How Understanding Local Challenges and Opportunities Influenced the Design of Post-Harvesting Technology in Haiti<br />Cam...
Outline<br />Increase food security in Haiti<br />Opportunity to develop new post-harvest technology for plentiful natural...
200 fruits<br />per tree<br />Breadfruit<br />Nutritious <br />
Plentiful <br />Grows uncultivated<br />
Very small commercial market<br />
Breadfruit has no shelf life<br />Most breadfruit rots<br />Over 120 species of breadfruit worldwide<br />Republic of the ...
Opportunity<br />  Proactively seek the appropriate technology to<br />  increase the<br />Availability<br />				Access<br...
Challenge<br />CTI : NGO founded in 1981 by a group of missionaries, research engineers, and food scientists<br />Mission:...
   Collaboration<br />UST: committed to educational experiences that develop both cognitive and affective domains<br />Mis...
Discontinuous Innovation: A new product<br />
Breadfruit flour increases shelf life<br />Can it be realistically processed?<br />Post-harvest processing<br />Recipes<br...
Transdisciplinary Lens<br />Theory of diffusion of innovation<br />A framework to help understand<br />The innovation<br /...
    Diffusion theory<br />Definable characteristics of innovation which affect adoption<br />Communication processes in a ...
Technology<br />Flour & food science<br />Next Steps<br />
    Systems Approach<br />Making the flour requires:  harvesting, washing, cutting, peeling, coring, shredding, drying,  g...
Processing<br />
Breadfruit needs to be shredded and dried, <br />and then ground into a flour<br />
19<br />Vertical Shredder <br />St. Vincent 2004<br />
Small business owners<br />Farmer coops<br />
Shredding<br />Most likely user small business owner <br />Versatile shredder to use with other produce<br />St. Vincent:f...
Tommie Shredder<br />
DFMA<br />Design for Manufacture and Assembly<br />
Results:<br />
Haiti<br />Awkward mounting<br />Hard to shred<br />Didn’t like the weight<br />Want one person operation<br />Make it str...
   Shredder Saga<br />
Marshall Islands<br />Want one person operation<br />Food safe <br />Looks shabby<br />More robust <br />Can I make pancak...
     Horizontal Shredder<br />
Elton Shredder<br />
Haiti<br />
 3rd Party Testing<br />Vertical<br />Awkward mounting<br />Batch process<br />Two person operation<br />Tiresome<br />Shr...
Tool & Die to make the Blade<br />
Flywheel<br />
ONE TON SHREDDED IN LES CAYES AREA - 2009 <br />
Societe Antillaise de Transformation Agroalimentaire in Haiti (SATAG)<br />Group of 10 farmer-enterprises that have regist...
Flour<br />Household or Commercial Use?<br />
Flour<br />Household Product<br />Samosas (Hush Puppies)<br />Pasta <br />Taste tests in Haitian Schools & Churches<br />F...
Flour<br />Commercial Product<br />Extruded puff<br />Test tests done with sweet and savory versions<br />Haitian kids lov...
Breadfruit Puffs<br />Made puffs in Illinois<br />Can be made in Port-au-Prince, Dominican Republic or Jamaica<br />SATAG ...
Nutritious<br />Peanut butter<br />Cinnamon/Sugar<br />Spicy/Savory<br />Different Shapes<br />Breakfast food<br />Snack<b...
     Post Earthquake<br />Feeding centers want local foods<br />Agro-forest Regional Nursery Foundation of Haiti (ARN) & B...
Next Steps<br />Breadfruit Enterprise Architecture Demonstration (BrEAD)<br />Pilot enterprise for two markets:<br />Colla...
 Collaborators<br />Societe Antillaise de Transformation Agroalimentaire in Haiti (SATAG)<br />Agro-forest Regional Nurser...
Insights<br />Must be robust, devices made to last <br />    (not always lowest cost)<br />Food processing safety <br />Fo...
Students<br />Engineering Senior Design (3 teams)<br />Adv French<br />Communications<br />MBA team<br />Manufacturing Mas...
Thank You(Larry Mathews, 3M Ideas in Innovation, Hennepin Methodist Church in Minneapolis, CTI donor base, General Mills, ...
U of St George - How Understanding of Local Challenges and Opportunities - Open 2011
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  • Hank- engineer for Honeywell and a missionary for 5 years; George UWengr, worked for General Mills and has a number of patents.
