Education in West Papua


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A description of the history of education in West Papua, Indonesia (Conference Paper)

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Education in West Papua

  1. 1. Congress ‘Education in Papua’, Gau, Friesland, The Netherlands,30 January to 1 February 2009Education in West Papua1At Ipenburg2SummaryThe paper discusses and evaluates the development of education in West Papua. It wants toanswer questions about the type of education that is most effective for Papua and for thePapuans. What are the lessons to be learnt from history? How can Dutch organizations helpin an effective way in education for Papuans from Kindergarten to university? The paperlooks at formal and non-formal forms of education and training and also analyzes the politicaland social context in which education takes place.0. IntroductionWe can distinguish five periods in Papuan history and for each period we will analyze therole of education. These periods are (a) early period till 1900, the period where traditionaleducation dominated, (b) The period 1900 to 1950, the early beginnings of missioneducation, mainly to train evangelist and gurus for the simple village schools, (c) The period1950 to 1962, where the Dutch Government tried to make a giant leap forwards in educationto prepare the Papuans for self government and independence. (d) The period 1962 to 1998,the introduction of an Indonesian curriculum, stressing the values of the Orde BaruGovernment of Soeharto, (e) The period 1998 to present, a period where there are newmargins for improvement of the effectiveness of education, for foreign assistance and fro anadaptation of the curriculum to the local conditions, including the introduction of the mothertongue in the first years of the primary school and for literacy classes.Papuan culture is characterized by extreme diversity. On the island of New Guinea over1,000 different languages are spoken, divided into 60 language families. In West Papua 271languages are spoken. 3Only one quarter of these languages has been studied. Cultures1I will use West Papua for the Western part of the island of New Guinea. Previous names for this territorywere: Papua Land (Tanah Papua), Nederlands Nieuw Guinee, Irian Barat, Irian Jaya and Papua. Since 2003 theProvince Papua has been divided into the provinces of West Papua (the Bird’s Head and the Raja Ampat islandsWest of the Bird’s Head) with the capital at Manokwari and Papua with the capital; at Jayapura.2At Ipenburg (1945), studied political science, African history (doctorate) and systematic theology inAmsterdam, London (SOAS) en Pretoria (UNISA). Ministerial studies in Leiden. Worked as lecturer and pastor inthe Netherlands, Zambia and Indonesia (West Papua). Taught from 1995 to 2002 anthropology, sociology andethics at the Theological College Izaak Samuel Kijne of the Evangelical Christian Church in Papua Land (GKI), alsoDirector of the Master’s Program Missiology and minister of the GKI. Board member of HAPIN; candidate forD66 Democratsw at the European elections of June 2009.3For more information about the interesting topic of linguistic diversity in West Papua see: The Ethnologue,web edition of the Summer Institute of Languages (SIL) at:
  2. 2. show a similar diversity, indicating a creative genius of Papuans in this field. Traditionalforms of transfer of knowledge, like oral tradition, storytelling and rituals, have beeninstrumental in preserving this diversity.1. Early times to 1900: informal and non-formal educationFor tens of thousands of years Papuans have been living on the island of New Guinea andon other islands of the Indonesian archipelago and of the Pacific. On most islands the Westof New Guinea the Papuan population has declined, though remnants of it remain on Ceramand Timor. People made a living by fishing, hunting, farming of sweet potatoes (batatas) andvegetables, the pasture of pigs and the collecting of nuts and fruits in the forest.The teaching of the skills to succeed was (and is) done in a non formal way. There is notsuch a thing as a school, separated from society and specialized in the transfer of