Intonation and stress


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Intonation and stress

  1. 1. Intonation and Stress - Key to Understanding and Being UnderstoodBy Kenneth Beare, GuideSee More About: • improving pronunciation • intonation • word stressAdsEnglish Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!Audio English Pronunciationwww.DictionaryBoss.comTranslations, Word Definitions &More With Dictionary Boss App!Enjoy Summer in our Summer course and have your Japaneseexperience here!More English as 2nd Language Ads • English Pronunciation • Stress Release Exercises • English Grammar Exercises • Learning English Speaking • Learn English ListeningAdsConnect with Connect with classrooms all overthe world, Join ePals today!ESL Teaching ESL teaching jobs daily. ESL jobs abroadand onlineCorrect intonation and stress are the key to speaking English fluently with goodpronunciation. Intonation and stress refers to the music of the English language. Wordsthat are stressed are key to understanding and using the correct intonation brings out themeaning. After students have learned basic consonant and vowel sounds, they shouldmove on to learning to differentiate between individual sounds by using minimal pairs.Once they are comfortable with individual words, they should move on to intonation andstress exercises such as sentence markup. The following exercise can be used by students
  2. 2. and teachers to further help with pronunciation by focusing on the stressing contentwords rather than function words in the exercise below.Minimal Pair Pronunciation LessonBy Kenneth Beare, GuideSee More About: • pronunciation examples • improving pronunciation • minimal pairsAdsConnect with Connect with classrooms all overthe world, Join ePals today!The French Languagelearnfrencheasy.infoLearn to speak French fluently. Fun Easy andQuick! Lowest Prices.English Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!More English as 2nd Language Ads • ESL Lesson • English Pronunciation • Lesson Plans • English Lesson • ESL PronunciationMinimal pairs are pairs of words that have one phonemic change between them. Forexample: "let" and "lit". Using these pairs to help students recognize the minordifferences between English muted vowel sounds can greatly help not only pronunciationskills, but also comprehension.Aim: Improve pronunciation and recognition skillsActivity: The use of minimal pairs to help students distinguish minor differencesbetween English vowel soundsLevel: Pre-intermediate to upper-intermediate depending on students capabilitiesOutline:
  3. 3. • Introduce the idea of "minimal pairs" by writing a list on the board of a number of minimal pairs. For example: but - boot, sit - set, caught - cut, sing - song, etc. • Practice comprehension skills by using the provided lists of minimal pairs. Each list contains one minimal pair with a number of examples. • Once students are comfortable with the sounds, read sentence examples (for example: The call took a long time to go through - for the first pair) using one word of the pair provided. Ask students to identify which word of each pair was used. • Continue using the list of pairs by asking students to practice the lists. • Ask students to identify two vowel sounds which they want to focus on, for example: eh and uh, and have them create their own list of minimal pairs. • Have pairs exchange lists and practice reading the others lists aloud. • If appropriate, continue lesson by a more extended look into the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet, see IPA Lesson)Back to lessons resource pageMinimal Pairs Listening and Pronunciation PracticeThis minimal pairs listening comprehension can help you improve recognition andpronunciation of similar English sounds. First listen to the pairs of words pronounced oneafter the other. Next, do the quiz that follows testing the differences between the minimalpairs.Target pair:Click on the audio symbol and listen to the following pairs of words. When you havelistened, try repeating the words yourself. • blessed blast • commended commanded • deft daft • left laughed • lest last • leather lather • pest passed • vest vast
  4. 4. Click on the audio symbol and listen to the sentences. Choose which of the target wordshas been used in sentence. Click on the arrow next to "Text" to see the text read.blessed blastText:commended commandedText:deft daftText:left laughedText:lest lastText:leather latherText:pest passedText:vest vastText:Continue Intermediate English Course Unit 3 Present Continuous, Plurals, Countable and Uncountable,Some and Any words, Minimal PairsMore pronunciation practice with minimal pairsIntonation and Stress - Exercise IntroductionSay this sentence aloud and count how many seconds it takes.The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.Time required? Probably about 5 seconds. Now, try speaking this sentence aloud.He can come on Sundays as long as he doesnt have to do any homework in the evening.