  • High yielding tree; compares with other staples
  • Grows uncultivated, plentiful, little commercial market, 5 species in Caribbean
  • Important for increasing use!! History-used for slaves; younger people eat it less than older people; rural eat it more than urban people; considered for the very poor
  • Technology: post harvest processing in a new form; sustainable development for island nations; availability and access breadfruit institute partnered with the ARN in Haiti
  • Haitian director of Committee on development of Methodist Church in Haiti requested assistance in mid-1990’s, can we do something- Use; MPLS has many food companies- Pillsbury, General Mills, Cargill
  • Affective domain relates to person’s values, attitudes, behavior;
  • Opportunity to increase food security; boil, roast bf
  • Carmen Nochera’s PhD mid-1990’s – flour; food scientist in Michigan;
  • Engineering, food science, entrepreneurs, botanists, ; at what scale?
  • Theory of diffusion taught in communication studies. (example of cheetos); innovation- flour households or small commercial use? Need advocacy team; collective vsindivdualistic cultures; takes time
  • Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, communicabilityStages of adoption: awareness, interest; ; human personalities- early adoptors to laggards
  • Breadfruit is 70% water; tried pressing it out; and a variety of shred sizes; difficult to shear
  • Met with small business owners, farmers coops, bakers (Larry Mathews a Mineapolis based entrepeneur)- great to interact with students (french &amp; communication students &amp; engineering)
  • French &amp; communication students
  • Design for manufacture &amp; assembly
  • Women had hard time shredding
  • Hank found wheel smoothed out the effort; keep it simple
  • Marshall Islands has tiny islands; lots of salt ; 85% RH outdoor life. (2007); missionary influence
  • ramp,
  • 2008, tests with Chris Nicaise- again note shredding done by men; difficult
  • MAKE IT STRONGER; What do we do with the flour?
  • Failed in Haiti, needed correct steel thickness; manufacturing process course
  • Field notes- must be robust, parts made for lifetime of device; versatile blade;
  • MAKE it strong, and to last a lifetime; the flour is being stored in Les Cayes
  • Doesn’t taste like wheat flour; can be 20-40% bf flour in familiar recipes
  • Doesn’t taste like wheat flour; can be 20-40% bf flour in familiar recipes
  • American Extrusion equipment; can’t compete with free
  • Illinois
  • 60% of daily nutritional needs
  • Serious political issues with extruder set up; want to show government agencies
  • MOU’s signed
  • Engineering and food scientists, need salesman; NSF certified equipment- internationally recognized standards for food safety ($5000!)
  • Campus awareness
  • U of St George - How Understanding of Local Challenges and Opportunities - Open 2011

    1. 1. How Understanding Local Challenges and Opportunities Influenced the Design of Post-Harvesting Technology in Haiti<br />Camille George, UST<br />Dave Elton, CTI<br />Hank Garwick, CTI<br />George Ewing, CTI<br />NCIIA Washington, DC March 25, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Increase food security in Haiti<br />Opportunity to develop new post-harvest technology for plentiful natural resource<br />Collaboration partners<br />Theory of Diffusion of Innovation<br />Evolution of technology, recipes and target market<br />Insights and next steps<br />
    3. 3. 200 fruits<br />per tree<br />Breadfruit<br />Nutritious <br />
    4. 4. Plentiful <br />Grows uncultivated<br />
    5. 5. Very small commercial market<br />
    6. 6. Breadfruit has no shelf life<br />Most breadfruit rots<br />Over 120 species of breadfruit worldwide<br />Republic of the Marshall Islands 2007<br />
    7. 7. Opportunity<br /> Proactively seek the appropriate technology to<br /> increase the<br />Availability<br /> Access<br /> Use<br />of this underutilized natural resource<br />(World Food Summit 1996; three pillars of food security)<br />
    8. 8. Challenge<br />CTI : NGO founded in 1981 by a group of missionaries, research engineers, and food scientists<br />Mission: create post harvest technologies that are safe, affordable, respect the environment, require little or no fuel and electricity, and are compatible with the culture of the users <br />Responded to Haitian request <br />
    9. 9. Collaboration<br />UST: committed to educational experiences that develop both cognitive and affective domains<br />Mission: Educate students to advance the common good; Secure a sustainable & just world<br />Value: Transformative Experiences<br />(Service learning, Study Abroad, Multi-disciplinary projects) <br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Discontinuous Innovation: A new product<br />
    12. 12. Breadfruit flour increases shelf life<br />Can it be realistically processed?<br />Post-harvest processing<br />Recipes<br />Adoption<br />
    13. 13. Transdisciplinary Lens<br />Theory of diffusion of innovation<br />A framework to help understand<br />The innovation<br />Its communication<br />In a social system<br />Over a period of time<br />
    14. 14. Diffusion theory<br />Definable characteristics of innovation which affect adoption<br />Communication processes in a social system affect adoption <br />Stages of adoption<br />Categories of human personalities<br />
    15. 15. Technology<br />Flour & food science<br />Next Steps<br />
    16. 16. Systems Approach<br />Making the flour requires: harvesting, washing, cutting, peeling, coring, shredding, drying, grinding<br />The technology has to work in the environment of the user at an economic profit<br />
    17. 17. Processing<br />
    18. 18. Breadfruit needs to be shredded and dried, <br />and then ground into a flour<br />
    19. 19. 19<br />Vertical Shredder <br />St. Vincent 2004<br />
    20. 20. Small business owners<br />Farmer coops<br />
    21. 21. Shredding<br />Most likely user small business owner <br />Versatile shredder to use with other produce<br />St. Vincent:food safe surfaces<br />Noted technical issues<br />What would I do with the flour?<br />
    22. 22. Tommie Shredder<br />
    23. 23.
