Universe 13.7 B years old. Life has been on Earth approximately 3.8 billion of Earth’s 4.5 billion years. Failures are fossils. What survives very efficiently blend form and function. Maybe crash safety engineers should be studying how cockroaches can be whacked by a newspaper and ‘not even notice it’ – that’s like a dropping the City of Detroit on your Jeep!Volvo – locusts for collision avoidanceToyota – dung beetles for night visionDaimler Chrysler – boxfish for low drag :Despite its boxy, cube-shaped body, this tropical fish is in fact outstandingly streamlined and therefore represents an aerodynamic ideal. With an accurately constructed model of the boxfish the engineers in Stuttgart were able to achieve a wind drag coefficient of just 0.06 in the wind tunnel. In order to use this great potential for automobile development purposes, specialists at DaimlerChrysler first created a 1:4 car model whose shape was substantially based on the boxfish. During tests in the wind tunnel, a drag coefficient of 0.095 a previously unprecedented value in automotive engineering was measured for this clay model. It corresponds to the values achieved with highly streamlined shapes (Cd 0.09) and other aerodynamically ideal forms. DaimlerChrysler utilised the findings from this research during the development of the Mercedes-Benz bionic car, a fully functioning and roadworthy compact car with a length of 4.24 metres and space for four occupants plus luggage. With a Cd value of just 0.19, this concept vehicle is among the most aerodynamically efficient in this size category.
Ask toughest part of a 2 yr old putting on shoes?Ask what disables saw the most?
Problems that appear difficult in one domain may have already been solved in another domain.Southwest airlines studying refueling and IDEO studying ER proceduresBicycle disc brakes borrowed from auto industryStudying showers to improve clothes washing machine (eliminating agitator and sprinkling from the top) (Calypso)Auto interior designers studying office chairs, child seats, beds, etc.Heated cupholders in 2007 Chrysler Sebring
Remember the fan may grow left to right also!Obviously only a portion shown here.
NSF Tools & Techniques - Systematic Innovation - Open 2011
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 1 NCIIA 2011 Workshop on Systematic Innovation Tools Tools & Techniques Workshop Sponsored by NSF Development Work Sponsored by the Kern Family Foundation Jonathan Weaver1, Nassif Rayess1& Sri Condoor2 1 University of Detroit Mercy 2 Saint Louis University
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 2 Workshop Objectives • Quickly introduce various techniques for systematic innovation that can help entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs generate more and better concepts • Present more detail on two such techniques with some time to apply them during the workshop • Provide free access to slides on the various tools for your use in the classroom
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 3 Systematic Innovation Techniques • Biomimicry • Bisociation • Painstorming • Blue Ocean Strategy • Functional Decomposition • Nine Windows • Axiomatic Design • The Search for the • Ethnography Problem • TRIZ • Kano Model • Lateral Benchmarking • De Bono‟s Provocation • De Bono‟s Six Hats • Trimming • De Bono‟s Concept Fans
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 4 Biomimicry • Shinkansen front end modeled after kingfisher‟s beak to minimize tunnel entry/exit shockwave • Pantograph supports have serrations modeled after owl plumage to reduce wind noise Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, J. Benyus, Perrenial NY, 2002
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 5 Painstorming • Find – and eliminate – your customers‟ biggest pains
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 6 Functional Decomposition Store/accept Convert ener- Energy external gy to transla- energy tional energy Apply Store Isolate Driven Nails nails nail translational energy to nail Nail “Trip” Sense Trigger of Trip Tool Tool Based on Ulrich & Eppinger, 2005
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 7 Axiomatic Design • Two principle axioms: Independence, Information
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 8 Ethnography: IDEO Methods Cards • Cards summarizing 51 techniques IDEO uses to come up with new innovations • Broken into four categories: LEARN, LOOK, ASK, and TRY • LOOK and ASK most relate to ethnography and include : – A day in the life - Narration – Behavioral mapping - Extreme User Interviews – Fly on the wall - Word-Concept Association – Time lapse video - Camera Journal
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 9 How Many Ways Do You Know to Move a Liquid?
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 13 De Bono’s Six Hats Each hat signifies a thinking mode White: The information hat Visualize white paper with information written on it. Red: The emotion hat Visualize “seeing red,” passion, valentine hearts. Black: The caution hat (note: this is not a cowboy “bad guy” hat) Visualize dark consequences. Yellow: The optimism hat Visualize the yellow sunshine on a bight new day. Green: The creativity hat Visualize green pastures, open fields on which to roam. Blue: The procedure hat Visualize the sky over us, we work under the blue sky.
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 14 De Bono’s Concept Fans Meter water Increased efficiency of use Charge for water use Reduced waste Reduce Cope with a water shortage consumptionRaise charge for water use Discourage useWater only obtainable from Education public sources New sourcesWater only at certain times Recycling Increase Put a harmless bad smell supply into the water Less wastage from sourceRestrict discretionary use Education Publish names of heavy users Stop water-using processes Do without Objective Threaten to ration water Substitute other substances Avoid need to use water BROAD IDEA CONCEPT CONCEPT
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 16 Blue Ocean Strategy Source: Blue Ocean Strategy, W. Chan Kim & Renee Mauborgne, Harvard Business School Press, 2005
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 17 Nine Windows Reference: Gamestorming: A playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers and ChangemakersDave Gray, S. Brown and J. Macanufo, O‟Reilly 2010
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 18 The Search for the Problem • Techniques to help make sure you‟re working on the right problem – Statement – Restatement – Why – Why Diagram (aka „5 Why‟s‟) – Present State – Future State – Checklisting / Trigger Words – Situation Analysis Reference: Engineering bv Design, Gerard Voland, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2nd edition 2004
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 19 The Kano Model (Cont.) + Not Fully Implemented 0 Implemented - Diagram adapted from the Kano Model, Noriako Kano, Yoko University
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 20 Slides • The slides shown here will be available via NCIIA • If you want slides on the other topics, please email Jonathan Weaver – they‟re free for classroom use – but if you can help us make them better, we‟d appreciate it!
CondoorRayess Weaver NCIIA 2011 21 Let’s Try Some Techniques • De Bono‟s Provocation • Trimming