Political Evolution of thePolitical Evolution of the
International Space Station:International Space Station:
Prospects fo...
IntroductionIntroduction
• Space Station Program
has gone through
numerous political
milestones
• Debates have recurring
t...
OutlineOutline
• ISS Budget
• Overview of themes
• Milestones in ISS development
• Decision to develop a station
• Ongoing...
Space Station Budget (NASA)Space Station Budget (NASA)
4
**Budget data 1999 and later are from NASA, other data points wer...
Benefits from the ISSBenefits from the ISS
5
• International perceptions of ISS partners
• International partnerships
• Re...
6
Milestones of DevelopmentMilestones of Development
Decision to Develop a StationDecision to Develop a Station
Ronald Rea...
Supporting RationaleSupporting Rationale
• International perception: “Demonstrate technological
leadership” “Tribute to Am...
8
• International perception: “If the U.S. does not take this
step, we will lose our pre-eminence in space”
• Research/inn...
9
Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985
Pioneering the Space FrontierPioneering the Space F...
10
Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985
Pioneering the Space FrontierPioneering the Space ...
11
• International perception: “Russians could have an
assemblage of space station units three times the size of
the one p...
12
• Preparation for space exploration: “Base for staging
expeditions to the Moon” “More politically and
economically defe...
13
“First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s: Space
Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space
endeavors....
14
Advisory Committee on the Future
of the U.S. Space Program
•Research/innovation: “Microgravity research does
represent ...
15
• International perception: “Japan
would take the lead in space research
if Congress killed the space station”
• Intern...
16
• Preparation for space exploration: “First step on the
road to space colonization” “Studying the effects of space
on h...
17
“An amendment to the space-agency authorization
bill that was intended to kill the program was
defeated 216 to 215.”
Pe...
18
• Preparation for space exploration: “Determine the
long-term effects of space travel on human beings”
“Prepare for lon...
19
• International partnerships: “Consistent with U.S.
obligations contained in agreements between the United
States and o...
20
• International perception: “Partnership expresses a ‘first
among equals’” “By terminating the ISS, U.S. would
voluntar...
21
• Research/innovation: “Nation’s newest
National Laboratory” “Development of broad
capabilities in science and technolo...
22
• International partnerships: “Example of peaceful and
constructive international cooperation”
• Research/innovation: “...
23
Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009
Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possi...
24
“It shall be the policy of the United States, in
consultation with its international partners in the ISS
program, to su...
25
• Preparation for space
exploration: “Advancement of
space exploration”
• Education/workforce: “Scientific
outreach and...
ISS PerformanceISS Performance
Issue Impact of ISS to Date
International
perceptions
• Highly visible effort
• Currently d...
ISS PerformanceISS Performance
Issue Impact of Continuation
International
perceptions
• Nations continue leadership roles
...
Want to Know More?Want to Know More?
Space Foundation
310 South 14th
Street
Colorado Springs, Colo.
www.SpaceFoundation.or...
ISS Cost and Schedule EstimatesISS Cost and Schedule Estimates
29
• 1983 - The agency has estimated it will cost $6 billio...
ISS Cost and Schedule EstimatesISS Cost and Schedule Estimates
30
• 1991 - The agency wants to build a manned space statio...
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Political Evolution of the International Space Station: Prospects for Future Success

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"Political Evolution of the International Space Station: Prospects for Future Success" was presented by Space Foundation research analyst Mariel John at the International Space University (ISU) annual three-day symposium in Strasbourg, France, Feb. 17, 2011. The theme of the symposium was "The International Space Station: Maximizing the Return from Extended Operations."

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  • *The space station program began in 1984, and over the last 36 years, it’s gone through numerous political changes and major milestones.
    *In this time there have been many debates over the merits of the program, and these debates have particular arguments that show up over and over
    *In this presentation, I want to look at how these arguments have been used at each major milestone, and then discuss what impact they may have on the future utilization and success of the international space station.
  • *Two reasons that I wanted to start out with this slide
    1) It really illustrates the up-and-down of the space station budget over time – this is not a smooth curve
    2) I’m mostly going to focus on the arguments given for the space station, but I want to briefly say something about the arguments against – and these almost always have to do with cost.
