO WDNH SODFH DFURVV FLWLHV ± important resources like water, land, and energy. It will focus on%DQJDORUH 0XPEDL HOKL KHQQDL DQG $KPHGDEDG EHWZHHQ 2FW integrated architecture which brings together passive design issues,18-22.The outcome will be presented in a book that is scheduled to be HQHUJ HI¿FLHQW PDWHULDOV FRQVWUXFWLRQ PHWKRGV HI¿FLHQW EXLOGLQJreleased in 2011. The “Urban Visioning” Program titled the Blueprint systems and by taking advantage of renewable energy suppliesshowcases the urban visions of a number of leading Indian architects Sustainable Infrastructurealong with the revolutionary ideas of global thought leaders. The series This segment will address design and development ideas that seek towill also be podcasted online at www.theurbanvision.com/multimedia adopt solid waste and sewerage recycling; sustainable water manage-“Cities hold the key to the age of sustainability” ment strategies as well as alternative energy like solar and wind energy. The theme of Building Livable cities 2010 is EcoCities - Driving Technology for green Cities.India towards the age of sustainability which will explore strategies This segment will highlight intelligent city management ap-that can make Indian cities environmentally sustainable. Today, plications and outline how future cities can effectivelycities occupy about 2% of the world’s surface area and have a use technology to advance clean public transportation, de-GLVSURSRUWLRQDWHO ODUJH LPSDFW RQ WKH HDUWK¶V HFRORJ $FFRUGLQJ WR crease pollution through intelligent urban development.the United Nations, cities are responsible for 75% of global energy Green economics regulationconsumption and 80% of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, a This segment will look at how economic incentives and regulation can drivelarge part of the solution towards solving the crisis of Climate Change sustainable development. For example: The land auction in UK’s largestlies in solving the crisis of Cities. This national investigation is aimed eco-village called BedZED is a good example. It took into account theat creating a solution driven blueprint towards a sustainable future. ORQJ WHUP ¿QDQFLDO EHQH¿WV RI WKLV HFR GHYHORSPHQW ZKLOH DXFWLRQLQJ WKHThe symposium will address the following sub themes which land, even though it had other conventional developers biding more for theare among key components that shape sustainable urbanization. site. The Feed-in Tariff used extensively in Germany is an incentive-ledUrban Form government legislation that encourages adoption of renewable energy.Ecological footprint of a city is embedded in inherent structure, .form and morphology of the city. Urban form is an issue critical