The People's Report:The link between structural violence and crime in Wilmington, Delaware

1,224 views

Published on

The Wilmington Street Participatory Action Research (PAR) was charged with the task of examining notions of physical violence. This project beganin in November of 2009 and was conducted in the Eastside and Southbridge neighborhoods of Wilmington, Delaware.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,224
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The Wilmington Street Participatory Action Research (PAR) was charged with the task of examining notions of physical violence. We have organized ourselves since November of 2009 to conduct this study in the Eastside and Southbridge neighborhoods of Wilmington, Delaware.
  • Our chief argument is that, structural is predictive of physical violence in Wilmington, Delaware
  • PAR is an acronym that stands for participatory action research and this was the principal way in which we organized the methodology of this project. PAR researchers select members of a group or population they are interested in studying and then directly place those members on the research team. Those members are to be included in every phase of the research project (be it the development of theory, methods, analysis as well as formal presentations and publications—and PAR members are to be compensated for all of their time on a research project).
    And you do this as a way to guide, shape and develop as fairly as possible an analysis of a group that is generally misrepresented by researchers like myself.
    In addition to PAR being a research experience, PAR projects require an action or social justice based response to the data collected and examined.
  • A robust institutional partnership was organized to support the Wilmington Street PAR project.
  • 15 Street PAR members were organized through a two-month research methods training. To introduce PAR members to the concept of research, they were required to partake in 18 research methods workshops across a two month period.
    We literally, for two months, met 3 to 4 times a week from anywhere from 3 to 5 hours per workshop to extensively review.
    Resources for PAR family members during training included: (1) PAR training manual; (2) a book entitled Emotional Intelligence written by Travis Bradberry and Jeans Greaves; (3) a Donald Goines entitled Crime Partners; (4) a notebook; & (5) a journal.
  • After the research methods training was complete, Street PAR members were organized into the following four sub-teams.
  • Street life or identity is phenomenological term typically viewed as an ideology centered around economic and personal survival. The ideology has at least two dimensions to it: (1) passed on; and (2) the more you understand the code the more resilient. Street life also is a set of activities: illegal and bonding activities. Illegal activities can include selling narcotics or engaging in violence. Bonding activities can include: organizing such community activities as barbecues, block parties, basketball tournaments or Hip-Hop concerts.
  • This is specific theoretical model being tested. We argue that street life is a “site of resilience” or that crime is coping with a individual and structural conditions.
  • And this is our design. We collected data from a community sample of street identified Black men and women between the ages of 18-35 in the streets of the Eastside and Southbridge sections of Wilmington, Delaware in the following forms: (1) 520 community surveys; (2) 24 individual interviews; (3) 3 group interviews; & (4) extensive field observations.
    We organized our data collection community sites into what we called (1) cool; (2) warm; & (3) hot street sites. We then went into the community or the streets of the Eastside and Southbridge. Approximately, between 7pm to 1am, we went to the street corners, alleyways, corner stores, the parks, basketball courts, the multiple “projects” or public housing, bars or the barbershops, for instance.
    Surveys took approximately 30 minutes to complete. Participants who completed surveys received $5 and a resource package. Interviews were approximately an hour long. Participants who completed interviews received $10 and a resource package. Surveys were collected in public spaces while interviews were held in personal or restricted spaces.
  • Leandre (35) argues that Black males are motivated to hit the streets as a way to cope with the painful reality and omnipresence of structural violence. Also, he argues that economic poverty coupled with a father missing in the home because of incarceration, sends countless Black males to the streets.
  • About 64% of participants currently live in the Eastside while 23.3% reside in the much smaller, Southbridge community. About 13% of participants live outside of these two neighborhoods but report frequenting the Eastside and Southbridge.
  • About 64% or participants live in low-income housing particularly when we look at: low-income apartment complex and multi-family homes
  • Ninety-one percent of all participants noted that they were “single”. Nevertheless, nearly 54% note that they are “single, without a significant partner” while 29% say they “are single, with a significant partner”.
  • Results strongly suggest that study participants are struggling with education and employment opportunities in Wilmington. Approximately 44% of the sample has less than a high school diploma. A vast majority of those without a high school diploma (41.4%) report dropping out at some point during high school.