    -Arguments against the station usually don’t say that benefits aren’t there, but they argue they aren’t worth the cost
    -Or argue that station money will take away from other good projects (human vs. robotic, etc.)
    -Or argue that the station isn’t the most efficient way to get a particular benefit (microgravity research, etc.)
    -In general, that station is good, but not best choice, given the cost
  • *These are the arguments used in support of the ISS that occur over and over through many political milestones
    -Can argue about the relative importance or relevance of each (and that’s exactly what has been done throughout station history)
    *Briefly describe what each of these refers to
    *International perceptions of ISS partners refers to the benefit of prestige or of soft power
    *International partnerships refers to the ability to build closer relationships with other countries
    -Both of the first two items reflect the use of the station for foreign policy goals
    *Research and Innovation refers to the ability to conduct basic and applied research on the station and spur innovation – these are activities thought to be essential to driving economic growth
    *Technology Development, Maturation, and Transfer refers to the spin-offs created – items that are created because of the ISS, but have real benefits on Earth
    *Preparation for Space Exploration refers to the idea that a space station can be used as the first step in further human exploration, and can pave the way for future efforts
    *Education and workforce represents the idea that the space station can be used to inspire students and engage them in educational initiatives, and workforce refers to the ability to develop and sustain a high-tech workforce
    *Commercial Space Activity refers to the ability of the station to be used to help encourage the nascent commercial space industry – in particular, supporting manufacturing in space, or by providing a market for commercial space transportation
    -Supporting these industries reflects the idea that a guaranteed national market may be necessary to support development, and that early adopters have much greater benefits
  • *The decision to build the space station was first officially announced by President Ronald Reagan in the 1984 State of the Union address.
  • *In this very first speech about the station, most of the recurring themes were mentioned. (Review items in bold)
  • *In the lead up to the announcement about the space station, there was discussion about whether it would be the right path, and I wanted to highlight some of the arguments made in newspaper articles at the time. (Review items in bold)
  • *Paine Commission was created at the request of Ronald Reagan to look at the long-term vision for space
    *They looked at the next 50 years
    *Unfortunately the report was released right before Challenger accident, so attention was taken away
    *Still interesting to see how they viewed the potential of the space station (items in bold)
    *Also Mentioned servicing of spacecraft – not a recurring them
    *“In the future, the permanently occupied Space Station will furnish a vitally important new capability for astronomical research-that of assembling and supporting facilities in space that are too large to be accommodated in a single shuttle launch.”
  • *Paine Commission was created at the request of Ronald Reagan to look at the long-term vision for space
    *They looked at the next 50 years
    *Unfortunately the report was released right before Challenger accident, so attention was taken away
    *Still interesting to see how they viewed the potential of the space station (items in bold)
    *Also Mentioned servicing of spacecraft – not a recurring them
    *“In the future, the permanently occupied Space Station will furnish a vitally important new capability for astronomical research-that of assembling and supporting facilities in space that are too large to be accommodated in a single shuttle launch.”
  • *In the lead up to the announcement about the space station, there was discussion about whether it would be the right path, and I wanted to highlight some of the arguments made in newspaper articles at the time. (Review items in bold)
  • *In the lead up to the announcement about the space station, there was discussion about whether it would be the right path, and I wanted to highlight some of the arguments made in newspaper articles at the time. (Review items in bold)
  • *The Space Exploration Initiative had the goal of returning the U.S. to exploration beyond LEO, but it incorporated the space station as the first step. (Review items in bold)
  • *Augustine Commission was put together in response to high cost of Space Exploration Initiative
    *Report recommended downsizing Space Station and focusing only on life sciences and microgravity research
  • The Space Exploration Initiative was never really adopted, and in the early 1990’s the debate over the merits of the station went on. (Review items in bold)
  • The Space Exploration Initiative was never really adopted, and in the early 1990’s the debate over the merits of the station went on. (Review items in bold)
  • *In early 1993, when the Clinton Administration came into office, the Space Station program was over budget and significantly delayed. He created a panel to create three options for a cheaper station, and told to the panel to consider inviting Russia as a partner
    *When the report was released on June 11th, none of the panel’s three options were within the price ceilings provided, but they did endorse inviting Russia
    *On June 23,1993, an amendment to cancel the Space Station program failed by one vote in the house, and one week later a similar amendment failed by four votes.
