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INTRODUCTIONTO SKIN
Part 1- Epidermis
SKIN ANATOMY
Image source: suggestkeyword.com
EPIDERMIS
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Stratum Lucidum
Image source: suggestkeyword....
THE RELATION BETWEENTHESE 5 LAYERS
Stratum CorneumStratum GranulosumStratum SpinosumStratum Basale
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3...
STRATUM BASALE
• Made up of keratinocyte stem cell.
• Undergoes mitosis division to
constantly renew epidermal cells.
• Ha...
SKIN DESQUAMATION
• is a natural process where skin cells
are sloughed away and replaced.
• It takes approx. 28 days.
• Th...
MELANOCYTE
• is a melanin producing cells.
• melanin is a pigment found in eyes,
skin, and hair.
• Function is to protect ...
STRATUM SPINOSUM
• Retaining moisture and protect
against foreign bodies and substances.
• Begin to synthesise keratin, wh...
STRATUM GRANULOSUM
• Contain granules, which to bind keratin
filaments together.
• Lamellar bodies are formed in the
kerati...
STRATUM CORNEUM
• Outermost layer of epidermis, consist of 15-20 layers dead cells.
• Corneocyte/Keratinocyte- protein com...
STRATUM CORNEUM
• Water content in stratum corneum should remain approx 15-20%.
• The main functions of stratum corneum ar...
SEBUM
• A combination of sebum that secrete by
the sebaceous gland and sweat.
• It’s slightly acidic (pH 4.5-6.5)
• Functi...
CONTENT OF STRATUM CORNEUM
Sebum
Corneocyte/
Keratinocyte
Intercellular Matrix
41%Triglyceride
21% Wax esters
Amino acids
...
REVISION
Stratum basale
• Skin regeneration
• Secrete melanin
Stratum spinosum
• Provide nutrients
• Detect allegens
Strat...
REFERENCE
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKosGSm7Ps4
• http://dermatology.about.com/
• http://www.taiwanlaser.com/
• ht...
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Skin introduction (Part 1- Epidermis)

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Flawless skin is everyone's dream. To achieve that we need to have basic understanding of the skin structure and our own skin type, then choose the right skin care product, and continuous using it for a period of time.

Having the right attitude in taking care of our skin is very important. Here we have the basic understanding of the skin structure, to briefly explain what is function of our skin.

Published in: Education
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Skin introduction (Part 1- Epidermis)

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONTO SKIN Part 1- Epidermis
  2. 2. SKIN ANATOMY Image source: suggestkeyword.com
  3. 3. EPIDERMIS Stratum Corneum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Spinosum Stratum Basale Stratum Lucidum Image source: suggestkeyword.com
  4. 4. THE RELATION BETWEENTHESE 5 LAYERS Stratum CorneumStratum GranulosumStratum SpinosumStratum Basale Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 1 2 3 4 Image source: amazonnaws.com, usmagazine.com, country1067.com, pixnet.net
  5. 5. STRATUM BASALE • Made up of keratinocyte stem cell. • Undergoes mitosis division to constantly renew epidermal cells. • Half of the cells differentiate and move to the next layer (stratum spinosum) to begin the maturation process- Keratinisation/ desquamation • Other cell in stratum basale: Melanocyte Keratinocyte
  6. 6. SKIN DESQUAMATION • is a natural process where skin cells are sloughed away and replaced. • It takes approx. 28 days. • The duration of keratinisation process will vary with different lifestyle, sun exposure, ageing and etc. • Dead skin cells accumulation will result in pigmentation, dull skin, dehydration and etc. - Exfoliating can help in normalise skin regeneration.
  7. 7. MELANOCYTE • is a melanin producing cells. • melanin is a pigment found in eyes, skin, and hair. • Function is to protect skin cells and tissues from harmful UV radiation- transform the UV energy to heat. • Almost everyone has the same amount of melanocyte,while the size and amount of melanosomes can be different. • Most of the whitening products act on the process of melanogenesis. Image source: palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk
  8. 8. STRATUM SPINOSUM • Retaining moisture and protect against foreign bodies and substances. • Begin to synthesise keratin, which can hold water and retain moisture. • Langerhans cells to detect skin penetration by foreign matter and transport the invaders to the lymph node. • The malfunction/activation of langerhans cells can lead to sensitive skin. Desmosomes
  9. 9. STRATUM GRANULOSUM • Contain granules, which to bind keratin filaments together. • Lamellar bodies are formed in the keratinocytes of stratum granulosum. • When it matures to the stratum corneum, enzyme degrade the outer layer of lamellar bodies, releasing lipids such as ceramides, essential fatty acids and cholesterol. • The lipids fuse with stratum corneum to form a continuous layer of lipids- called lamellar lipid bilayer- which is lipid soluble. • impermeable to water soluble substances. Image source: wisegeek.com
  10. 10. STRATUM CORNEUM • Outermost layer of epidermis, consist of 15-20 layers dead cells. • Corneocyte/Keratinocyte- protein complex that made of keratin.These keratin can hold large amounts of water between fibre. Contain NMF. • Natural moisturizing factor (NMF)- water soluble compound that absorb water from the atmosphere to stay hydrate.Yet, they are easily leached from the cells with water contact. • Intercellular lipid- consist of ceramide, free fatty acids and cholesterol. It can maintain the water balance by trapping water molecule • Corneodesmosome- Diversify desmosome that hold the corneocyte together Brick and mortar structure
  11. 11. STRATUM CORNEUM • Water content in stratum corneum should remain approx 15-20%. • The main functions of stratum corneum are • to provide hydration to skin and prevent loss of water through the water holding/ absorb properties and lipid bilayer. • to protect skin against foreign bodies through the brick and mortar structure. • The incomplete of stratum corneum can lead to several skin problems- such as dehyrated skin, aging skin, sensitive skin, oily skin and etc. Brick and mortar structure
  12. 12. SEBUM • A combination of sebum that secrete by the sebaceous gland and sweat. • It’s slightly acidic (pH 4.5-6.5) • Function: • to inhibit the growth of bacteria due to the acidic environment • Prevent water loss from the epidermis due to it’s waterproof nature • Sebum is odorless, but it breakdown by bacteria can product strong odor • The incomplete of sebum can lead to acne skin.Keratinocyte Intercellular matrix Sebum Brick and mortar structure Image source: pinterest.com
  13. 13. CONTENT OF STRATUM CORNEUM Sebum Corneocyte/ Keratinocyte Intercellular Matrix 41%Triglyceride 21% Wax esters Amino acids Lactic acid Cholesterol 12% Squalane Uric acid 80% Keratin protein 20% amino acids Uric acid NMF Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid 55% Ceramides Cholesterol Free fatty acids Keratinocyte Intercellular matrix Sebum Brick and mortar structure
  14. 14. REVISION Stratum basale • Skin regeneration • Secrete melanin Stratum spinosum • Provide nutrients • Detect allegens Stratum granulosum • Provide structural protection • to create skin barrier Stratum corneum • Provide hydration • 1st layer to protect skin from foreign bodies. Stratum lucidum • Reduces effect of friction • Provides protection Image source: rci.rutgers.edu
  15. 15. REFERENCE • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKosGSm7Ps4 • http://dermatology.about.com/ • http://www.taiwanlaser.com/ • http://www.wisegeek.com/ • https://www.wikipedia.org

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