  5. 5. Time required? Probably about 5 seconds.Wait a minute the first sentence is much shorter than the second sentence!The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distanceHe can come on Sundays as long as he doesnt have to do any homework in the eveningYou are only partially right!This simple exercise makes a very important point about how we speak and use English.Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages areconsidered syllabic. What does that mean? It means that, in English, we give stress tocertain words while other words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!). In otherlanguages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there isstress, but each syllable has its own length).Many speakers of syllabic languages dont understand why we quickly speak, or swallow,a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages each syllable has equalimportance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however, spends more time onspecific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, less important, words.Lets look at a simple example: the modal verb "can". When we use the positive form of"can" we quickly glide over the can and it is hardly pronounced.They can come on Friday . (stressed words underlined)On the other hand, when we use the negative form "cant" we tend to stress the fact that itis the negative form by also stressing "cant".They cant come on Friday .As you can see from the above example the sentence, "They cant come on Friday" islonger than "They can come on Friday" because both the modal "cant" and the verb"come" are stressed.So, what does this mean for my speaking skills?Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which wedo not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as • Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter • (most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct • Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting • Adverbs e.g. often, carefully
  6. 6. Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as • Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few • Auxiliary verbs e.g. dont, am, can, were • Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite • Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as • Pronouns e.g. they, she, usLets return to the beginning example to demonstrate how this affects speech.The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance . (14 syllables)He can come on Sunday s as long as he doesnt have to do any homework in the evening .(22 syllables)Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, thesentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in eachsentence. From this example, you can see that you neednt worry about pronouncingevery word clearly to be understood (we native speakers certainly dont). You shouldhowever, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly.Now, do some listening comprehension or go speak to your native English speakingfriends and listen to how we concentrate on the stressed words rather than givingimportance to each syllable. You will soon find that you can understand andcommunicate more because you begin to listen for (and use in speaking) stressed words.All those words that you thought you didnt understand are really not crucial forunderstanding the sense or making yourself understood. Stressed words are the key toexcellent pronunciation and understanding of English.I hope this short introduction to the importance of stress in English will help you toimprove your understanding and speaking skills.Practice Stress and IntonationBy Kenneth Beare, GuideSee More About: • improving pronunciation • pronunciation examples • beginning dialogues • speaking skills
  7. 7. AdsEnglish Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!English Jobs in Asiaasia.careercross.comSearch English jobs in All of Asia Register nowand apply today!Audio English Pronunciationwww.DictionaryBoss.comTranslations, Word Definitions &More With Dictionary Boss App!More English as 2nd Language Ads • Practice English • English Pronunciation • Stress Release Exercises • English Grammar Exercises • ESL Teaching EnglishAdsConnect with Connect with classrooms all overthe world, Join ePals today!ESL Teaching ESL teaching jobs daily. ESL jobs abroadand onlineI am often surprised at how focusing on the "stress - timed" quality of English helpsstudents improve their pronunciation skills. Students often focus on pronouncing eachword correctly and therefore tend to pronounce in an unnatural manner. By focusing onthe stress - timed factor in English - the fact that only content words such as propernouns, principle verbs, adjectives and adverbs receive the "stress" - students soon beginsounding much more "authentic" as the cadence of the language begins to ring true. Thefollowing lesson focuses on raising awareness of this issue and includes practiceexercises.Aim: Improving pronunciation by focusing on the stress - time nature of spoken EnglishActivity: Awareness raising followed by practical application exercisesLevel: Pre - intermediate to upper intermediate depending on student needs andawarenessOutline: • Begin awareness raising activities by reading an example sentence aloud to the students (for example: The boys didnt have time to finish their homework before