  • To more deeply understand educational background, all survey participants were ask about the educational background of their parents to determine to what extent parental educational background is consistent with participant educational background.
    Approximately, 43.3% of the sample report their mothers had a high school diploma or G. E. D. And about 10% of participants reported that their mothers had post high school experience.
    However, more shockingly, approximately 40% of participants report that their fathers has no 12th grade education and 18.1% report that they do not know much about the educational background of their father.
  • Here Dionne (29) describes how poor educational experiences contributes to the under preparation of Black youth in Wilmington. As a parent, she openly says that she would send her a child to a “white school” because these schools offer a “better education”.
  • Here, Aaron, 29, a school teacher and formerly of the streets, argues that children from tough backgrounds need more love from school teachers and other school officials.
  • Employment opportunities are bleak for most residents surveyed. Approximately 65% or 2/3 of study participants are unemployed, 54% of which are actively looking for work.
  • Approximately, 68% of men in this study report they are unemployed, 57% of which are actively looking for work. Women bore out similar numbers in that approximately 63% are unemployed, 54% of which are actively looking work. Also, it should be noted that two-thirds of study participants report having no trade or construction experience.
  • An economic well-being scale was created. Lower scores mean more positive attitudes toward economic well-being. Findings suggest our sample holds moderately positive attitudes towards their economic well-being.
  • Men have more negative attitudes toward economic well-being. Higher scores on this scales mean more negative attitudes toward economic well-being.
  • Richard describes how he and others were born in economic poverty and how being poor and lack of quality employment leads youth to the streets.
  • Results strongly suggest that participants and perhaps community residents at large are regularly exposed to observing, the arrest of Black youth and young adults by local police officers. The constant observations of Black mostly male bodies being carted away, to some extent, has to have some impact on the personal and communal consciousness of Black children and adults in the Eastside and Southbridge.
    Approximately 80% of participants have, “seen someone else picked up, arrested, or taken away by police” at some point in their life.
    And about 54% report witnessing someone being arrested within the last week, and approximately 77% reported seeing someone being arrested within the last three months of completing this survey.
  • A critical mass of youth and young adults are repeatedly arrested and/or exposed to fellow residents being arrested in the Eastside and Southbridge communities
    Fifty-seven percent of this sample, poignantly, report being, “picked up, arrested, or taken away by police” at some point in their life. One-third of residents in this study report being arrested between 1 to 4 times while approximately 13% of participants note they were arrested or taken away by police more than 12 times in their life.
    This suggest there is more than likely a smaller variant of individuals who are being repeatedly arrested.
  • Approximately, 58% (N=518) of survey participants reported being “stopped by police” within the last year. No age group difference and no gender-age group interaction were found for this item. However, gender by itself was found to be significant for being, “stopped by police.” In fact, men were found to be “stopped” significantly more frequently by police than women. Specifically, 61% of men and only 29% of women noted being stopped within the last year. This finding was not surprising in that men were generally expected to be more involved in the streets and, thus, more in contact with local police. Participants (N=211) who reported being stopped within the last year were found to be stopped about 4 times, on average. The range for the item, “how many times were you stopped by police?,” spanned between 1 to 50 police-stops with a standard deviation of about 5.
  • Twenty-nine percent of participants (N=518) reported being “frisked” by police within the last 12 months. No age group difference and no gender-age group interaction were found for this item. However, gender by itself was found to be significant for being, “frisked by police.” Fifty-three percent of men, in comparison to only 14% of women, were found to be “frisked.”
  • Findings strongly suggest that men generally have more physical contact with police. Data also suggest that physical contact become less for both men and women as the sample gets older.
  • An attitudes toward police scale was created. Higher scores mean more negative attitudes toward police. Findings suggest participants have moderately negative attitudes towards the police.
  • Higher scores on this attitudes toward police measure mean more negative attitudes toward police. Findings suggest that attitudes toward police becomes more negative as participants get older.
  • Men were found to have slightly more negative attitudes toward the police than women.
  • About 62% of the survey sample has at some point in their life seen someone else beat up or mugged. Approximately 21% of the sample have seen someone else beat up or mugged more than 12 times in there life.
  • Approximately 57% of participants report seeing someone beat up or mugged within the last 6 months. It should be noted that 27% report seeing someone beat up or mugged within a week of completing this survey.