knowledgeto all age groups. Education was an integral part of traditional culture and imbedded in thesocial structure. Young girls and boys were taught stories about the origins of the tribe andclan, about the creation of the world, about the relationship between humans and the spiritualworld, with the animal and plant world in numerous stories. At the same time they weretaught all the practical skills needed for hunting and fighting to survive in a hostileenvironment.From an early age Papuans tend to live in men’s houses and women’s houses. Only the veryyoung boys were allowed to live with their mothers in the women’s house. The libraries ofthis period were the memories of the old people and also the customs, beliefs that wereconnected with sacred objects, with relationships in the social structure and with particularplaces in the environment, like mountains, trees, lakes and so on. The schools were theplaces where collective knowledge and skills were transferred to the new generation.However, the school as an institution did not exist. Education was holistic and a part of everyaspect of traditional society.2. 1900-1950: Mission educationThe first missionaries Carl Ottow an d Johann Geissler, arrived on Sunday 5 February 1855in West Papua on the island of Mansinam, close to Manokwari. They began by learning thelanguage and they prepared a word, list and grammar of the Numfor language. In 1863 theUtrecht Mission Society joined the effort and send J.L. van Hasselt, other theologicallytrained missionaries, but also some artisans. Local development was an integral part ofmission work. Formal education played an important role in bringing people into the fold ofthe church. Education in a school building separated from other activities in society, was2
  3. 3. something completely new. The first five decades the missionaries had very little success inluring children to their schools. They tried to entice them with small gifts for their parents, justas church goers would receive a small gift after the service. Several of the early pupils ofmission education were former slaves, bought to their freedom by the missionaries. They hadto do household chores, but also had to attend the house services in the house of themissionary, the church services, twice on the Sunday, and to attend school. By 1890 schoolattendacnce was 60, with 32 catechesis students. In 1892 two Papuans, Petrus Kafiar andTimotheus Awendu, were send to the Depok Seminary, close to Jakarta, for training asevangelists.In 1898 and 1902 the Dutch Government established government posts in Manokwari, Fak-Fak and Merauke. However, involvement with placed not in the immediate surroundings ofthese three posts was minimal. Still, in the period following the establishment there was aconsiderable increase in the number of Papuans who joined the church. By 1934 the missioncounted more than 50,000 Christians, most of them from the North of West Papua. Therewas a similar growth in school attendance. In the same year the Utrecht Mission Society(Utrechtse Zendingsvereniging,UZV) had in West Papua 157 schools with 8,650 pupils. TheUZV concentrated on Village Schools with a three years’ program. This was the method ofevangelization. A guru was send into a village to establish a school at the request of thevillagers, and at the same time he would establish a candidate congregation.By 1937 the number of pupils on this type of schools had increased to 10,000. In 1942 theMission had 300 of these village schools. It had started to offer education in the local Papuanlanguages, like the Numfor language in Mansinam and Wandamen (Windesi). However, theGovernment demanded in 1911 already the use of Malay as a condition for its grants in aid.Only the Numfor schools in the first year were exempted from this rule. Till 1950 there wasonly attention for the teaching in Malay. The Dutch language did not play a role. Thesevillage schools provided only the most rudimentary from of education. It is likely that eventhose who learnt how to read and write soon fell back into illiteracy when they did notpractice their skills of reading and writing. Only those who continued to a higher form ofeducation