  8. 8. the lesson began). Read the sentence the first time pronouncing each word carefully. Read the sentence a second time in natural speech. • Ask students which reading seemed more natural and why it seemed more natural. • Using the ideas students come up with, explain the idea of English being a "stress - timed" language. If the students speak a syllabic language (such as Italian or Spanish), point out the difference between their own native language and English (theirs being syllabic, English stress - timed). Just this awareness raising can make a dramatic difference in such students abilities. • Talk about the differences between stressed words and non-stressed words (i.e. principle verbs are stressed, auxiliary verbs are not). • Write the following two sentences on the board: o The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. o He can come on Sundays as long as he doesnt have to do any homework in the evening. • Underline the stressed words in both sentences. Ask students to try reading aloud. Point out how each sentence seems to be approximately the same length in "stress - time". • Ask students to look through the example sentences and underline the words that should be stressed in the worksheet. • Circulate about the room asking students to read the sentences aloud once they have decided which words should receive stresses. • Review activity as a class - ask students to first read any given sentence with each word pronounced followed by the "stress - timed" version. Expect a surprise at the quick improvement students make in pronunciation (I am every time I do this exercise)!!Another approach can help students improve their stress and intonation skills is soundscripting. Sound scripting has students highlight content words using a word processor.These two quizzes can also be used to help students test their knowledge of which wordsare function or content words.Content or Function Words - Quiz 1Content or Function Words - Quiz 2Pronunciation Help - Sentence StressTake a look at the following list of stressed and non-stressed word types.Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as • Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter • (most) principle verbs e.g. visit, construct • Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting • Adverbs e.g. often, carefully
  9. 9. Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as • Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few • Auxiliary verbs e.g. dont, am, can, were • Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite • Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as • Pronouns e.g. they, she, usMark the stressed words in the following sentences. After you have found thestressed words, practice reading the sentences aloud. • John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together. • Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug. • We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France. • Jack bought a new car last Friday. • They are looking forward to your visiting them next January. • Exciting discoveries lie in Toms future. • Would you like to come over and play a game of chess? • They have been having to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment. • Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry. • As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the problem.stressBy Richard Nordquist, GuideSee More About: • phoneticsIn these three pairs of words, the noun has the stress on the first syllable and the verb hasthe stress on the second syllable.Ads
  10. 10. English Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!Academic preparation for further studies at university!Learn Chinese Easilywww.ninhao.comVisual and practical Lessons make learningChinese more easily.AdsDownload Dictionary Freewww.DictionaryBoss.comFree Dictionary Toolbar with WordOf The Day, Translator & More Free!Spanish Languagelearnspanishonline.bizLearn and practice Spanish online with nativespeaker. Order Now!Definition:In phonetics, the degree of emphasis given a sound or syllable in speech.One of the main functions of stress is to provide a way of distinguishing degrees ofemphasis or contrast in sentences orEtymology:From the Latin, "draw tight"Examples and Observations: • "[O]ne of the functions of phonetic stress is to make words understandable. This kind of stress, known as word-level stress, is actually part of a words pronunciation. It may also serve to differentiate words that are similar. For example, Were going to record a record, the two similar words