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Clean Code II - Dependency Injection

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All 3 Clean Code presentations provide great value by themselves, but taken together are designed to offer a holistic approach to successful software creation. This first session creates the foundation for the 2nd and 3rd Clean Code presentation on Dependency Injection, as it explains expected base knowledge. Why writing Clean Code makes us more efficient Over the lifetime of a product, maintaining the product is actually one - if not the most - expensive area(s) of the overall product costs.

We will dive into the basics of Inversion of Control (IOC) and Dependency Injection (DI) to review different ways of achieving decoupling, using and exploring both: Best Practices, Design and Anti Patterns. This presentation requires knowledge and understanding of basics like DRY, SoC, SRP, SOLID etc. which are building the base for decoupled architecture. However, we will start at the basics of DI and will work towards intermediate and advanced scenarios depending on the participating group.

This presentation is based on C# and Visual Studio 2013. However, the demonstrated patterns and practice can be applied to every other programming language too.

Note: Moving forwards this presentation will be updated with the latest version of the slides for the last event I did the presentation instead of creating new separate slide decks here on SlideShare.

Presentation dates and locations:
2015-10-03 Silicon Valley Code Camp, San Jose, CA
2015-06-27 SoCal Code Camp - San Diego, CA
2015-06-25 Bay.NET South Bay, Mountain View, CA
2014-11-14 SoCal Code Camp - Los Angeles, CA
2014-10-11 Silicon Valley Code Camp, Los Altos Hills, CA

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Clean Code II - Dependency Injection

