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Sanitation Research_Outline_Final


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Sanitation Research_Outline_Final

  1. 1. Quicksand Design Studio | Sanitation Research Project | Research Outline – July 2010 Research Goals and Focus The overarching goal of this project is to conduct in-depth research into the behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding sanitation in low-income urban India, in order to provide a comprehensive and illustrative account of user experiences relating to sanitation and various interconnected issues. Specific goals for this study include: 1. Map user experience around sanitation practices and utilities 2. Identify key triggers for positive and negative user sanitation practices 3. Present research data in a format that makes it accessible and actionable by diverse stakeholders, from policy makers to designers to program implementers who can facilitate innovation within their domains The primary objective of the study is to capture and communicate the user experience of urban community sanitation services, with a secondary objective of examining provider experiences across the sanitation value chain. The audience for this study will include a variety of organizations, including those currently working on innovating new products and approaches in the field of sanitation. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WaterAid, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Acumen Fund, and various other NGOs and individual researchers will directly benefit from the study findings. This study is unique in that it will provide a detailed bottom-up perspective that has been under-examined in the field of sanitation development: that of the individual who must make a variety of sanitation-related decisions on a daily basis. By taking a people-centered approach to this research, we intend to generate new insights that catalyze current and future work in the area of sanitation and development. Key research questions identified in collaboration with selected domain experts are listed in the following table, along with proposed research activities: Research Objectives Research Questions Indicative Research Activities Identify characteristics of collective How can we characterize community - Develop sanitation profiles for 20-25 user behavior around sanitation w.r.t interactions regarding sanitation and households in each location; profiling ownership, use and maintenance of identify salient dimensions? their sanitation habits in a way that is utilities. rich and informative - gathering Do users feel a sense of ownership information on who uses what within towards the operation and the family maintenance of sanitation facilities? - Document successful and What are the determinants of this sustainable community efforts sense of ownership? What benefits around sanitation - sanitation habits does a sense of ownership provide to of members of a CBO (community users? based organization), responsibilities & day to day operations, interactions What differentiates user from non-user between CBO and community groups? What segments exist within residents, issues, challenges, each group? solutions proposed and implemented - Time lapse studies of community sanitation options - Gathering sanitation related data available with local civic authorities
  2. 2. Quicksand Design Studio | Sanitation Research Project | Research Outline – July 2010 Research Objectives Research Questions Indicative Research Activities Identify key attributes of user How do materials and environment - Observe sanitation behaviors for experience around defecation. Analyze drive behaviour? What design different families and different how they influence individual decision- attributes are preferred by users? members within the family making around sanitation. - Observe night and day scenarios What are positive aspects of open - Observe private sanitation in defecation (for end-users, for others) households with similar economic compared to alternatives? profiles to document how use of materials & design drives user Characterize the experience of interactions defecation & expectations surrounding - Observe the entire journey (of time of it use, getting to a facility, act of use, post-use, journey back) In terms of user experience, what other - Observe open defecation & toilet use services go hand-in-hand with but for minority demographics sanitation? (women, children, elderly) - Journey of open defecation of What are toilets competing with? What different user groups - when do alternatives do users choose between people go, who they go with, the and what determines their choice? experience of reaching there, defecating and coming back, does What are barriers to access and use by the location change, why? all potential end-users? How do needs differ among users? Explore people’s perceptions & What are norms & taboos associated - Co-creation exercise: asking people attitudes towards sanitation. Identify with defecation and urination? How do to imagine sanitation future, design people’s aspirations and how they they vary by social/cultural/economic their own toilets (physical model influence their behaviors and attitudes segment? making) towards sanitation. - Get children in a local school or How is “privacy” defined by users? women groups to put on a street When is it important, to whom, and theater that captures issues around why? defecating and urinating in their households. Document the How do users perceive interventions performances. that challenge the status quo? How do - Storytelling through scenarios and you make them more acceptable? gathering user reactions What are users motivations towards payment vs non-payment? What attributes of the system are considered aspirational? What is the role of different triggers in generating demand for sanitation services - communication, lifestyle & income changes, health concerns?
