Using your
UX design
super powers
for Good or Evil
Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your
UX design
super powers
for Good or Evil
Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Title Page – Evil design using low contrast
USING YOUR
UX designSUPER POWERS
forGOOD OR Evil
Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Title Page – Evil design using text effects
“In a report 'Truth, Lies and the Internet’
(2011), think tank Demos found that a third
of teens polled in the UK believe ...
Super heroes – historically
Super villains – historically
Super heroes – real-life UX designers
Super villains – real-life UX designers
Complex user experience - deadly
• Bomb Bay – bomb!
Simple user experience - deadly
Simple user experience - deadly
• Bomb Bay – warning sign!
Using UX for Good
Persuasive Design
Dark Patterns
Using UX for good
UX design powers should be used to do
Good things for users
not
Bad things to users
• Usability guidelin...
Usability guidelines and standards
• Good Patterns vs. Dark Patterns
• Key industry players – Apple, IBM, Microsoft
• My b...
Golden rules of UX design
• Standards/guidelines PLUS years of collective
research and experience
• Since the 1970’s (see ...
Golden rules of UX design
• Place users
in control
• Reduce user’s
memory load
• Make the
experience
consistent
Place users in control
Modeless
Flexible
Interruptible
Helpful
Forgiving
Navigable
Accessible
Facilitative
Preferences
Int...
Place users in control - workflow
Planes
Trains
Automobiles
Place users in control - workflow
Customers /
Cashier want
to order in
any order!
Reduce users’ memory load
Remember
Recognition
Inform
Forgiving
Frequency
Intuitive
Transfer
Context
Organize
Reduce users’ memory load
Recognition
is better
Recall
is worse
Make the experience consistent
Continuity
Experience
Expectation
Attitude
Predictable
Make the experience consistent??
Make the experience consistent
Make the experience consistent??
Make the experience consistent??
Persuasive design
When 3 elements converge:
• Motivation
• Ability
• Triggers
Fogg behavior model
B.J. Fogg – 8-step persuasive design process
B.J. Fogg – 8-step persuasive design process
Persuasive design – real world
1. Choose a simple
behavior to target
Persuasive design – real world
2. Choose a
receptive audience
Persuasive design – real world
3. Find what is
preventing the
target behavior
Persuasive design – real world
4. Choose an appropriate
technology channel
Persuasive design – real world
5. Find relevant examples
of persuasive technology
Persuasive design – real world
6. Imitate successful
examples
Persuasive design – real world
Spillage rates
dropped 80%!!
7. Test & iterate
quickly
Persuasive design – real world
8. Expand on
success
Persuasive design – real world
Persuasive design – user options
Dark Patterns /
Evil by Design
People don’t kill people,
user experiences
kill people
Using UX for Evil
• Goal: Do bad things to users
• Dark Patterns – producing user interfaces
using UX techniques designed ...
1940
Movie
Censorship
Federal Trade Commission
DotCom Disclosures (2013)
Updated advertising guidelines take into
account challenges created by ...
FTC Effectiveness Factors – 4 P’s
1. Prominence: whether the qualifying information is
prominent enough for consumers to n...
2013
EvilByDesign.info
“Tom said to himself that it was not such a
hollow world, after all. He had discovered a
great law of human action, withou...
Seven deadly sins (chapter on each)
• Pride
• Sloth
• Gluttony
• Anger
• Envy
• Lust
• Greed
Gluttony
UK Agriculture Minister John Gummer “enjoying” a burger with his
4-year old daughter, Cordelia. Who could possibl...
DarkPatterns.org
Dark Patterns
• Interfaces easy to get in, hard to get out of
• Free trials/subscriptions aren’t easy to
cancel
• Hidden c...
Easy to get in, HARD to get out
How do users log out?
Easy to get in, HARD to get out
How do users log out?
Easy to get in, EASY to get out!
How do users log out?
Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
Violations of Effectiveness Factors
• Prominence
• Presentation
• Placement
• Proximity
Hidden costs at end of process
2010
$27.00
$40.20
$44.95
Hidden costs at end of process
2010
0$27.00
$40.20
$44.95
“We get it,” wrote Ticketmaster’s CEO, Nathan Hubbard. “You don’...
The “new” Ticketmaster
The “new” Ticketmaster
Upsell
More upsell
Even more upsell
Finally – hidden costs
Then, even more upsell
Presenting multiple options
Presenting multiple options
The middle option:
Overpriced top-tier option makes you feel the middle product is a bargain.
Trick Questions / Form Design
Phishing websites & email
May 16, 2014 – Online Trust Alliance (OTA) research shows malvertising increased by over
200% in...
Phishing websites & email
Phishing websites & email
Text effects – difficult to read
• Small
fonts
• All capital letters
• Poor contrast,
italics
• Text as
graphic
Persuasive vs. evil design
• Persuasion
• Transparent
• Upfront about intent
• “Nudging”
• Manipulation/Coercion
• Decepti...
Good or evil?
Bruce Mau
• Famous Canadian architect/designer
• Founder of Bruce Mau Design
• 1998 – Amsterdam Conference
An Incomplete M...
Super heroes – you!
UX super heroes = happy users
Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
theo@theomandel.com
www.theomandel.com
linkedin.com/in/theomandel
theomandel
visit Slideshare.net
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
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Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.