    24. 24. DFMA<br />Design for Manufacture and Assembly<br />
    25. 25. Results:<br />
    26. 26. Haiti<br />Awkward mounting<br />Hard to shred<br />Didn’t like the weight<br />Want one person operation<br />Make it stronger<br />
    27. 27. Shredder Saga<br />
    28. 28. Marshall Islands<br />Want one person operation<br />Food safe <br />Looks shabby<br />More robust <br />Can I make pancakes?<br />Skeptical that it will dry<br />Will the flour rehydrate?<br />
    29. 29. Horizontal Shredder<br />
    30. 30. Elton Shredder<br />
    31. 31. Haiti<br />
    32. 32. 3rd Party Testing<br />Vertical<br />Awkward mounting<br />Batch process<br />Two person operation<br />Tiresome<br />Shreds fall downward<br />Horizontal<br />Good mounting<br />Continuous operation<br />Two person operation<br />Wheel well received<br />Counter-intuitive direction<br />Shreds fly sideways<br />Too many parts<br />
    33. 33. Tool & Die to make the Blade<br />
    34. 34. Flywheel<br />
    35. 35. ONE TON SHREDDED IN LES CAYES AREA - 2009 <br />
    36. 36. Societe Antillaise de Transformation Agroalimentaire in Haiti (SATAG)<br />Group of 10 farmer-enterprises that have registered with the Ministry of Commerce<br />
    37. 37. Flour<br />Household or Commercial Use?<br />
    38. 38. Flour<br />Household Product<br />Samosas (Hush Puppies)<br />Pasta <br />Taste tests in Haitian Schools & Churches<br />Failures- pancakes, cookies, familiar foods<br />
    39. 39. Flour<br />Commercial Product<br />Extruded puff<br />Test tests done with sweet and savory versions<br />Haitian kids love the snacks<br />60% daily nutrition needs<br />
    40. 40. Breadfruit Puffs<br />Made puffs in Illinois<br />Can be made in Port-au-Prince, Dominican Republic or Jamaica<br />SATAG would like to make this in Les Cayes<br />Haitian driven effort<br /> ($0.30/lb of bf flour price point)<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42. Nutritious<br />Peanut butter<br />Cinnamon/Sugar<br />Spicy/Savory<br />Different Shapes<br />Breakfast food<br />Snack<br />
    43. 43. Post Earthquake<br />Feeding centers want local foods<br />Agro-forest Regional Nursery Foundation of Haiti (ARN) & Breadfruit Institute of Hawaii have 30 year plan to plant trees in Haiti<br />ARN ready to provide bf-flour to Archaie region<br />
    44. 44. Next Steps<br />Breadfruit Enterprise Architecture Demonstration (BrEAD)<br />Pilot enterprise for two markets:<br />Collaboration with ARN<br />Feeding stations (Hush Puppy Recipe)<br />Collaboration with SATAG<br />Extrusion run (Nutritious Snack)<br />
    45. 45. Collaborators<br />Societe Antillaise de Transformation Agroalimentaire in Haiti (SATAG)<br />Agro-forest Regional Nursery Foundation of Haiti (ARN)<br />University of the Nouvelle Grand’Anse (Jeremie)<br />Codeha-Corde-Enfant Haitien (CODEHA)<br />Northwest Haiti Christian Mission<br />
    46. 46. Insights<br />Must be robust, devices made to last <br /> (not always lowest cost)<br />Food processing safety <br />Food scaling for economics<br />Familiar food vs new food<br />Need advocacy team (more than technical folks)<br />
    47. 47. Students<br />Engineering Senior Design (3 teams)<br />Adv French<br />Communications<br />MBA team<br />Manufacturing Masters<br />Manufacturing undergrad project<br />Systems Engineering Masters Course<br /> (5 teams)<br />SWE club<br />ESW club<br />Independent research projects<br />Freshman CAD project<br />Rapid Prototype Research<br />
    48. 48.
    49. 49. Thank You(Larry Mathews, 3M Ideas in Innovation, Hennepin Methodist Church in Minneapolis, CTI donor base, General Mills, American Extrusion Personnel)<br />

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