  • Approximately 55% of the sample have seen someone chased by a gang or individuals at least once in their life. About 19% have seen this occur more than 12 times in their life.
  • Approximately 60% of participants have, “..seen a seriously injured person after an incident of violence”. About 16% of which report seeing this 12 or more times in their life.
  • Most participants reported they personally were never chased by a gang or individual. However, it should be underscored that approximately 20% of participants do in fact report being jumped or chased by gangs or individuals. Approximately, 9% of participants being chased 12 times or more.
  • Approximately, 55% of the sample report being slapped, punched or hit by someone. 16% of which who report being slapped, punched or hit more than 12 times in their life.
  • Shaq describes how as a 14 year old he was physically attacked by a group of older men. He was falsely accused of stealing a Playstation. It was a case of mistaken identity.
  • Most folk reported that they have never been stabbed with a knife. However, one stabbing is too many in any community. Poignantly, we find approximately 25% of our sample reporting they have been attacked or stabbed with a knife at least once in their life time. 8% of which who report this happening 12 or more times. ---Interpretation of this data is problematic, but still revealing. So the question are participants reading this question as number of incidents or actual stabbings in a single incident?
  • Most folk reported that they have never been shot with a gun. However, one shooting is one too many in any community. Poignantly, we find approximately 20% of our sample reporting that they have been shot at least once in their life time. 6% of which who report this happening 12 or more times. ---Interpretation of this data is problematic, but still revealing. So the question is, are participants reading this question as number of incidents or actual shots in a single incident?
  • Surprisingly or unsurprisingly, our data challenges status quo interpretations of low-income Black youth in that our data strongly suggest that participants love themselves, love their communities, want to work, and want to be educated even in the face of overwhelming social and structural violence.
  • Approximately 83% of participants reported being satisfied or very satisfied.
  • 85% of participants report they are happy or very happy, “these days”.
  • Approximately 94% of participants found themselves to be a “useful person to have around”
  • Formerally incarcerated, barber and artist at Made for Men barbers. This quote underscores how someone is authentically street, who has been through the highs and lows of the streets experiences is fair share of tough experiences, and he views as…. Look at and read slide…
  • Lower scores on this measures mean more positive self-esteem. Findings suggest that women were had slightly more positive self-esteem than the men in this sample.
  • Lower scores on this measure, means higher negative self-esteem. These findings suggest that as men become older negative self-esteem increased amongst men, while for women, negative self-esteem, decreased across time.
  • Surprisingly or unsurprisingly, our data challenges status quo interpretations of low-income Black youth in that our data strongly suggest that participants love themselves, love their communities, want to work, and want to be educated even in the face of overwhelming social and structural violence.
  • Although most participants found their communities unsafe for children and structurally impaired, however we also found that most participants loved their communities overall. For instance, aproximately 76% of participants report that they feel a responsibility to make their community better.
  • Higher scores on this measure, means positive attitudes toward social cohesion. This sample was found to have moderately positive attitudes town their communities.
  • Street love is a phenomenological term used by those in the streets to capture how those in the street give back in positive ways to their local community.
  • Anthony ultimately is arguing that those in the streets rival the efforts of community professional in terms of positively giving back to the commmunity. Also, Anthony aruges that many community professionals engage the community for disingenuous reasons.
  • Economic Wellbeing was found to be predictive of experiences of physical violence. As participants became more negative about economic well-being, instances of experiences with physical violence increased.
  • Economic Wellbeing was also found to be predictive of positive attitudes toward psychological and social well-being. As participants became more positive about economic well-being, instances of psychological and social well-being positively increased.
  • Psychological and social wellbeing was found to be predictive of experiences of physical violence. As participants became more positive about experiences with psychological and social well-being, instances of experiences were found to decrease.
  • Numbers here are unstandardized regression coefficients. All paths are significant. Psychological and social well-being were found to mediate or explain the relationship between economic well-being and experiences with physical violence.
  • Dubard McGriff, Street PAR member, lost his brother to gun violence on August 9, 2010
  • Jonathon Wilson, Street PAR member, was shot and paralyzed from the waist down during the project.
  • Darryl Chambers, Street PAR member, lost his son, Dominque Chambers-Helm, to gun violence on September 14, 2011.