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Invited presentation at the IUE2014 User Experience Conference, Phoenix, AZ on June 11, 2014.

My well-known presentation, "The Golden Rules of User Experience Design," has over 12,000 views (2013 and 2009 versions).

This new presentation takes a slightly different view on the golden rules of design and focuses on how user experience can be used for purposes of deception and fraud. Poor design is not intentionally deceptive, but EVIL design is!

For more information, contact:
Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
theo (at) theomandel.com
www.theomandel.com

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  • This is a new presentation. Please share any comments, questions, examples on good vs. evil UX design. It's a great topic for discussion!
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  • B-24 Liberator Bomber – Strategic bomber in WWII. Built in 1944
  • Planes, Trains and Automobiles (1987)
    Steve Martin and John Candy
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • 1980’s Researchers installed a ‘fly’ onto urinals across different airports around the world:
    The presence of a fly in a urinal literally changes human behavior. How come? Apparently men have an instinct to aim. When flies were introduced at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, spillage rates dropped 80 percent (don’t want to know how they measured it).
    This is a clear case of getting people to do what you want without using words. Persuasive design in action.
  • It later turned out that Mr. Gummer knew of the dangers but was scared of the economic outcome if the news spread. He was thus prepared to risk his daughter’s health for political gain. This act didn’t seem to hurt his political career, as he is now a life peer in the House of Lords. However, he did leave a legacy because now when other politicians try similar PR tactics in the UK, it’s described as “doing a Gummer.”
  • Using your User Experience (UX) Super Powers for Good or Evil - Theo Mandel, Ph.D.