benefitted. But only a very small percentage of pupils could continue. In 1937 for50,000 pupils on the village schools there were only 50 places on the Upper Primary School(grades 4 and 5) and 9 places on a vocational school.The Roman Catholic Missionaries of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (MSC) of Tilburg, started in1905 a post in the South, in Merauke. They introduced the concept of the model kampong,where life for all residents was strictly regulated. It was argued that without such disciplinethe Marind-anim tribe would disappear. A venereal disease had spread and taken epidemicproportions through adherence to traditional customs and rituals, like the otiv bombari ritual3
  4. 4. which demanded sexual relations of all members of the tribe with a few women. The ideawas not uncontroversial. For instance, the Swiss anthropologist Paul Wirz, who had doneextensive research among the Marind-anim, was vehemently opposed to the method, whichaccording to him took away the cultural identity of this proud people of warriors.The development of schools in the Catholic area was much slower. However, from the late1920s there emerged a competition between Protestants and Catholics for the establishmentof schools. The mission that had established in a village a school could claim the village forits mission. By 1940 the Roman Catholic Mission had 30 elementary schools in the South,and 173 schools in the West, around Fak-Fak and in the Bird’s Head, where competition withthe Protestants was strongest.3. 1950-1962: Preparation for self determinationIn 1949 the Netherlands handed over sovereignty to the Government of the Federal Republicof Indonesia (RIS). New Guinea remained outside the agreement. Pressure from Australiathat wanted a friendly power to control New Guinea, which had been used by Japan as aspring-board for the invasion of Australia, played a role in this decision. West Papua couldnow receive the full attention from the Dutch Government. The Dutch reported progress tothe new United Nations organization, as the Papuans the Dutch, following the Charter of theUnited Nations, were now preparing the Papuans for self government. Education became thepriority, and the missions were enabled to expand their educational systems enormously,with generous grants in aid from the Government. Hundreds of teachers were recruited fromthe Netherlands.From 1938 onwards West Papua had known a so called “civilization school”(“beschavingsschool”). The aim was “to civilize” the Papuans with subjects like order andhygiene, playing, flute playing, singing, the preparation of parties, dancing, school gardens,basket weaving and the Three Rs. From 1945 onwards “people’s schools” (“Volksscholen”)were founded with a more academic curriculum of Malay, reading, drawing, writing, singing,flute playing and handicraft. After seven years “Volksschool” the best pupils could continueto a “Vervolgschool”, hence VVS, which provided in a three years’ course a type of basicsecondary education. The Protestants were at an advantage as they had more and betterschools, so more of their pupils could continue to more advanced education. At the VVS aPapuan elite was being formed. Here Papuans were selected for further studies to becometeacher, police officer or government official. Also here those Papuans were trained, wholater represented the Territory at international conferences like those of the South Pacific.4
  5. 5. In 1948 the Protestant Mission, the United Netherlands Mission (“Vereenigde NederlandscheZending”or VNZ) had in Northern New Guinea (Hollandia, Sarmi, Serui and Biak) 34civilization schools and a total of 154 people’s schools (“Volksscholen”) with 227 teachers, ofwhich, however, only 99 were fully qualified. In Western New Guinea (Fak-Fak and Sorong)the VNZ, the Protestant Church of the Moluccas and Roman Catholic Mission had in 1953 60people’s schools with 1,873 pupils and 98 civilization schools with 2,999 pupils. The onlyschool then which offered more than very basic education was the Vervolgschool with athree years’ program, established in 1945 in Yoka on the Southern shore of Lake Sentani.The brightest boys were recruited from all