  • The People's Report:The link between structural violence and crime in Wilmington, Delaware

    1. 1. Yasser Arafat Payne, Ph. D. Principal Investigator  Darryl Chambers, B. A. Senior Research Associate Wilmington Street PAR Family Kenyatta Brooks; Derrick Chambers; Patrice Gibbs; Earvin “Swearve” Griffin; Ashley Randolph; Melodie Robinson; Jonathon Wilson; Corey Wright Kontal Copeland; Dubard McGriff; Tianna Russell; Bernard Cornish; Louis Price; Dennis Watson;
    2. 2. How social structural systems, policy, legislation and blocked structural opportunity—generally in the forms of poor employment and educational opportunity, creates inequality and injustice, in local community environments.
    3. 3. (a)Race: Black-American (b) Gender: 12 men, 3 women (c) SES: At or below poverty line (d) Religion: 10 Sunni Muslims (e) Age Range: 20-48 (f) Mean Age: 33 (g) Educational Status:  1 dropped out of high school;  4 earned a G.E.D.;  3 earned a high school diploma;  5 had some college; and  2 earned a Bachelors of Arts degree.
    4. 4. (I.) Participatory Action Research (PAR) projects includes on the research team, members of the population under study. Once such members are identified, they then are offered the opportunity to participate in all phases of the research project (e. g. theoretical framing, literature review, analysis, publication, presentation, monetary compensation, etc.); & (II.) PAR projects require an social justice based response to be organized in response to the data collected by the study. Research + Social Activism = PAR
    5. 5. Grant Support (Fall 2009): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act from First State Community Action Agency Collaborative of local Project Partners:  Nonprofits (1) Wilmington HOPE Commission – lead partner, recruitment and management of the project; (2) Christina Cultural Arts Center –arts for activism and career training; (3) Metropolitan Wilmington Urban League –job skills testing and training; & (4) United Way of Delaware – Supplemental Grant Award and provided employment  Academia (1) University of Delaware – Led PAR team: research training and provided Supplemental Grant Award; (2) Delaware State University –case management, career/personal goals support; & (3) Wilmington University –educational and employment goal-setting support
    6. 6. Total Wilmington Population - 70, 851 (73, 720 – pop. estimate)  Wilmington makes up 8% of Delaware’s population; &  Blacks make up about 19% of Delaware’s population U. S. Census Bureau, 2006
    7. 7. ( 1) Record number of homicides – 27 (38 homicides per 100, 000); (2) 197.5 violent crimes per 10, 000 people; (3) Violent crime increased by 3.3% in Wilmington; (4) Wilmington accounts 25% of all crime in Delaware; & (5) Property crime increased by 13.1% in Wilmington (Chalmers, 2011)
    8. 8. Total Blacks in The Eastside – 5, 003  Blacks between 18-34 in the Eastside – 1, 098  The Eastside, overall makes up 7% of Wilm. population Total Blacks in Southbridge – 2,052  Blacks between 18-34 in Southbridge – 486  Southbridge, overall makes up 2% of Wilm. population (Porter, 2010; U. S. Census Bureau, 2000)
    9. 9. I. Two Month Period; II. Eighteen Research Method Workshops; III. Three to Four times per week for three to five hours per workshop; IV. Research Theory, Methodology, Data Analysis, and Social Activism.