    -To put this into perspective - at the same time Congress was struggling with questions of “big science” in general, and the other major program, the superconducting supercollider, was canceled.
    *These are quotes from articles discussing those two votes (review items in bold)
    *In November 1993, Russia formally agreed to a plan to join the station, and it became the ISS
    *Interestingly, the following year, the margin on the vote to cancel the station was much wider, articles stated that
    “People on both sides of the debate said the White House had swayed crucial votes by stressing the foreign policy implications of the project, particularly the advantages of working with a former adversary like Russia as a full partner.” (June 1994)
  • *In early 1993, when the Clinton Administration came into office, the Space Station program was over budget and significantly delayed. He created a panel to create three options for a cheaper station, and told to the panel to consider inviting Russia as a partner
    *When the report was released on June 11th, none of the panel’s three options were within the price ceilings provided, but they did endorse inviting Russia
    *On June 23,1993, an amendment to cancel the Space Station program failed by one vote in the house, and one week later a similar amendment failed by four votes.
    -To put this into perspective - at the same time Congress was struggling with questions of “big science” in general, and the other major program, the superconducting supercollider, was canceled.
    *These are quotes from articles discussing those two votes (review items in bold)
    *In November 1993, Russia formally agreed to a plan to join the station, and it became the ISS
    *Interestingly, the following year, the margin on the vote to cancel the station was much wider, articles stated that
    “People on both sides of the debate said the White House had swayed crucial votes by stressing the foreign policy implications of the project, particularly the advantages of working with a former adversary like Russia as a full partner.” (June 1994)
  • *In 2005, President Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration, which aimed to send the U.S. back to the Moon and onto Mars. This slide highglights how the space station fit into those plans. (Review items in bold)
  • *Recently, the Augustine Commission completed a review of Human Space Flight. This slide highlights how their report included the ISS. (Review items in bold)
  • *Recently, the Augustine Commission completed a review of Human Space Flight. This slide highlights how their report included the ISS. (Review items in bold)
  • *Now looking to the options that are being discussed today, I would like to look at the president’s FY2011 budget request.
  • *Now looking to the options that are being discussed today, I would like to look at the president’s FY2011 budget request.
  • *In Fall 2010 (Get Date!), the U.S. Congress passed an Authorization Bill for NASA, and it was signed by the president. Though no appropriations bill was passed, meaning these exact numbers are unlikely to remain the same, this is still an important document.
  • *In Fall 2010 (Get Date!), the U.S. Congress passed an Authorization Bill for NASA, and it was signed by the president. Though no appropriations bill was passed, meaning these exact numbers are unlikely to remain the same, this is still an important document.
  • *I’ve shown that these arguments are given over and over, but now I’d like to take a moment to look at how well NASA has been living up to these arguments in the past
  • *I’ve shown that these arguments are given over and over, but now I’d like to take a moment to look at how well NASA has been living up to these arguments in the past
  • *Arguments about ISS almost always are concerned with the costs relative to the benefits;
  • *Arguments about ISS almost always are concerned with the costs relative to the benefits;
  • Political Evolution of the International Space Station: Prospects for Future Success

    1. 1. Political Evolution of thePolitical Evolution of the International Space Station:International Space Station: Prospects for Future SuccessProspects for Future Success Mariel JohnMariel John Research and AnalysisResearch and Analysis Space FoundationSpace Foundation
    2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction • Space Station Program has gone through numerous political milestones • Debates have recurring themes • How do these themes apply to the future? 2
    3. 3. OutlineOutline • ISS Budget • Overview of themes • Milestones in ISS development • Decision to develop a station • Ongoing debate in the 1980s • Near cancelation 1993 • NASA reorganization in 2005 • Current budget possibilities • Prospects for the future 3
    4. 4. Space Station Budget (NASA)Space Station Budget (NASA) 4 **Budget data 1999 and later are from NASA, other data points were gathered from news reports.