  1. 1. Evergreen Valley College, Oct. 3rd, 2015 Clean Code II Dependency Injection
  2. 2. Theo Jungeblut • Director Customer Success at AppDynamics in San Francisco • Coder & software craftsman by night, first time dad and house builder • Architects decoupled solutions & crafts maintainable code to last • Worked in healthcare and factory automation, building mission critical applications, framework & platforms • Degree in Software Engineering and Network Communications • Enjoys cycling, running and eating theo@designitright.net www.designitright.net
  3. 3. We are hiring! http://www.appdynamics.com/ careers
  4. 4. Your feedback is important! http://speakerrate.com/speakers/18667-theo-jungeblut
  5. 5. Where to get the Slides http://www.slideshare.net/theojungeblut
  6. 6. Overview • What is the issue? • What is Dependency Injection? • What are Dependencies? • What is the IoC-Container doing for you? • What, how, why? • Q & A
  7. 7. UI Layer Service Layer Business Layer Data Layer Web UI Service ProcessorProcessor Service RepositoryRepository Mobile UI Processor A cleanly layered Architecture
  8. 8. What is the problem?
  9. 9. What is Clean Code?
  10. 10. Clean Code is maintainable Source code must be: • readable & well structured • extensible • testable
  11. 11. Code Maintainability * Principles Patterns Containers Why? How? What? Extensibility Clean Code Tool reuse * from: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET” presentation Bay.NET 05/2011
  12. 12. What is Dependency Injection?
  13. 13. Without Dependency Injection public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } }
  14. 14. public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } } Without Dependency Injection
  15. 15. Inversion of Control – Constructor Injection http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html public class ExampleClass { private ILogger logger; public ExampleClass(ILogger logger) { this.logger = logger; if (logger == null) { throw new ArgumentNullException(“logger”); } this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } }
  16. 16. Why is Dependency Injection beneficial?
  17. 17. Benefits of Dependency Injection Benefit Description Late binding Services can be swapped with other services. Extensibility Code can be extended and reused in ways not explicitly planned for. Parallel development Code can be developed in parallel. Maintainability Classes with clearly defined responsibilities are easier to maintain. TESTABILITY Classes can be unit tested. * from Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”, page 16
  18. 18. What are Dependencies ?
  19. 19. Stable Dependency “A DEPENDENCY that can be referenced without any detrimental effects. The opposite of a VOLATILE DEPENDENCY. “ * From Glossary: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”
  20. 20. Volatile Dependency “A DEPENDENCY that involves side effects that may be undesirable at times. This may include modules that don’t yet exist, or that have adverse requirements on its runtime environment. These are the DEPENDENCIES that are addressed by DI.“ * From Glossary: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”
  21. 21. Lifetime a Job for the Container
  22. 22. public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } } Without Dependency Injection
  23. 23. “Register, Resolve, Release” “Three Calls Pattern by Krzysztof Koźmic: http://kozmic.pl/ 1. Register 2. Resolve Build up Your code Execut e Release Clean up
  24. 24. What the IoC-Container will do for you 1. Register 2. Resolve Build up Release Clean up
  25. 25. Separation of Concern (SoC) probably by Edsger W. Dijkstra in 1974 You codeExecute • Focus on purpose of your code • Know only the contracts of the dependencies • No need to know implementations • No need to handle lifetime of the dependencies
  26. 26. The 3 Dimensions of DI 1.Object Composition 2.Object Lifetime 3.Interception
  27. 27. Register - Composition Root • XML based Configuration • Code based Configuration • Convention based (Discovery)
  28. 28. Resolve Resolve a single object request for example by Constructor Injection by resolving the needed object graph for this object.
  29. 29. Release Release objects from Container when not needed anymore.
  30. 30. Anti Patterns
  31. 31. Control Freak http://www.freakingnews.com/The-Puppet-Master-will-play-Pics-102728.asp
  32. 32. // UNITY Example internal static class Program { private static UnityContainer unityContainer; private static SingleContactManagerForm singleContactManagerForm; private static void InitializeMainForm() { singleContactManagerForm = unityContainer.Resolve<SingleContactManagerForm>(); } } Inversion of Control – Service Locator http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
  33. 33. // UNITY Example internal static class Program { private static UnityContainer unityContainer; private static SingleContactManagerForm singleContactManagerForm; private static void InitializeMainForm() { singleContactManagerForm = unityContainer.Resolve<SingleContactManagerForm>(); } } Inversion of Control – Service Locator http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
  34. 34. Inversion of Control – Setter (Property) Injection // UNITY Example public class ContactManager : IContactManager { [Dependency] public IContactPersistence ContactPersistence { get { return this.contactPersistence; } set { this.contactPersistence = value; } } } http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
  35. 35. Property Injection + Easy to understand - Hard to implement robust * Take if an good default exists - Limited in application otherwise
  36. 36. Method Injection public class ContactManager : IContactManager { …. public bool Save (IContactPersistencecontactDatabaseService, IContact contact) { if (logger == null) { throw new ArgumentNullException(“logger”); } …. // Additional business logic executed before calling the save return contactDatabaseService.Save(contact); } } http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
  37. 37. Method Injection • Needed for handling changing dependencies in method calls
  38. 38. Ambient Context public class ContactManager : IContactManager { …. public bool Save (….) { …. IUser currentUser = ApplicationContext.CurrentUser; …. } } * The Ambient Context object needs to have a default value if not assigned yet.
  39. 39. Ambient Context • Avoids polluting an API with Cross Cutting Concerns • Only for Cross Cutting Concerns • Limited in application otherwise
  40. 40. The Adapter Pattern from Gang of Four, “Design Patterns”
  41. 41. Interception Public class LoggingInterceptor : IContactManager { public bool Save(IContact contact) { bool success; this. logger.Log(“Starting saving’); success = this.contactManager.Save(contact); this. logger.Log(“Starting saving’); return success; } } Public class ContactManager : IContactManager { public bool Save(IContact contact) { …. return Result } } * Note: strong simplification of what logically happens through interception.
  42. 42. Dependency Injection Container & more • Typically support all types of Inversion of Control mechanisms • Constructor Injection • Property (Setter) Injection • Method (Interface) Injection • Service Locator •.NET based DI-Container • Unity • Castle Windsor • StructureMap • Spring.NET • Autofac • Puzzle.Nfactory • Ninject • PicoContainer.NET • and more Related Technology: • Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF)
  43. 43. The “Must Read”-Book(s) http://www.manning.com/seemann/ by Mark Seemann Dependency Injection is a set of software design principles and patterns that enable us to develop loosely coupled code.
  44. 44. Summary Clean Code - DI Maintainability is achieved through: • Simplification, Specialization Decoupling (KISS, SoC, IoC, DI) • Dependency Injection Constructor Injection as default, Property and Method Injection as needed, Ambient Context for Dependencies with a default, Service Locator never • Registration Configuration by Convention if possible, exception in Code as needed Configuration by XML for explicit extensibility and post compile setup • Quality through Testability (all of them!) Graphic by Nathan Sawaya courtesy of brickartist.com
  45. 45. Downloads, Feedback & Comments: Q & A Graphic by Nathan Sawaya courtesy of brickartist.com theo@designitright.net www.designitright.net http://speakerrate.com/ speakers /18667-theo-jungeblut
  46. 46. Time to say Thank You! The Organizers Evergreen Valley College (team) The volunteers (how about you?) TheSponsors Picturesfromhttp://blog.siliconvalley-codecamp.com
  47. 47. References… http://www.manning.com/seemann/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keep_it_simple_stupid http://picocontainer.org/patterns.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependency_inversion_principle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don't_repeat_yourself http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Component-oriented_programming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/IOCDI.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163739.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff650320.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa973811.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff647976.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc707845.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb833022.aspx http://unity.codeplex.com/ https://code.google.com/p/autofac/ http://funq.codeplex.com http://simpleinjector.codeplex.com http://docs.castleproject.org/Windsor.MainPage.ashx http://commonservicelocator.codeplex.com http://philipm.at/2011/di_speed.html http://www.palmmedia.de/Blog/2011/8/30/ioc-container-benchmark-performance-comparison http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4581791/how-do-the-major-c-sharp-di-ioc-frameworks-compare http://diframeworks.apphb.com http://www.sturmnet.org/blog/2010/03/04/poll-results-ioc-containers-for-net Lego(trademarkedincapitalsasLEGO)
  48. 48. Blog, Rating, Slides http://www.DesignItRight.net http://speakerrate.com/speake rs/18667-theo-jungeblut www.slideshare.net/theojungeblut
  49. 49. … thanks for you attention! And visit and support the www.siliconvalley-codecamp.com Please fill out the feedback, and… www.speakerrate.com/theoj

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