    10. 10. PAR Sub - Teams (1) Literature Review/Writing Team – Graduate Student (2) Data Analysis Team – Graduate Student (3) Action Team – Raye Jones Avery (4) Data Collection Team – Yasser Payne
    11. 11.  Street Ideology – centered on personal & economic survival. (1) Passed on by older Black male generation; and (2) More connected to the code or the better a person understands the ideology the more resilient a person is considered by men in the streets.  Set of Activities (1) Bonding activities; and (2) Illegal activities
    12. 12. Site of Resilience Theoretical Model (Brown, Payne, Green & Dressner, 2010; Payne, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2011) FUNDAMENTAL PRISM INDIVIDUAL CONDITIONS Phenomenology SOCIAL STRUCTRAL CONDITIONS Relational Coping History LOCAL GENERAL CONCEPTUAL PRISM PSYCHOLOGICAL S.O.R. Street Life PHYSICAL S.O.R. Social Injustice Social Structural Systems
    13. 13. Research Question To what extent does available economic and educational opportunity predict physical violence?;
    14. 14. Age Cohort Male Female 18 - 21 73 96 22 – 29 88 119 30 – 35 54 90
    15. 15. Age Range Individual Interviews Dual Interviews Group Interviews 18 – 21 6 - 1 22 – 29 8 1 1 30 – 35 10 3 1
    16. 16. Leondrei (35): Basically, finance and wanting better things for yourself… we act like we don't see it but boarded houses paint our neighborhoods, pot holes paint out neighborhoods, that's the stuff that keep us stuck. You know little stuff like a pot hole… That's telling me how they don't care about me - that they won't even fix my pot hole and then I got to go home and four houses on my road is boarded, that's like a eyesore to me…. (Now) I'm looking for a release valve, any release valve, and guess what the release valve is? There's a liquor store on every corner in the hood, as opposed to when I go to Hockessin or Greenville (wealthy mostly white suburban communities)… the drinks is called wine and spirits, I need to be put in a better spirit.
    17. 17. Leondrei (35): (Cont’D.)…. So I'll go get a shot to deal with looking at these boarded up ass houses and these potholes and there's a boot on every car … and this is what I'm seeing. So, when you got a child that's growing up and he's looking at this, he says, “Damn, mom,” because dad ain't around because he's down PO Box 9561 or 1181 Paddock Road doing who knows how much time, right, so he says, “Mom is this all that we have?” … You know, Damn!
    18. 18. Living Conditions….
    19. 19. Rennie Rox (35): I mean, wasn't nothin', wasn't nothin' new (in the home). You know… you talkin' about books holdin' up couches… you might not have a bed frame. Your mattress and your box spring's on the floor. The typical poverty Wilmington situation. But I never take nothin' away from my mother… she tried everything she could to make sure that we had a hot meal every night, even if it was just… breakfast food… We're… gonna make some French toast or somethin' tonight (laughter)…. I love my mom to death. She's… the inspiration for me…
    20. 20. Experiences with Education and Employment…
    21. 21. Darryl: …. If you had the choice… (in terms of race) what kind of school would you send your child to? Dionne (29): White. Darryl: Why? Dionne (29): 'Cause I know they are going to get a better education… the curriculum is different. … compared to the charter school my kids go to now… the other charter schools around, the curriculum is totally different. They (need to ) go to … a college charter school (or charter school recognized by a quality university). Darryl: Do you think that the people who are in charge of providing children with an education know that there's a difference in these schools? Dionne (29): Um hum (yes). Darryl: So why do you think they allow one (school) to operate below the other? Dionne (29): Politics.
    22. 22. Darryl: What does… a child that has a mother on drugs or a father that's not around, what does he act like in school? Aaron (29): Every case is different. I mean, sometimes you have these kids that are all withdrawn and just don't want to associate with anybody. And then other times you have these kids who want to lash out with fighting everybody… they want to fight them because they don't know what love is. They don't know what affection is… just think.. if we could say to our kids… (including) kids we don't know, “How you doing brother? I love you.’’ I mean, just think about how that would change a person's perspective.
    23. 23. F(1,500) = 12.778, p < .01 (p = .000)  M = 6.14; SD = 1.83; range = 3-12  b**: significantly greater than females at p<.05
    24. 24. Richard (19): You know, it's (employment) crazy! … I don't really got no friends in the city that got a job, 'cept my white friend…. Even some of the older people, man, don't even got jobs… 'Cause like I said, we born into poverty, dog. We born into this game, dog (of poverty & the streets). I wasn't in this game (the streets) for fun. It was just passed down from father to son…
    25. 25. Richard (19): And Southbridge, dog, I could name… two people (who) got computers in they crib (home)... (that actually) have working internet, you know what I mean?... it's hard to look for a job when you ain't got no money, you gotta get on a bus, you gotta go here and there to fill out applications… You gotta leave Southbridge… when I lived in Southbridge, I never left Southbridge….. the jobs that are in the (larger) city is not no real good payin' jobs unless it's in the middle of the city where you workin' in a big building…
    26. 26. Experiences with and attitudes toward police…
    27. 27. *significantly greater than males 30-35 at p<.05
    28. 28. a*: significantly greater than 18-21 at p<.05 a**: significantly greater than 18-21 at p<.01
    29. 29. b**: significantly greater than females at p<.01
    30. 30. Chronic Exposure to Physical Violence…..