    1. 1. Using your UX design super powers for Good or Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Using your UX design super powers for Good or Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. Title Page – Evil design using low contrast
    3. 3. USING YOUR UX designSUPER POWERS forGOOD OR Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. Title Page – Evil design using text effects
    4. 4. “In a report 'Truth, Lies and the Internet’ (2011), think tank Demos found that a third of teens polled in the UK believe any information found online was true without qualification. Even more staggering is that 15 percent of that group admit to making a decision about the truthfulness of content of a web page based on appearance alone.” Users decide trust in a site based on its appearance
    5. 5. Super heroes – historically
    6. 6. Super villains – historically
    7. 7. Super heroes – real-life UX designers
    8. 8. Super villains – real-life UX designers
    9. 9. Complex user experience - deadly
    10. 10. • Bomb Bay – bomb! Simple user experience - deadly
    11. 11. Simple user experience - deadly • Bomb Bay – warning sign!
    12. 12. Using UX for Good Persuasive Design Dark Patterns
    13. 13. Using UX for good UX design powers should be used to do Good things for users not Bad things to users • Usability guidelines and standards • Golden rules of UX design
    14. 14. Usability guidelines and standards • Good Patterns vs. Dark Patterns • Key industry players – Apple, IBM, Microsoft • My background, starting at IBM (1982-1993)
    15. 15. Golden rules of UX design • Standards/guidelines PLUS years of collective research and experience • Since the 1970’s (see Golden Rules presentation) • My books and presentations for 20 years • Keynote presentation – User eXperience Russia, 2009 • Over 14,000 views - Slideshare (top 3% of views 2013)
    16. 16. Golden rules of UX design • Place users in control • Reduce user’s memory load • Make the experience consistent
    17. 17. Place users in control Modeless Flexible Interruptible Helpful Forgiving Navigable Accessible Facilitative Preferences Interactive
    18. 18. Place users in control - workflow Planes Trains Automobiles
    19. 19. Place users in control - workflow Customers / Cashier want to order in any order!
    20. 20. Reduce users’ memory load Remember Recognition Inform Forgiving Frequency Intuitive Transfer Context Organize
    21. 21. Reduce users’ memory load Recognition is better Recall is worse
    22. 22. Make the experience consistent Continuity Experience Expectation Attitude Predictable
    23. 23. Make the experience consistent??
    24. 24. Make the experience consistent Make the experience consistent??
    25. 25. Make the experience consistent??
    26. 26. Persuasive design
    27. 27. When 3 elements converge: • Motivation • Ability • Triggers Fogg behavior model
    28. 28. B.J. Fogg – 8-step persuasive design process
    29. 29. B.J. Fogg – 8-step persuasive design process
    30. 30. Persuasive design – real world 1. Choose a simple behavior to target
    31. 31. Persuasive design – real world 2. Choose a receptive audience
    32. 32. Persuasive design – real world 3. Find what is preventing the target behavior
    33. 33. Persuasive design – real world 4. Choose an appropriate technology channel
    34. 34. Persuasive design – real world 5. Find relevant examples of persuasive technology
    35. 35. Persuasive design – real world 6. Imitate successful examples
    36. 36. Persuasive design – real world Spillage rates dropped 80%!! 7. Test & iterate quickly
    37. 37. Persuasive design – real world 8. Expand on success
    38. 38. Persuasive design – real world
    39. 39. Persuasive design – user options
    40. 40. Dark Patterns / Evil by Design People don’t kill people, user experiences kill people
    41. 41. Using UX for Evil • Goal: Do bad things to users • Dark Patterns – producing user interfaces using UX techniques designed precisely to trick people • Poor design is not intentionally deceptive, but dark UX design is!!
    42. 42. 1940 Movie Censorship
    43. 43. Federal Trade Commission DotCom Disclosures (2013) Updated advertising guidelines take into account challenges created by rapid growth of mobile and online advertising platforms, particularly small screen size and other space constraints. New FTC guidelines seek to help businesses apply many of the same principles to modern technologies and marketing channels. www.FTC.gov
    44. 44. FTC Effectiveness Factors – 4 P’s 1. Prominence: whether the qualifying information is prominent enough for consumers to notice it and read (or hear) it; 2. Presentation: whether the qualifying information is presented in easy to-understand language that does not contradict other things said in the ad and is presented at a time when consumers’ attention is not distracted elsewhere; 3. Placement: whether the qualifying information is located in a place and conveyed in a format that consumers will read (or hear) 4. Proximity: whether the qualifying information is located in close proximity to the claim being qualified.