are stressed differently so that the first record is stressed on the second syllable (vowel reduction in the first syllable also assists in helping us to assign stress to the second syllable), whereas the second record is stressed on the first syllable (with vowel reduction in the second syllable). All words of more than one syllable have a prominent or stressed syllable. If we pronounce a word with appropriate stress, people will understand us; if we use the wrong stress placement, we run the risk of being misunderstood. "Phrase or sentence stress is tied to meaning, and this is the second function of stress. As we focus a camera on some item of interest, phonetic stress helps us focus our listeners attention on what is most important in our message." (Harold T. Edwards, Applied Phonetics: The Sounds of American English, 3rd ed. Thomson, 2003)
  11. 11. • "Stresses tend to recur at regular intervals. But the sound pattern of English does not make it an overriding necessity to adjust the lengths of syllables so as to enforce complete regularity. The interval between stresses is affected by the number of syllables within the stress group, by the number and type of vowels and consonants within each syllable, and by other factors such as the variations in emphasis that are given to each word." (Peter Ladefoged and Keith Johnson, A Course in Phonetics, 6th ed. Wadsworth, 2011)• Stress With Content Words and Function Words "[T]he words most likely to receive sentence stress are those termed content words (also called lexical words), namely nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and main verbs. These are the words that normally carry a high information load. We can contrast these with function words (also called grammar words or form words), namely determiners (e.g. the, a), conjunctions (e.g. and, but), pronouns (e.g. she, them), prepositions (e.g. at, from), auxiliary verbs (e.g. do, be, can). Function words carry relatively little information; their role is holding the sentence together. . . . Unlike content words, function words for the most part carry little or no stress. Only two types of function words are regularly stressed: the demonstratives (e.g. this, that, those) and wh- interrogatives (e.g. where, who, which, how). Note, however, that when wh- words and that are used as relatives they are unstressed, e.g. the girl who lent me the yellow hat that I wore to your wedding." (Beverley Collins and Inger M. Mees, Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students. Routledge, 2003)• Lexical Diffusion "Some linguistic change first manifests itself in a few words and then gradually spreads through the vocabulary of the language. This type of change is called lexical diffusion. A well-attested example in English involves an ongoing change in the stress pattern of words such as convert, which can be used as either a noun or a verb. Although the stress originally fell on the second syllable regardless of lexical category, in the latter half of the sixteenth century three such words, rebel, outlaw, and record, came to be pronounced with the stress on the first syllable when used as nouns. . . . "This change has still not diffused through the entire vocabulary of English. There are about a thousand nouns of the relevant sort that still place the stress on the second syllable (e.g., report, mistake, and support)." (William OGrady et al., Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction, 4th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2001)
  12. 12. content wordBy Richard Nordquist, GuideSee More About: • grammatical and rhetorical termsThe italicized words in Hedbergs sentence are content words.AdsDictionary Free Downloadwww.DictionaryBoss.comWord Definitions, Translate &More. Download Dictionary Boss Today!Study English in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!General English in New Zealand Join our courses!Definition:A word that conveys information in a text or speech act. Also known as a lexical word.Content words--which include nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives, and adverbs--belong toopen classes of words: that is, new members are readily added. Contrast with functionword.Examples and Observations: • "All morphemes can be divided into the categories lexical [content] and grammatical [function]. A lexical morpheme has a meaning that can be understood fully in and of itself--{boy}, for example, as well as {run}, {green}, {quick}, {paper}, {large}, {throw}, and {now}. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are typical kinds of lexical morphemes. Grammatical morphemes, on the other hand--such as {of}, {and}, {the}, {ness}, {to}, {pre}, {a}, {but}, {in}, and {ly}--can be understood completely only when they occur with other words in a sentence." (Thomas E. Murray, The Structure of English. Allyn and Bacon, 1995)