    5. 5. Benefits from the ISSBenefits from the ISS 5 • International perceptions of ISS partners • International partnerships • Research and innovation • Technology development, maturation and transfer • Preparation for space exploration • Education and workforce • Commercial space activities
    6. 6. 6 Milestones of DevelopmentMilestones of Development Decision to Develop a StationDecision to Develop a Station Ronald Reagan State of the Union 1984: “Tonight, I am directing NASA to develop a permanently manned space station and to
    7. 7. Supporting RationaleSupporting Rationale • International perception: “Demonstrate technological leadership” “Tribute to American teamwork and excellence” • International partnerships: “Strengthen peace” • Research/innovation: “Peaceful economic and scientific gain” • Tech development/maturation/transfer: “Research in science, communications, metals and lifesaving medicines” • Education/workforce: “Jobs will multiply” • Commercial space: “Promote private sector investment in space” 7
    8. 8. 8 • International perception: “If the U.S. does not take this step, we will lose our pre-eminence in space” • Research/innovation: “Laboratory for scientific research” • Tech development/maturation/ transfer: “Hub for low-gravity manufacturing” • Preparation for space exploration: “Service station for interorbit traffic” “Next logical step for long-duration work'' PerceptionsPerceptions New York TimesNew York Times,, 1982-831982-83
    9. 9. 9 Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985 Pioneering the Space FrontierPioneering the Space Frontier “The commission recommends… the U.S. Space Station program be kept on schedule for an operational capability by 1994, without a crippling and expensive ‘stretch-out.’” •International perception: “Conducive to an expansive space program… in accordance with American values” •International partnerships: “Model for handling competitive and cooperative relationships”
    10. 10. 10 Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985Perceptions: Paine Commission,1985 Pioneering the Space FrontierPioneering the Space Frontier • Research/innovation: “State-of-the-art facilities for laboratory experiments” “Primary functions… microgravity and other research” • Tech development/maturation/transfer: “Novel applications will develop from basic research” • Preparation for space exploration: “Increase our understanding of effects of space environment on people'‘ • Commercial space: “Spark new industries… as a space laboratory for academic and industrial researchers”
    11. 11. 11 • International perception: “Russians could have an assemblage of space station units three times the size of the one planned by the United States” • International partnerships: “Slip would disrupt or jeopardize international station arrangements with Europe, Japan and Canada” “Need international participation to establish a framework for future cooperative ventures” • Research/innovation: “Laboratory for scientific and technological experiments” PerceptionsPerceptions New York TimesNew York Times,, 1985-891985-89
    12. 12. 12 • Preparation for space exploration: “Base for staging expeditions to the Moon” “More politically and economically defensible if the nation commits to missions to the Moon and Mars and beyond” PerceptionsPerceptions New York TimesNew York Times,, 1985-891985-89 • Education/workforce: “Slip could force partial dismantling of the nationwide industry team” “Energize young people to study science and math” • Commercial space: “Expand opportunities for commercial ventures in space”
    13. 13. 13 “First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s: Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors.” - President Bush, 1989 •Research/innovation: “Investment in the growth, prosperity and technological superiority of our nation” •Preparation for space exploration: ”First and necessary step for sustained manned exploration” PerceptionsPerceptions Space Exploration Initiative,Space Exploration Initiative, 19891989
    14. 14. 14 Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program •Research/innovation: “Microgravity research does represent an altogether valid element of America's economic competitiveness program” •Preparation for space exploration: “Gain the much needed life sciences information and experience in long duration space operations” “Critical next step if the U.S. is to have a manned space program in the future” “Verification of long duration space operating systems” PerceptionsPerceptions Augustine Report,Augustine Report, 19901990
    15. 15. 15 • International perception: “Japan would take the lead in space research if Congress killed the space station” • International partnerships: “Jeopardize future international scientific ventures” • Research/innovation: “Orbiting outpost in which astronauts fashion new materials, study the physics of fluids, grow crystals, perform medical experiments” Perceptions:Perceptions: New York TimesNew York Times Near Cancellation,Near Cancellation, 19931993
    16. 16. 16 • Preparation for space exploration: “First step on the road to space colonization” “Studying the effects of space on human life” “Indispensable stepping stone for exploring Mars” “Would enhance biomedical research into the health complications of long-range space flight” • Education/workforce: “Employing tens of thousands of people in more than a dozen states” “Source of inspiration to American youths” “Consensus emerging that the space station can benefit the economy” “Space station would create 75,000 high-tech jobs” Perceptions:Perceptions: New York TimesNew York Times Near Cancellation,Near Cancellation, 19931993