over the Territory. They were housed in a boardingschool (“asrama”).In 1955 the number of “Volksscholen” under management of the VNZ had increased to 325,with 16,000 pupils. It had also 100 unsupported schools, established by evangelists invillages, with 3,000 pupils. The number of inhabitants of West Papua was estimated in 1961to be 750,000. This means that only a very small part of the youth had access to some formof education. The system, moreover, was very elitist. From each 100 pupils only one couldcontinue to the “Vervolgschool.” After the VVS only a few of the abiturients could continue tothe Primary Secondary School (“Primaire Middelbare School”or PMS) or to the LowerTechnical School or to Agriculture Schools.There was a Primary Secondary School (“Primaire Middelbare School” or PMS) in Kota Rajawith 80 pupils, which you could attend after the six years Volksschool and Vervolgschool.There was an effort to adapt the curriculum to the Papuan context. For instance, historyteaching was in the first grade the study of the Middle Ages and the emergence of the Dutchstate with William the Taciturn and William III, in the second grade the history of China and inthe third grade, the history of New Guinea, beginning with the voyages of the explorers.In the 1950s there was a strong effort by the Catholics to catch up with the Protestants in thearea of education. In 1953 the Vicariate of Jayapura had 39 Franciscan Friars. There were102 Catholic village schools, with 130 teachers and 3,500 pupils. Three quarters of theschools received government grants in aid. There was a General Primary School (“AlgemeneLagere School”) that used Dutch as medium of instruction. Sorong and Fak-Fak had alsosuch a General Primary School with 400 pupils. In that year five Sisters from Heerlen cameto work in Kokonao and Enarotali. In 1958 the Catholics opened a lower secondary school(“Primaire Middelbare School”, hence PMS) in Hollandia, which had already a Protestant PMS.To summarize, till 1960 there were six types of primary education:5
  6. 6. (a) The Pioneer School (DSc), (b) The Village School with a three years’ program. For mostpupils this was the final from of schooling, (c) Some Village Schools with a four years’program, (d) The Village School with a “Vervolgschool”, (e) The Central Village SchoolVervolgschool, which was of a lesser quality, compared to the Town School, and finally, (f)The Town School (“Stadsschool” or LSB). By 1960 there was not a Teacher Training Collegeor “Kweekschool”.The Government established government schools with Dutch as medium of instruction: theGeneral Primary School (“Algemene Lagere School” or ALS). It had two categories, the ALS“A” for Dutch children, and the ALS “B”for Chinese children. Papua children who could provethat at home the Dutch language was used could also attend these schools.6. Since 1962: Indonesianisation and physical expansion of educationWith the sudden, and quite unexpected, change of Government with the handing over of thecontrol of New Guinea, first to the UN and then to Indonesia, there was a discontinuity. TheIndonesians suspected everything that was Dutch. So from one day to the other in educationone had to change from Dutch to Malay or Bahasa Indonesia. All text books in Dutch weretaken out of the schools and burnt. All textbooks of the Dutch period were replaced by those usedin the rest of Indonesia, though the stories were in no way appropriate to the culture and scenery ofNew Guinea. Papuan children had to learn about a Javanese boy named Ahmed and aboutvolcanoes, trains and railways stations. The educated Papuans in church, the educational system,commerce and government were suspected of being pro-Dutch and, by implication, anti-Indonesian. Inthe security approach of the Indonesian army this meant that these were people declared to be the“enemies.” In December 1962 there was a night raid on the dormitories of the Teacher TrainingCollege, the Civil Servants school (“Bestuursschool”), the Agricultural College and the Christianschools in Kota Raja in Jayapura, led by Indonesian soldiers, using pro-Indonesian groups. Studentswere beaten up and then transported to the military camp at