  13. 13. • "Most people with low self-esteem have earned it." (George Carlin) • "Liberal and conservative have lost their meaning in America. I represent the distracted center." (Jon Stewart) • "Trying is the first step towards failure." (Homer Simpson) • "Grammatical words [function words] tend to be short: they are normally of one syllable and many are represented in spelling by less than three graphemes (I, he, do, on, or). Content words are longer and, with the exception of ox and American Englishs ax, are spelt with a minimum of three graphemes. This criterion of length can also be extended to the production of the two sets of words in connected speech. Here grammatical words are often unstressed or generally de-emphasised in pronunciation." (Paul Simpson, Language Through Literature. Routledge, 1997) • Content Words in Speech "Typically, the prominent syllable in a tone unit will be a content word (e.g. a noun or verb) rather than a function word (e.g. a preposition or article), since content words carry more meaning than function words. Function words will only be stressed if prominence on them is contextually warranted." (Charles F. Meyer, Introducing English Linguistics. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010)Also Known As: lexical word, lexical morpheme, substantive category, contentivefunction wordBy Richard Nordquist, GuideSee More About: • glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms
  14. 14. What Is Morphology? 2nd ed., by Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Anne Fudeman (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)AdsEnglish Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!Facebook® - Official SiteFacebook.comBrowse Profiles & Share Your World. Create aFacebook Profile for Free!Learn Chinese Easilywww.ninhao.comVisual and practical Lessons make learningChinese more easily.Definition:A word that expresses a grammatical relationship. Also known as a grammatical word.Function words include determiners, conjunctions, and prepositions. Contrast withcontent word.See also: • Closed Class • Lexicology • Lexis • Morphology • Wh- Words • Word ClassExamples and Observations: • "Function words are like thumbtacks. We dont notice thumbtacks; we look at the calendar or the poster they are holding up. If we were to take the tacks away, the
  15. 15. calendar and the poster would fall down. Likewise, if we took the function words out of speech, it would be hard to figure out what was going on: took function words speech hard figure going on That is what the previous sentence would look like if we took out all of the function words. . . . "[F]unction words are a closed class. A person cannot easily invent a new preposition or conjunction." (Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Anne Fudeman, What Is Morphology? Wiley- Blackwell, 2005) • "Most people with low self-esteem have earned it." (George Carlin) • "Liberal and conservative have lost their meaning in America. I represent the distracted center." (Jon Stewart) • "Trying is the first step towards failure." (Homer Simpson) • "Every book is a childrens book if the kid can read." (Mitch Hedberg) • Function Words in Speech "Most monosyllabic function words, unlike content words, are unstressed . . .. Prepositions, conjunctions, and articles are regularly unstressed, and auxiliary verbs and adverbs are usually unstressed--though note that auxiliaries are often used for emphasis, in which case they are stressed: "I did pay the bills." (Derek Attridge, Poetic Rhythm. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995)Also Known As: grammatical word, grammatical functor, grammatical morpheme,function morpheme
  16. 16. prosodyBy Richard Nordquist, GuideSee More About: • grammatical and rhetorical terms • phoneticsAdsEnglish Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!Jewish Educational Itemswww.jEducate.comGames, workbooks, CDs, DVDs, holidayitems, study accessoriesThree Forks A Novel of TXwww.TomMarlin.com1836 - 1846 History of Dallas, Ft.Worth & N. Texas by Tom MarlinAdsGeneral English in New Zealand Join our courses!Dictionary Free Downloadwww.DictionaryBoss.comWord Definitions, Translate &More. Download Dictionary Boss Today!Definition:(1) In phonetics, the use of pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm in speech to conveyinformation about the structure and meaning of an utterance. Adjective: prosodic.(2) In literary studies, the theory and principles of versification, especially as they refer torhythm, accent, and stanza.See also: • Intonation • Intonation Phrase (IP) • Phonology • StressEtymology:From the Greek, "song sung to instrumental music"
