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Climate of missouri

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Climate of missouri

  1. 1. Measuring Climate Pat Guinan Extension/State Climatologist Commercial Agriculture ProgramLivestock and Climate WorkshopUniv. of Missouri, 146 ASRCApril 14, 2012
  2. 2. Famous Early Weather Observers “All Science Begins with Observation” John Holm George WashingtonRecorded the first George took regularknown weather observations; the lastobservations in the weather entry in hisAmerican Colonies 365 diary was made theyears ago, 1644-1645 day before he died. Thomas Benjamin Jefferson FranklinIn 1797, Jefferson As Postmaster General inoutlined a plan for 1743, Franklin was able toproviding weather get weather reports frominstruments to postmasters along thesomeone in every coast and track acounty in Virginia. hurricane along theOn July 4, 1776, the high temp in Philly was 76°F Atlantic Coast
  3. 3. U.S. National Weather Service Cooperative Weather Station Network“The Backbone of the Nation’s Climate Records”
  4. 4. NWS Cooperative Network in Missouri 28 Pioneer Stations (still active)
  5. 5. NWS Cooperative Weather Station Site
  6. 6. MMTSStevenson Screen or Cotton Region Shelter
  7. 7. 8-inch diameter gauge Recording Rain Gauge
  8. 8. Climate Data Application… Annual Normal Temperature (1981-2010)
  9. 9. Climate Data Application…
  10. 10. Climate Data Application… Hottest Temperature Ever Recorded in Missouri July 14, 1954 118°F Union & Warsaw
  11. 11. Climate Data Application… Coldest Temperature Ever Recorded in Missouri February 13, 1905 -40°F Warsaw
  12. 12. Climate Data Application… Annual Normal Precipitation (1981-2010)
  13. 13. Average Weekly Summer Rainfall for Past 30 Years in Central Missouri Period of Record: 1981-2010Average Weekly Rainfall (in.) Silking date: 7/4 Silking date: 7/27 Weekly Periods
  14. 14. Number of Daily Rainfall Events ≥ 3 inches in Missouri 1895-2010 10 yr. running mean 1895-1952: 922 events 1953-2010: 1005 events 2008 Average: 17 events 1993 1961 1982 2009 Data Source: Midwestern Regional Climate Center
  15. 15. Climate Data Application… Rainfall frequency analyses are used in design specifications and regulations established for construction of drainage ditches, culverts, pipes, dams, ponds, lagoons, buildings, roads etc. 100 year, 24-hour rain event NOAA Atlas 14 Precipitation frequency estimates
  16. 16. Climate Data Application… Wind Rose Columbia, MO, South Farm (2000-2010)
  17. 17. Climate Data Application… Soil temperature, not air temperature, controls germination of seeds. Soil temperature needs to be above 50°F for corn to germinate and 60°F for soybeans to germinate. Optimum temperatures for germination are higher.
  18. 18. Climate Data Application… Hail HOMEOWNER’S AND CROP INSURANCEMissouri’s most expensive hail storm in statehistory: April 10, 2001, Nearly $2 billion ofproperty damage due to a hail storm, particularlyin the north St. Louis area. Meadville, MO on May 24, 2004 2-3 days
  19. 19. Missouri Annual Average Temperature (1895-2011) 5 yr. running mean Long-term average: 54.6°F 1921 1931 1938 1954 1946 1904 1924 Warm Period 1917 19791895 Cool Period
  20. 20. Missouri Annual Average Precipitation (1895-2011)Long-term average: 41.18” 5 yr. running mean 1973 1993 20081898 1927 1963 19761980 1901 Wet Period 1953 Dry Period
  21. 21. Missouri Average Winter Temperature (Dec-Jan-Feb, 1895-2012*) 5 yr. running mean Long-term average: 32.4°F 1931-32 2011-12 ’91-92 ’99-00 ’01-021904-05 1917-18 1935-36 1977-78 1978-79 Warm Period Cool Period *The winter of 2012 is defined as Dec 2011 and Jan, Feb 2012
  22. 22. Missouri Average Spring Temperature (Mar-Apr-May, 1895-2011) 5 yr. running meanLong-term average: 54.2°F 1977 1991 1938 1946 2007 1947 1983 1924 1984 1960 Warm Period Cool Period
  23. 23. Median Date of Last Spring Frost (≤ 32 F)4/19 4/21 4/20 Long term (1895-2010)4/16 4/18 4/17 vs. Past 30 years (1981-2010) 4/12 4/12 Locations 4/13 Conception 3 days earlier 4/09 Kirksville 3 days earlier Steffenville 3 days earlier 4/14 Lexington 1 day later Columbia 3 days earlier 4/10 Appleton City 4 days earlier 4/18 4/12 Lamar 4 days earlier 4/11 4/19 Lebanon 7 days earlier 4/08 Marble Hill 2 days earlier 4/17
  24. 24. Missouri Average Summer Temperature (Jun-Jul-Aug, 1895-2011) 5 yr. running mean 1934 19361901 1954 1980 1927 1950 1992 2004 1915 Warm Period Cool Period
  25. 25. Columbia, MissouriNo. of Days When the Temperature Was ≥ 100 F (1890-2011) 1936 More triple-digit heat in 1936 than in the past 23 1934 years in Columbia!! 1901 1980 1901
  26. 26. Columbia, MO Average Summer Dew Point Temperature (°F) (Jun-Jul-Aug, 1948-2011) Long-term average: 64.3°F 19931995 2010 1949 2011 1953 1972 1992 1967 1975 1976 Year Data Source: Missouri Climate Center/NOAA
  27. 27. Missouri Average Autumn Temperature (Sep-Oct-Nov, 1895-2011) Long-term average: 56.5°F 1931 5 yr. running mean 1963 1938 1998 1971 19511896 1996 1993 Warm Period 1976 Cool Period
  28. 28. Columbia, MO March Daily Max/Min Temperature (°F) Normal vs. 2012 Date
  29. 29. Missouri Average March Temperature (°F) (1895- 2012) Year
  30. 30. Extension Commercial AgricultureAutomated Weather Station Network Real-time (Updates every 5 minutes) One new station added in 2010 for a total of 30 in the network. agebb.missouri.edu/weather/stations/index.htm
  31. 31. http://agebb.missouri.edu/weather/stations/
  32. 32. Weather Resources on the Internetagebb.missouri.edu/weather/wealinks.htmRiver Information Resources for Missouri agebb.missouri.edu/weather/river.htm guinanp@missouri.edu

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