Ifar Gunung, where they were imprisoned.A considerable group of respected Papuans ended up in prison or were killed. Among them wereEliezer Jan Bonay, the first governor of Irian Barat (Irian Jaya, West Papua), Rev. G. A. Lanta, theformer vice-chairman of the Synod of the GKI, Rev. Silas Chaay, secretary of the GKI, Rev. Osok ofthe Moi tribe of the Bird’s Head, Saul Hindom, who had studied in Utrecht and was the leader of Shellin Biak, Hank Yoka, the former secretary of the New Guinea Council, Alfeus Yoku, a leader fromSentani and David Hanasbey, inspector of police in Jayapura. Permenas Yoku, a teacher in Sentani,was killed at the end of 1963, because he refused to sign a pro-Indonesian declaration4Johan Ariks,former chairman of the Papua delegation at the Round Table Conference in 1949, died, at the age of70, in Manokwari prison, after a speech he held on 1 July 1965, which was considered to be anti-4Z. Sawor, 1969: 40-45, quoting a Report by Silas Papare, member of the People’s Congress, Jakarta, 13 March1967. Zacharias Sawor studied tropical agriculture in Deventer, the Netherlands, till 1962. He was treasurer ofParkindo, West Irian Section, from 1963 till 1965. He was in prison from August 1965 till August 1966. In June1967 he fled to Australian New Guinea. Since October 1968 he lives in the Netherlands.6
  7. 7. Indonesian.Even the pro Indonesian Frits Kirihio, the first Papuan university graduate, ended up inprison. 5In 1969 there was a plebiscite which under strong intimidation of the Indonesian army did not produceany dissent vote. After this Act of Free Choice the Government promised azutonomy for West Papua.However, instead the territory got the status of Daerah Operasi Militer (DOM), which made the armyand police all powerful in the control of the people. There was a large influx of transmigrants, whoreceived plots of lands and grants, something that was not offered to local inhabitants. Moreover, agreat number of free migrants entered to settle. They occupied the major sections of the economy, likebuilding an retailing, but also the pasar, where products like vegetables and fish are sold. Papuanscannot get in most cases a place in the market, but have to sell outside. According to the lateststatistics the number of indigenous people to immigrants is 52 to 48.6The Indonesian Government made an effort to extend the educational system enormously. In 1971already about 30,000 children over 10 years of age were at school.7In 1980 the number of primaryschools had increased to 1,445, with almost 155,000 pupils and the number of lower and highersecondary schools to 126, with almost 30,000 pupils. The University Cenderawasih in Abepura,established in 1963, with four schools, had in 1976 1,039 students. 8In 1996 of the 1.5 millioninhabitants of West Papua (Papuans and non-Papuans) 422,703 had completed their primaryeducation, 370,994 some form of secondary education or vocational training and as many as 11,682had a university degree. 9In May 1998, with the downfall of Soeharto and the ascent of Habibie, the era of Reformasibegan. There were hopes for a New Papua, but the period of Papuan Spring, were short-lived. West Papua received a Special Autonomy Law in 2001 to meet the legitimateaspirations of the Papuan people. It was offered as the same as Independence except for thename. It did, however, not lead top real improvements in the situation of the Papuans asmany of the regulations of the law were never implemented. The number of immigrantsincreased enormously, making the Papuans virtually a minority in their own land.7. ConclusionOne should not idealize the short educational effort by the Dutch in the period 1950 to 1962.The real value of it is in its principles of an education with the interest of the indigenouspeople at heart. One could debate the efficacy of the system. The system only reached a5Frits Kirihio had been in the Dutch period leader of the Christian National Trade Union, which had at that time800 members.6West Papua Fact Sheet, Franciscans International, 20097Sensus Penduduk 1971, March 1974, Central Statistical Office, Jakarta.8Irian Jaya Dalam Angka 1980, Kantor Statistik Irian Jaya9Irian Jaya Dalam Angka 1996, Kantor Statistik Irian Jaya7