    45. 45. 2013 EvilByDesign.info
    46. 46. “Tom said to himself that it was not such a hollow world, after all. He had discovered a great law of human action, without knowing it — namely, that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain.” Mark Twain The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1876 Evil by Design
    47. 47. Seven deadly sins (chapter on each) • Pride • Sloth • Gluttony • Anger • Envy • Lust • Greed
    48. 48. Gluttony UK Agriculture Minister John Gummer “enjoying” a burger with his 4-year old daughter, Cordelia. Who could possibly doubt his intentions? Height of Mad Cow disease scare in UK, 1990. If customers want to cancel, instill doubt by tapping into loss aversion.
    49. 49. DarkPatterns.org
    50. 50. Dark Patterns • Interfaces easy to get in, hard to get out of • Free trials/subscriptions aren’t easy to cancel • Hidden costs added on at the end of process • Presenting multiple options • Trick questions/deceptive form design • Phishing websites and email • Text effects
    51. 51. Easy to get in, HARD to get out How do users log out?
    52. 52. Easy to get in, HARD to get out How do users log out?
    53. 53. Easy to get in, EASY to get out! How do users log out?
    54. 54. Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
    55. 55. Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
    56. 56. Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
    57. 57. Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
    58. 58. Free trials that aren’t easy to cancel
    59. 59. Violations of Effectiveness Factors • Prominence • Presentation • Placement • Proximity
    60. 60. Hidden costs at end of process 2010 $27.00 $40.20 $44.95
    61. 61. Hidden costs at end of process 2010 0$27.00 $40.20 $44.95 “We get it,” wrote Ticketmaster’s CEO, Nathan Hubbard. “You don’t like service fees.” He continues, “You don’t like them mostly because you don’t understand what the heck they are for.” All of the research we’ve done, and all of our conversations with fans like you tell us that the way we present these fees in the check out process is a huge frustration for you and hurts ticket sales. You just want to know UP FRONT in the buying process how much of your hard earned money you are being asked to pay for a given seat. If we are as transparent as possible with you sooner in the purchase process, you can make the decision about how much you want to pay to go to an event. The problem is that historically we haven’t told you how much you have to pay for a given seat until very late in the buying process. And our data tells us this angers many of you to the point that you abandon your purchase once you see the total cost, and that you don’t come back. The data also says (and this is the important piece) that if we had told you up front what the total cost was, you would have bought the ticket! So by perpetuating this antiquated fee presentation, fans are getting upset, while we and our clients are losing ticket sales.
    62. 62. The “new” Ticketmaster
    63. 63. The “new” Ticketmaster
    64. 64. Upsell
    65. 65. More upsell
    66. 66. Even more upsell
    67. 67. Finally – hidden costs
    68. 68. Then, even more upsell
    69. 69. Presenting multiple options
    70. 70. Presenting multiple options The middle option: Overpriced top-tier option makes you feel the middle product is a bargain.
    71. 71. Trick Questions / Form Design
    72. 72. Phishing websites & email May 16, 2014 – Online Trust Alliance (OTA) research shows malvertising increased by over 200% in 2013 to over 209,000 incidents, generating over 12.4 Billion malicious ad impressions.
    73. 73. Phishing websites & email
    74. 74. Phishing websites & email
    75. 75. Text effects – difficult to read • Small fonts • All capital letters • Poor contrast, italics • Text as graphic
    76. 76. Persuasive vs. evil design • Persuasion • Transparent • Upfront about intent • “Nudging” • Manipulation/Coercion • Deceptive • Disregards user interest • “Shoving” Persuasive Design Evil design
    77. 77. Good or evil?
    78. 78. Bruce Mau • Famous Canadian architect/designer • Founder of Bruce Mau Design • 1998 – Amsterdam Conference An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth 43 suggestions and admonitions, such as "Make mistakes faster," "Allow events to change you," and "Ask stupid questions."
    79. 79. Super heroes – you!
    80. 80. UX super heroes = happy users
    81. 81. Theo Mandel, Ph.D. theo@theomandel.com www.theomandel.com linkedin.com/in/theomandel theomandel visit Slideshare.net

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