    17. 17. 17 “An amendment to the space-agency authorization bill that was intended to kill the program was defeated 216 to 215.” Perceptions:Perceptions: News ArticlesNews Articles Near Cancellation,Near Cancellation, JuneJune 19931993 • “Research/innovation: “Opportunities for advanced research in biotechnology and metallurgy” “Gateway from a defense-based economy to a high-technology future” • Technology development: “Far-reaching scientific spinoffs”
    18. 18. 18 • Preparation for space exploration: “Determine the long-term effects of space travel on human beings” “Prepare for long-range manned space travel and permanent colonies” • Education/workforce: “Putting space research and jobs ahead of cutting the budget deficit” “Lawmakers from California, Florida and Texas provided the core of support” “Vital to protect high-wage jobs” Perceptions:Perceptions: News ArticleNews Article Near Cancellation,Near Cancellation, JuneJune 19931993
    19. 19. 19 • International partnerships: “Consistent with U.S. obligations contained in agreements between the United States and other partners” • Preparation for space exploration: “Research prioritized to support human exploration” “How the space environment affects astronaut health and capabilities” “Effects of space environments on the human body” “Logistical burden of supporting humans far from Earth” • Commercial space: “Use existing or new commercial launch vehicles for cargo transport” “Pursue commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services” Vision for Space ExplorationVision for Space Exploration NASA Reorganization in 2005NASA Reorganization in 2005
    20. 20. 20 • International perception: “Partnership expresses a ‘first among equals’” “By terminating the ISS, U.S. would voluntarily relinquish its unique area of unchallenged leadership in space” • International partnerships: “Decision not to extend… would significantly impair U.S. ability to develop and lead future international spaceflight partnerships” “Strong and tested working relationship among international partners is perhaps most important outcome” Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009 Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities
    21. 21. 21 • Research/innovation: “Nation’s newest National Laboratory” “Development of broad capabilities in science and technology” “Scientific opportunities” • Preparation for space exploration: “Enhanced testbed for technologies and operational techniques that support exploration” “Valuable testbed for life support, environmental and advanced propulsion technologies” • Commercial space: “Assure the existing commercial cargo contractors of a more secure market” Perceptions: President’s FY2011 Budget RequestPerceptions: President’s FY2011 Budget Request Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities
    22. 22. 22 • International partnerships: “Example of peaceful and constructive international cooperation” • Research/innovation: “Basic scientific research and technology demonstration” “Human, plant and animal biotechnologies, aerospace technologies and defense sciences research” • Tech development: “Closed loop life support systems and remote medical care capabilities... can be used to benefit people here on Earth” Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009 Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities
    23. 23. 23 Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009Perceptions: Augustine Report, 2009 Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities • Preparation for space exploration: “Learning how to live and work in space” “Research needed for prolonged stays in space, including on the Moon, Mars “Developing and testing technologies and capabilities that are funded and operated within both the Exploration Technology and Space Technology programs” • Commercial space: “Develop U.S. commercial crew transportation”
    24. 24. 24 “It shall be the policy of the United States, in consultation with its international partners in the ISS program, to support full and complete utilization of the ISS through at least 2020.” •International partnerships: “Maximize productivity and use of the ISS with respect to… international collaboration” “Key component of international efforts to build missions and capabilities” •Research/innovation: “A National Laboratory… developed, managed and utilized in a manner that enables effective and innovative use” “Scientific and technological research and development” NASA Authorization Bill, FY 2010NASA Authorization Bill, FY 2010 Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities
    25. 25. 25 • Preparation for space exploration: “Advancement of space exploration” • Education/workforce: “Scientific outreach and education activities” “Development of educational programs, course supplements, interaction with educational programs at all grade levels” • Commercial space: “Support the existing Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program” “Conducted in a manner that provides opportunities … cooperation with commercial suppliers, users and developers” NASA Authorization Bill, FY 2010NASA Authorization Bill, FY 2010 Current Budget PossibilitiesCurrent Budget Possibilities
    26. 26. ISS PerformanceISS Performance Issue Impact of ISS to Date International perceptions • Highly visible effort • Currently demonstrates technological leadership International partnerships • 15 international partners • More than 20 years of successful cooperation on ISS Research/ innovation • Government/private company interest in conducting research • More than 100 experiments during ISS construction Tech development/ maturation/transfer • New companies created in more than 20 states based on technologies developed for the ISS Preparation for space exploration • Hardware/software proven successful for use in space • Studies on physiological effect of long-term space flight Education/ workforce • Educational activities included more than 31M U.S. students, providing real-life illustrations of math/science • ISS workforce includes thousands of people in 37 states Commercial space activities • COTS program has provided important market for new space launch companies 26