  8. 8. very small part of the youth in the relevant age group. Those who left school, without anycontinued education in a “Vervolgschool” could easily fall back into illiteracy. Nevertheless,those who continued all the way played later important roles in Papuan society. Many ofthese were perceived by the Indonesian military and civil authorities as a threat and whensome of them were to critical they were murdered without a form of process. Later alsooutspoken Papuan leaders like Arnold Ap, Thomas Wanggai and Theys Eluay wereimprisoned and murdered. The perpetrators were never being brought to court.After 1962 Indonesia made a great effort to extend education and there was an enormousincrease in the number of schools and colleges. Immediately, in 1963, West Papua got auniversity, the Cenderawasih University (UNCEN). However, notwithstanding this effort WestPapua remained relatively deprived educationally. The adult illiteracy level is 26 %, while inIndonesia as a whole it is 11 %. 10Moreover, the competition with migrants from other partsof Indonesia is strong and generally speaking Papuans have a disadvantage on the labourmarket because of prejudice against them. Mainly in enclaves, like the church and schoolsand colleges under management by the churches, Papuans have an opportunity to advance.Recommendations1. Ongoing advocacy for Papuan human rights, political rights and the right to selfdetermination as these rights are instrumental for an effective system of education.2. Specific support in the form of scholarships, combined with a form of super vision andcounseling of the bursaries, individual help with the preparation of a study plan and trainingin study skills. training to make written assignments and theses.3. Study facilities connected to a school or institution where the bursaries study or to theasrama where they live in th form of a class room or study room with simple PCs andprinters.4. Pastoral guidance by a student chaplain. He or she would help the student to remain closeto the values received from the family and the congregation of origin of the church. Churchparticipation should be encouraged as it helps to give the student a feeling of personal value.5. Specific training to improve one’s chances on employment, like courses in English, simpleaccounting courses, courses in ICT, like web site design.10West Papua Fact Sheet, Franciscans International, 20098
  9. 9. 6. A special training unit for preparing aspiring Master and PhD students for the TOEFLexam to increase their chances for a scholarship.7. Lobby for special places for Papua deserving students at institutions, sympathetic to thePapua case, like the Christelijke Hogeschool Ede, the Theological University Kampen, theFree University Amsterdam, The ISS, similar to the schems offered to Black students fromSouth Africa during Apartheid.8. Scholarships to neighboring countries, like the Philippines, PNG, Australia, New Zealandand Fiji.9. Special support for study and research to Papua music, dance, sculpture and art. Attentionfor Christian art.10. Setting up a system, in collaboration with theological colleges in Papua, to analyze andpreserve local languages. The collecting of traditional stories and myths. Encouraging theuse of local languages in worship. Translating parts of Scripture in these languages, settingup and encouraging literacy ;programs using local languages.11. Support for the organization of sport competitions among students to learn fair play,discipline and team effort.12. Helping with informal forms of education, for instance by the churches to improve layleadership. A good example of this is the Sekolah Al Kitab Malam (SAM), set up by RevScheuneman in various townsBibliography, J. 1991. Met Papoea’s samen op weg. Deel 1: De pioniers. Het begin van een missie,Kampen: Kok (Series Kerk en Theologie in Context, Vol. 18)Boelaars, J. 1995. Met Papoea’s samen op weg. Deel 2: De baanbrekers. Het openleggen van hetbinnenland, Kampen: Kok (Series Kerk en Theologie in Context, Vol. 31)Boelaars, J. 1997. Met Papoea’s samen op weg. Deel 3: De begeleiders. Kampen: Kok (Series Kerken Theologie in Context, Vol. 35)Cornelissen, J. F. L. M. 1988. Pater en Papoea. Ontmoeting van de Missionarissen van het Heilig Hartmet de cultuur der Papoea’s van Nederlands Zuid-Nieuw Guinea (1905-1963), Kampen: Kok (SeriesKerk en Theologie in Context, vol. 1)9