  17. 17. Examples and Observations (Definition #1): • "There are no capital letters or full stops in speech: the job of breaking down the continuous flow into meaningful and manageable chunks is mainly done by using the resources of prosody (pitch, stress, loudness, tempo). To many inexperienced writers it is far from self-evident how to translate the primarily prosodic structure of speech into the syntactic structure of writing. . . . "Speech is organized into prosodic units, marked off by pauses and intonation contours: they may or may not have the syntactic structure of complete sentences. Writing, however, relies on the sentence as its basic unit." (Deborah Cameron, The Teachers Guide to Grammar. Oxford Univ. Press, 2007) • "The term prosody refers to the stress patterns of a language. In English, stress is distinctive at the level of the individual word and at the level of phrases, clauses, and entire sentences." (C. M. Millward and Mary Hayes, A Biography of the English Language, 3rd ed. Wadsworth, 2011) • "Early studies of prosody (e.g. Pike 1945) focused on trying to assign meaning to prosodic features in much the way phonemes and morphemes are assigned meaning. . . . Studies of prosody and meaning moved on to points in which contextual factors were recognized as important. Crystal (1969) claimed that situational elements, such as kinesic activity and/or grammar and other situational factors, are intimately connected with pitch and tone, and called for a move away from describing and analyzing prosodic features as discrete units. . . . "Recent work in prosody has continued to expand on the ideas set up by Crystal (1969) and Coultahrd and Brazil (1982) by taking into consideration such aspects of interaction as how prosody can signal speakers intentions in the discourse." (Rebecca L. Damron, "Prosodic Schemas," in Discourse Across Languages and Cultures, ed. by Carol Lynn Moder and Aida Martinovic-Zic. John Benjamins, 2004) • Prosodic Signals of Two Grammatical Differences "If someone is reciting a list of items, we know whether the list is complete or not by the pitch of the voice. If the pitch is rising . . ., there are more items to come. If it is falling . . ., there is nothing further to come. The difference is suggested in writing by the use of a series of dots instead of a full stop" I bought beer, whiskey, gin . . . I bought beer, whiskey, gin.
  18. 18. "The two types of relative clause can be distinguished by intonation: My brother / whos abroad / has written to me. (I have only one brother, and hes abroad) My brother / whos abroad / has written to me. (my brother whos in London / has not)" (David Crystal, Rediscover Grammar, 3rd ed. Pearson Longman 2003) • Functions of Prosody "The functions of prosody are manifold. . . . Prosody is for instance involved in matters such as sentence and word segmentation, syntactic phrasing, stress, accentuation, phonological distinctions in tone languages. Prosody also features pragmatic and expressive functions. A given sentence in a given context generally expresses much more than its linguistic content (the same sentence, with the same linguistic content may have plenty of different expressive contents or pragmatic meanings). Examples of expressive content are: the identity of the speaker, her/his attitude, mood, ages, sex, sociolinguistic group, and other extralinguistic features. Examples of pragmatic meaning encompass the speaker/listener attitudes (aggressive, submissive, neutral, etc.), the relationships of the speaker and her/his discourse (belief, confidence, assertiveness, etc.), and various other aspects of the specific speech act performed." (Christophe dAlessandro (Orsay), "Voice Source Parameters and Prosodic Analysis." Methods in Empirical Prosody Research, ed. by Stefan Sudhoff. Walter de Gruyter, 2006)Pronunciation: PROS-eh-deeintonation phrase (IP)By Richard Nordquist, GuideSee More About: • phonetics • language
  19. 19. As explained by Ulrike Gut (see below), "Intonational phrasing in English can have ameaning-distinguishing function." Sentence (a) has just one intonation phrase; sentence(b) has two IPs.AdsImprove GMAT Verbale-gmat.comVerbal SC+CR prep, 2500+ questions 100+ freequestions, Free TrialEnglish Class in for all levels. Improve yourvocabulary and fluency!The Proverbs of Solomonwww.LetGodBeTrue.comPractical, hard-hitting, spiritualcommentary on Bible Proverbs.AdsESL Teaching ESL teaching jobs daily. ESL jobs abroadand onlineGeneral English in New Zealand Join our courses!Definition:In phonetics, a stretch (or chunk) of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern(or tune).The intonation phrase (IP) is the basic unit of intonation. In phonetic analysis, the verticalbar symbol (|) is used to represent the boundary between two intonation phrases.See also: • Connected Speech • Pause • Prosody • Punctuation Effect • Speech (Linguistics) • Stress • UtteranceExamples and Observations: • "When speakers produce words in a row, we can usually observe that they are structured: individual words are grouped together to form an intonation phrase. . . . Intonation phrases can coincide with breath groups . . ., but they do not have to. Often a breath group contains more than one intonation phrase. As with all other phonological units, it is assumed that speakers have a mental