    27. 27. ISS PerformanceISS Performance Issue Impact of Continuation International perceptions • Nations continue leadership roles International partnerships • Continue to be model for future cooperation Research/ innovation • Continues research that may create new technologies • Carries out cutting-edge human-tended microgravity research, not possible on any other existing platform Tech development/ maturation/transfer • Continued opportunity for ISS-developed technology to be applied to new fields Preparation for space exploration • Tests technologies in near-Earth orbit where launch/operation/ resupply are less costly/less demanding • Learn more about the effects of long-term spaceflight on humans Education/ workforce • Continues educational activities/opportunities for students • Continues to sustain a highly technical workforce of thousands of Americans Commercial space activities • Provides extended mission to support commercial space launch development 27
    28. 28. Want to Know More?Want to Know More? Space Foundation 310 South 14th Street Colorado Springs, Colo. www.SpaceFoundation.org 719.576.8000 28
    29. 29. ISS Cost and Schedule EstimatesISS Cost and Schedule Estimates 29 • 1983 - The agency has estimated it will cost $6 billion to $8 billion to have a permanent station with four to six persons on board in orbit by 1991 • http://www.nytimes.com/1983/07/19/science/a-station-in-space-predicted.html?scp=44&sq=%22space+station%22&st=nyt • 1984 - The space station is expected to be launched within the next decade at an estimated cost of $8 billion. • 1987 - The proposed space station will cost considerably more than the original estimate of $8 billion, perhaps as much as $13 billion, and it is already more than a year behind its 1994 deployment schedule. • http://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/08/us/space-station-costs-and-allies-role-raise-doubts.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1988 - The United States is in the detailed design stage of building the station, which is expected to be ready for occupancy early in 1998. The estimated cost of the American project has risen from $8 billion in 1984 to more than $30 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1988/03/20/us/europeans-agree-to-work-on-us-space-project.html?scp=8&sq=%22space+station%22%2B%22estima • 1989 - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a space station at an estimated cost of $28 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/03/business/economic-scene-the-darker-side-of-the-budget-gap.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1990 - The space station was originally sold to Ronald Reagan's Administration and to Congress on the basis of an estimated cost of $8 billion, but its projected price is now more than $30 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/27/us/big-science-it-worth-price-periodic-look-largest-new-research-projects-heavy.html? pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1990 - The report is likely to strike a responsive note in Congress, at least on the point of redesigning the space station to reduce costs, whose estimated cost had risen as high as $35 billion for the decade. • http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/11/science/giving-new-purpose-to-the-space-program.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1991 - The quandary now facing Congress is how to finance a number of expensive NASA science projects for the 1990's as well as the station, whose cost over its 30-year lifetime is estimated by the General Accounting Office to be $118 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1991/06/11/science/space-errors-share-pattern-skipped-tests.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
    30. 30. ISS Cost and Schedule EstimatesISS Cost and Schedule Estimates 30 • 1991 - The agency wants to build a manned space station that has an estimated cost of $84 billion to $118 billion over its 30-year lifetime and is likely to drain money from smaller projects. • http://www.nytimes.com/1991/09/16/us/nasa-moves-to-end-longtime-reliance-on-big-spacecraft.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1993 - The flight is meant to pioneer techniques for use on NASA's space station, which the Clinton Administration has ordered redesigned to cut its estimated cost of $31 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1993/03/23/science/with-seconds-to-go-engine-failure-halts-shuttle.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 1998 - The project's total cost is a subject of debate, but the most credible estimates now put the price of assembly and of operation for a decade, the station's estimated lifetime, at $110 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/05/us/space-station-s-first-construction-crew-lifts-off-aboard-the-shuttle.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm • 2002 - United States spending on building the station is capped at $26 billion, the task force said. The estimated cost of restoring full research capability and a seven-person crew is put at an additional $5 billion. • http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/20/us/cuts-lessen-space-station-s-value-to-science-report-says.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

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