  10. 10. De Neef, Alb. J. Heidendom op Nieuw Guinea, Oegstgeest: Het ZendingbureauGiay, Benny 1995. Zakheus Pakage and His Communities, Amsterdam: Free University Press (Ph.D.Thesis)Giay, Benny 1999. The Conversion of Weakebo. A Big Man of the Me Community in the 1930s, in:The Journal of Pacific History, 34, 2GKI dalam arus-pokok masa kini. Sidang Synode Umum GKI ke-V pada tgl 15-27 Oktober 1968 diSukarnopura, diterbitkan oleh Dinas Penerangana, Propinsi Irian Barat, Sukarnopura (GKI, 1968)Haripranata SJ (ed) 1967. Ichtisar Kronologis Sedjarah Geredja Katolik Irian-Barat, Djilid 1,Sukarnapura: Pusat Katolik, Idem: Djilid 2, 1969 and Djilid 3, 1970Hayward, Douglas J. 1980. The Dani of Irian Jaya. Before and After Conversion, Sentani: Regions PressIpenburg, A. N. 1999. Een Kerk van Migranten; Een Kerk van het Volk. Tegenstellingen in Irian Jaya, in:Wereld en Zending, 28, 4: 78-82Ipenburg, A. N. 2001. Melanesian Conversion, in: Missionalia, 29, 3:Ipenburg, A N 2008. A History of the Church in West Papua, in: Karel Steenbrink and JanAritonong, 2008, A History of the Church in Indonesia and East Timor, Leiden: BrillKamma, F. C. 1953. Kruis en Korwar. Een Honderdjarig Vraagstuk op Nieuw Guinea, Den Haag:VoorhoeveKamma, F. C. 1972. Koreri. Messianic Movements in the Biak-Numfor Culture Area, The Hague:Martinus Nijhoff, 1972.Kamma, F. C. 1976. “Dit Wonderlijke Werk,” Het Probleem van de Communicatie tussen Oost en WestGebaseerd op de Ervaringen in het Zendingswerk op Nieuw Guinea (Irian Jaya) 1855-1972. Een Socio-missiologische Benadering, 2 vols, Oegstgeest: Raad voor de Zending der Ned. Hervormde KerkLewis, Rodger 1995. Karya Kristus di Indonesia. Sejarah Gereja Kemah Injil Indonesia Sejak 1930,Bandung: Kalam Hidup, 1995Miedema, J and W A L Stockhof (eds), 1991. Memories van Overgave van de Afdeling Noord NieuwGuinea. Irian Jaya Source Materials No 2 Series A No 1, Leiden, JakartaMiedema, J and W A L Stockhof (eds), 1993. Memories van Overgave van de Afdeling West NieuwGuinea. Part II. Irian Jaya Source Materials No 6 Series A No 3, Leiden, JakartaNeilson, David John 2000. Christianity in Irian (West Papua), Ph. D. Thesis, University of Sydney,Australia (unpublished)10
  11. 11. Rauws, J. 1919. Nieuw-Guinea, Den Haag: Zendingsstudieraad (Serie: Onze Zendingsvelden)Rumaimum, F. J. S. 1966. Sepuluh Tahun G.K.I. Sesuduh Seratus Tahun Zending di Irian Barat,Soekarnapura: GKISawor, Zacharias 1969. Ik ben een Papua, Een getuigeverslag van de toestanden in Westelijk NieuwGuinea sinds de gezagsoverdracht op 1 October 1962, Groningen: De VuurbaakSejarah Gereja Katolik Indonesia, Jilid 3A, 1974. Jakarta: Bagian Dokumentasi Penerangan KWISlump, F. 1935. De Zending op West-Nieuw-Guinee, Oegstgeest: Zendingsbureau (reprint from‘Mededelingen.’ Tijdschrift voor Zendingswetenschap).Sunda, James 1963. Church Growth in the Central Highlands of West New Guinea, Lucknow: LucknowPublishing HouseTanamal, Goeroe Laurens 1952. De Roepstem Volgend. Autobiografie van Goeroe Laurens Tanamal,.(tr. and ed. by F. C. Kamma) , Den Haag: Voorhoeve (Serie: Lichtstralen op de Akker der Wereld, 53, 2)Trompf, G. W. 1991. Melanesian Religion, Cambridge: University PressUkur, F. and F. L. Cooley 1977. Suatu Survey Mengenai Gereja Kristen Irian Jaya, (Serie: Benih YangTumbuh 8), Jakara: DGIVan den Broek, OFM, Theo P. A. (et. al.) 2001. Memoria Passionis di Papua. Kondisi Sosial Politik danHak Asasi Manusia Gambaran 2000, Jakarta: Sekretariat Keadilan dan Perdamaian (SKP) KeuskupanJayapura and Lembaga Studi Pers dan Pembangunan (LSPP)Van Baal, J. 1966. Dema. Description and Analysis of Marind-Anim Culture (South New Guinea) (withthe collaboration of Fr. J. Verschueren MSC), The Hague: Martinus NijhoffVan Hasselt Jr, F. J. F. 1926. In het Land van de Papoea’s, Utrecht: Kemink & ZoonVlasblom, Dirk. 2004. Papoea. Een geschiedenis, Amsterdam: Mets & SchiltVreugdenhil, C. G. 1991. Vreemdelingen en Huisgenoten, Houten: Den Hertog11