    31. 31. "How many times have you see someone else being beaten up or mugged?" Never 20.8% 7.6% 8.5% 37.8% 1 to 4 times 5 to 8 times 9 to 12 times 25.4% More than 12 times
    32. 32. "How many times have you seen someone else being chased by gangs or individuals?" Never 3.7% 18.7% 44.5% 8.2% 25.0% 1 to 4 times 5 to 8 times 9 to 12 times More than 12 times
    33. 33. "Have you ever had a relative killed with a gun?" Yes 45.4% 54.6%  No age group differences  No gender differences  No age/gender interactions No
    34. 34. "Have you ever had a friend killed with a gun?" 40.8% Yes 59.2% No
    35. 35. M = 17.82; SD = 5.06; Range = 4-34  No gender differences  No age group differences  No age/gender interactions
    36. 36. Personal Experiences with Physical Violence……
    37. 37. "How many times have you been slapped, punched, or hit by someone?" Never 16.3% 6.2% 45.2% 8.5% 1 to 4 times 5 to 8 times 9 to 12 times 23.7% More than 12 times
    38. 38. Shaq (18): … when I was 14 I was coming home from football practice and a group of dudes approached me asking about a Playstation (and) ‘where it's at’? I just came out of football practice I don't know what's going on so dude asked me if I, ‘broke into his car?’ I told him, ‘no’ and they just started hopping on me. They just started swinging but I'm fighting back. I don't know what was going on but it was going on for like a good five or ten minutes and then they left. My shirt is ripped. I was limping. My lips was bleeding and (I had a) swollen eye… I didn't feel it but my jaw was fractured and… I had to get it wired shut for like two months. But it was in the past, I'm not gonna worry about it now.
    39. 39. 1.0% "How many times have you been attacked or stabbed with a knife?" 2.7% 8.2% Never 1 to 4 times 13.4% 5 to 8 times 74.8% 9 to 12 times More than 12 times
    40. 40. "How many times have you been shot with a gun?" 1.9% 1.7% 6.4% Never 9.7% 1 to 4 times 5 to 8 times 80.2% 9 to 12 times More than 12 times
    41. 41. Psychological Well-being…
    42. 42. …regardless of all the, um, pain and sufferin' I've been through in this city, I still managed to find.. hope. And hope will take you a long way. I still got hope. … I'm tryin' to do what I gotta do to better myself. And I'm not waiting… on nobody or anything to… guide me. It all comes from.. yourself. … you gotta have that.. guiding, um, (inner) strength.. to do anything you want in this world. … there's always gonna be… obstacles… we all have obstacles to overcome.
    43. 43. F(1,506) = 7.208, p < .01 (p = .007)  M = 4.27; SD = 1.54; Range = 3-12  b**: significantly greater than females at p<.05
    44. 44. F(1,511) = 7.105, p < .05 (p = .001) M = 7.49 SD = 3.17 Range = 4 - 16
    45. 45. Social Well-being…
    46. 46. No gender differences
    47. 47. Banks (27): I know quite a few guys.. from my side of town that gave back: 4th of July, fireworks, barbeque, DJs, um, down at the park—big barbeques! …even if you want to say with the drug aspect, (guys in the street) made sure their hood’ was okay (or provided for)... you have some guys (in the street) that… (actually) give back to the community in a good way, even though they.. doing what they do... (or engaged in criminal activity).
    48. 48. Anthony Bey (35): I've seen them (the streets) do that (give back to the community), I've seen more of them (the streets) do more than some of the churches… Sometimes people (civic and political leaders) might be doing it for a tax write off and some people (the streets) do it for the love… The hustler might be doing it for the love and (for) the church people (it) may (be)… just a quick tax write off, a 1099 real quick… but you have some genuine church people.. shout out to all the church people. Same thing with the Mosque. They do the same thing.