  20. 20. representation of intonation phrases, i.e. they know how to produce speech structured into intonation phrases and they rely on this knowledge when listening to the speech of others. "Within an intonation phrase, there is typically one word that is most prominent. . . . Some utterances might contain just one intonation phrase, others might contain several of them. Moreover, speakers can put utterances together to form larger stretches of speech or discourse. . . . "Intonational phrasing in English can have a meaning-distinguishing function. Consider utterances 11a and 11b: (11a) He washed and fed the dog. (11b) He washed | and fed the dog. If the intonation phrase He washed and fed the dog is produced as one intonation phrase, its meaning is that a person both washed and fed a dog. Conversely, if the same utterance is produced as a sequence of two intonation phrases with an intonation boundary after washed (indicated by the symbol |), the meaning of the utterance changes into someone who washed himself and fed a dog." (Ulrike Gut, Introduction to English Phonetics and Phonology. Peter Lang, 2009)• Intonation Contours "Intonation often does serve to convey information of a broadly meaningful nature . . .. For example, the falling pitch we hear at the end of a statement in English such as Fred parked the car signals that the utterance is complete. For this reason, falling intonation at the end of an utterance is called a terminal (intonation) contour. Conversely, a rising or level intonation, called a nonterminal (intonation) contour, often signals incompleteness. Nonterminal contours are often heard in the nonfinal forms found in lists and telephone numbers." (William OGrady et al., Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction, 4th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2001)• Tonality (Chunking) "The speaker does not necessarily have to follow the rule of an IP for each clause. There are many cases where different kinds of chunking are possible. For example, if a speaker wants to say We dont know who she is, it is possible to say the whole utterance as a single IP (= one intonation pattern): We dont know who she is.
  21. 21. But it is also possible to divide the material up, in at least the following possible ways: We dont know | who she is. We | dont know who she is. We dont | know who she is. We | dont know | who she is. Thus the speaker may present the material as two, or three, pieces of information rather than a single piece. This is tonality (or chunking)." (J. C. Wells, English Intonation: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2006) • Position of Intonation Phrase Boundaries "The position of intonation phrase boundaries shows a good amount of variability. These have been studied in English on the basis of positions of possible pauses within clauses (Selkirk 1984b, Taglicht 1998 and references there) and positions of obligatory pauses (Downing 1970). . . . The core result is that root clauses, and only these, are bounded by obligatory intonation phrase breaks. (Root clauses are clauses [CPs] not imbedded inside of a higher clause that has a subject and a predicate.)" (Hubert Truckenbrodt, "The Syntax-Phonology Interface." The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, ed. by Paul de Lacy. Cambridge University Press, 2007)Also Known As: intonation group, phonological phrase, tone unit, tone group, wordgroupphrasing  Use Phrasing in a sentenceAdsPhrasing Discuss Phrasing Open the Free Toolbar Define Phrasing Instantly. Faster PageLoads With Fewer Ads.phras·ing[frey-zing] Show IPAnoun1.
  22. 22. the act of forming phrases.2.a manner or method of forming phrases; phraseology.3.Music. the grouping of the notes of a musical line into distinct phrases.Relevant QuestionsWhat Is A Phrase?What Is An Infinitive Ph...What Is A Verbal Phrase?What Is An Example Of A ...Origin:1605–15; phrase + Unabridgedphrase[freyz] Show IPA noun, verb, phrased, phras·ing.noun1.Grammar .a.a sequence of two or more words arranged in a grammatical construction and acting as aunit in a sentence.b.(in English) a sequence of two or more words that does not contain a finite verb and itssubject or that does not consist of clause elements such as subject, verb, object, orcomplement, as a preposition and a noun or pronoun, an adjective and noun, or an adverband verb.2.Rhetoric . a word or group of spoken words that the mind focuses on momentarily as ameaningful unit and is preceded and followed by pauses.3.a characteristic, current, or proverbial expression: a hackneyed phrase.4.Music. a division of a composition, commonly a passage of four or eight measures,forming part of a period.5.a way of speaking, mode of expression, or phraseology: a book written in the phrase ofthe West.verb (used with object) express or word in a particular way: to phrase an apology express in words: to phrase ones thoughts.10.Music.