  3. 3. Quicksand Design Studio | Sanitation Research Project | Research Outline – July 2010 Research Design The following locations have been identified for a reconnaissance visit: - Delhi - Mumbai - Ahmedabad - Bangalore/Mysore These tentative location clusters have been selected to illustrate a diverse range of sanitation experiences in India. Taking account of variable factors such as cultural differences between North and South India, population demographics of different cities, local community dynamics, and different types of sanitation facilities and their usage in varying locations will help strengthen our research. Specific variable factors to be analyzed in each location cluster include: - Size of city - Weather conditions - Types of sanitation facilities available: - Community sanitation facilities - Private sanitation facilities - No sanitation facilities (open defecation) - Quality of sanitation facilities available - Time elapsed since sanitation facilities built - Local government engagement - Civil society engagement - Community dynamics: homogenous population vs. mixed/migrant population - Culture of local population Within each location cluster, we will locate and select a few subset communities which have varying sanitation-related experiences. This may include (but is not limited to) communities which have access to community toilets; communities which have engaged in sanitation-related interventions led by the local government or civil NGOs; communities with no sanitation facilities or interventions; and so on. Within these communities, we will engage with individuals and institutions through a variety of different interactions and activities, as outlined in the “Research Goals and Focus” section. Aspects to be considered when engaging with individuals in our target communities include: - Gender (experiences of men vs. women) - Age (varying experiences of children, adolescents, adults, and elderly people) - Size/type of households - Family dynamics - Toilet usage within family - Income brackets - Education - Livelihoods - Time spent living in present location - Access to media - Exposure to sanitation campaigns - Health (incidence of/exposure to disease, etc.) - Location in relation to community toilets/fields/etc. (distance, quality of access)
  4. 4. Quicksand Design Studio | Sanitation Research Project | Research Outline – July 2010 Research Schedule Activity Schedule Objective Methodology/Activities Deliverables Jul 5th - Jul 21st ‣ Finalize research goals, - Assimilating feedback from - Final research plan outlining methodology and project kick off and expert objective, questions, study Pre-field Preparation schedule interviews design and schedule of - Drafting research schedule and activities plan - Iterating with the Foundation on appropriateness of suggested objectives and schedule Jul 22nd - Jul 31st ‣ Define final location - Visit potential locations clusters for the study - Identify cultural guides and Field Visit 1 logistical support - Identify clusters of interesting sanitation related activities/ locations that can become eventual field sites - Arm’s length (observational) documentation of household sanitation behaviors Aug 1st – Aug 14th ‣ Production of research - Evaluate and confirm relevance - Project update to be emailed guides of research sites to study to a close group of domain Synthesis & ‣ First project update objectives experts Preparation + - Generate activity guides for - Activity guides for upcoming Project Update second field visit field visit Aug 15th – Aug 25th ‣ Comprehensively - Extensive rich media collection document collective in selected locations observing Field Visit 2 behavior around sanitation at a community level sanitation - Baseline interviews with 20-25 households in each study site - Community mapping/ production of a location fact file - Activity studies of toilet use/ open defecation Aug 26th – Sep 11th ‣ Regrouping and - Aggregate data collected to - Working document capturing synthesis of findings from analyze sanitation behavior at a insights and analysis from Synthesis & second field visit community level second field visit Preparation + ‣ Refinement and - Project update to be emailed Project Update production of research to a close group of domain guides experts ‣ Second project update Sep 12th- Sep 26th ‣ Comprehensively - Journey of use (user document the journey of experiences of open defecation, Field Visit 3 use of sanitation utilities toilet use) - Further interactions with a smaller group of users, shadowing sessions to showcase “A Day in the Life” Sep 27th – Oct 20th ‣ Regrouping and - Aggregate data collected to - Working document capturing synthesis of findings from analyse user experience around insights and analysis from third Synthesis & third field visit defecation related activities field visit Preparation + ‣ Refinement and - Project update to be emailed Project Update production of field kit to a close group of domain ‣ Third project update experts
  5. 5. Quicksand Design Studio | Sanitation Research Project | Research Outline – July 2010 Date TBD ‣ Share mid-course - Facilitate a mid-course findings with the Gates workshop with the Foundation Mid-course Foundation and select partners (India/UK/ Presentation US) - Informal presentation of study findings thus far Oct 21st – Nov 10th ‣ Co-create to understand - Co-creation workshops within - Working document capturing user aspiration and selected locations insights and analysis from Field Visit 4 desires around sanitation - Engagements with the larger fourth field visit community, including a bio- scope presentation, a street theater production put on by local school kids, etc. Nov 11th - Dec 15th ‣ Production of final - Handover of the final study deliverables output Project Conclusion - Facilitate end-study workshop with the Foundation and partners (India/UK/US) Visual Timeline of Research Activities Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 4 11 18 25 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 Pre-field preparation Field visit 1 Synthesis Field visit 2 Synthesis Field visit 3 Synthesis & mid course Field visit 4 Project conclusion & handover End of study workshop