    49. 49. Doc (35): … We had a Fourth of July block party for at least eight years. Firework shows, everything! The City Council lady (on the Eastside) who raised me… stopped it and said, ‘we not blocking off no streets for no drug dealers.’ Okay, there might be some drug dealers helping provide this stuff, but they was givin' back. They was givin' back. Them kids had a good time. Them kids was getting free food, free music, free dance… And you took that from 'em. And since you took that, Fourth of July on the Eastside hadn't been the same since.
    50. 50. Social Engagement .46 Economic WellBeing (-1.48) -1.27 Sobel p=.03 -.39 Experiences with Violence Psych WellBeing .23 Economic WellBeing (-1.48) -1.21 Sobel p=.03 -.02 Experiences with Violence
    51. 51.  Employment Outcomes  All Street PAR family members received some form of quality employment during and/or after the project’s initial funding period.  Quality employment opportunities were provided by:  (1) University of Delaware;  (2) United Way of Delaware;  (3) Christina Cultural Art Center; and  (4) Parkway Academy School District  10 Street PAR family members are presently employed
    52. 52.  Education Outcomes  5 Street PAR family members enrolled in college  (a) Graduate school - 2 family members;  (b) Undergraduate school – 3 family members; &  (c) Offered but declined educational opportunity – 2 family members.  4 Street PAR family members are currently enrolled in college 2 graduate students 2 undergraduate students
    53. 53. Negative Outcomes 5 – Presently unemployed; 3 – Jailed during and after the initial funding period;  1 – jailed twice 1 – Presently incarcerated;
    54. 54. Activism/Action Outcomes 100 - Formal presentations since November 2009  (a) 40 college/university presentations;  (b) 39 community presentations; & 16 - civic, political and banking leadership; 23 - local community residents  (c) 21 media presentations
    55. 55. Speaking Engagements:  (1) Wilmington City Counsel;  (2) State Assembly of Delaware;  (3) John Watson Radio Show;  (4) Dr. Richard Cooper Radio Show;  (5) American Psychological Association National Conference;  (6) Teachers College/Winter Round Table National Conference;  (7) Howard University (keynote);
    56. 56.  “Action” Products/Events Included:  (1) monetary and non-monetary incentives issued to study participants;  (2) homicide art exhibit at Christian Cultural Art Center;  (3) feature length documentary of project;  (4) mix-CD reflecting the link between structural and physical violence;  (5) community barbecue;  (6) assistance with organizing Southbridge Community Day ;  (7) youth violence forum/panel;  (8) T- shirt with PAR emblem; as well as  (9) two PSA’s on violence: (1) physical violence PSA; and (2) domestic violence PSA.
    57. 57. I. Executive & Full Reports; II. Supplemental Reports (i. e, jobs & school, drug use/drug sales, etc.); III. Paper Publications: journal articles, book chapters, opt ed., newsletters, etc.; IV. Major Publications: 2 book projects, documentary & mix CD project; V. The People’s Report/ Wilmington Street PAR Family Website; & VI. Continued Speaking Engagements; & VII. More Street PAR projects
    58. 58.  Graduate student in Human Social Services at Wilmington University;  "Runn Way Unisex Hair Salon”;  GED and Youth Mentoring Program; &  2 Youth Violence/Education Forums
    59. 59. (1) United Way of Delaware – Community Impact Technical Associate; (2) Enrolled at Wilmington University; & (3) Radio Personality - WVUD (91.3 FM): – “Uncle Richards’ Neighborhoods”
    60. 60. Organized Unity Uncle Richard
    61. 61. Yasser and Darryl Chambers  Enrolled as a graduate student in the Criminology Department at the University of Delaware; &  Hired on 4 other UD professor’s research projects
    62. 62. 17 Total Recommendations Target Areas:  (1) Physical Violence;  (2) Structural Opportunity;  (3) Law Enforcement/Criminal Justice System; &  (4) Street Outreach and Continued Community-Centered Research and Activism
    63. 63.  Street Outreach and Continued Community-Centered Research and Activism  Street Outreach Program;  Mayor Led Street March Campaign;  Street PAR Inside Schools;  City-Wide Street PAR Project on Physical Violence; &  Wilmington Street PAR Institute
    64. 64. THANK YOU!!!!!! For more information contact: Dr. Yasser A. Payne – ypayne@udel.edu

    ×