  23. 23. mark off or bring out the phrases of (a piece), especially in group (notes) into a phrase.verb (used without object)11.Music. to perform a passage or piece with proper phrasing.Origin:1520–30; (noun) back formation from phrases, plural of earlier phrasis < Latin phrasis diction, style (plural phrasēs ) < Greek phrásis diction, style, speech, equivalent to phrá (zein ) to speak + -sis -sis; (v.) derivative of the nounRelated formsmis·phrase, verb (used with object), mis·phrased, mis·phras·ing.un·phrased, adjectiveCan be confused: frays, phrase (see synonym study at the current entry).Synonyms1. Phrase, expression, idiom, locution all refer to grammatically related groups of words.A phrase is a sequence of two or more words that make up a grammatical construction,usually lacking a finite verb and hence not a complete clause or sentence: shady lane (anoun phrase); at the bottom (a prepositional phrase); very slowly (an adverbial phrase).In general use, phrase refers to any frequently repeated or memorable group of words,usually of less than sentence length or complexity: a case of feast or famine—to use thewell-known phrase. Expression is the most general of these words and may refer to aword, a phrase, or even a sentence: prose filled with old-fashioned expressions. Anidiom is a phrase or larger unit of expression that is peculiar to a single language or avariety of a language and whose meaning, often figurative, cannot easily be understoodby combining the usual meanings of its individual parts, as to go for broke. Locution is asomewhat formal term for a word, a phrase, or an expression considered as peculiar to orcharacteristic of a regional or social dialect or considered as a sample of language ratherthan as a meaning-bearing item: a unique set of locutions heard only in the mountainousregions of the UnabridgedBased on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013.Cite This Source|Link To phrasing00:05Phrasing is always a great word to know.So is quincunx. Does it mean: a calculus or concretion found in the stomach or intestines of certain animals, esp. ruminants, formerly reputed to be an effective remedy for poison. an arrangement of five objects, as trees, in a square or rectangle, one at each corner and one in the middle.
  24. 24. LEARN MORE UNUSUAL WORDS WITH WORD DYNAMO...CollinsWorld English Dictionaryphrase (freɪz)—n1. clause noun phrase Compare verb phrase a group of words forming an immediate syntactic constituent of a clause2. a particular expression, esp an original one3. music a small group of notes forming a coherent unit of melody4. (in choreography) a short sequence of dance movements— vb5. music to divide (a melodic line, part, etc) into musical phrases, esp in performance6. to express orally or in a phrase[C16: from Latin phrasis, from Greek: speech, from phrazein to declare, tell]phrasing (ˈfreɪzɪŋ)—n1. the way in which something is expressed, esp in writing; wording2. music the division of a melodic line, part, etc, into musical phrasesCollins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollinsPublishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009Cite This SourceEtymonlineWord Origin & Historyphrase1530, "manner or style of expression," also "group of words with some unity," from L.L.phrasis "diction," from Gk. phrasis "speech, way of speaking, phraseology," fromphrazein "to express, tell," from phrazesthai "to consider," of unknown origin. Themusical sense of "short passage" is from 1789. TheOnline Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas HarperCite This SourceAmerican Heritage
  25. 25. Cultural Dictionaryphrase definitionA group of grammatically connected words within a sentence: “ One council member leftin a huff ”; “She got much satisfaction from planting daffodil bulbs .” Unlike clauses,phrases do not have both a subject and a predicate.The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third EditionCopyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Cite This Source