Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne (1625) & Ecstasy of St. Theresa (1652) Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome Baroque, emotional (Counter Reformation zeal) Apollo, struck with the golden arrow of love, pleads with Daphne to fulfill his desire. Daphne begins to flee. Even as she runs, he is more captivated by her beauty. Apollo grows impatient and soon, sped by Eros, gains on her. With slower speed and failing strength, Daphne cries out to her father just as Apollo captures her. Not a moment later, Daphne's skin turns to bark, her hair leaves, her arms branches, her feet roots, and her face a treetop. In only a moment, Peneus protects his daughter by turning her into a laurel tree. After the transformation Apollo still embraces the tree. He cuts off some of her branches and leaves to make a wreath and proclaims the laurel as a sacred tree.
“ Apollo Crowning Himself,” 1781 “ Perseus with the Head of Medusa,” 1804-1806 Both by Antonio Canova, both indicative of the Neoclassical Style of sculpture “ Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker” (1809 ) In 1802 Canova traveled to Paris, to work on a portrait bust of Napoleon. The plan to make a statue of the First Consul led to a many difficulties. Napoleon expected to be shown in the uniform of a French general, while Canova firmly rejected this. He wanted a statue in heroic nudity showing the ruler as the Greek god of War, Mars, who brings peace by his deeds. However, Napoleon appreciated that the public representation of modern power could not be done with larger-than-life heroic nudity of the classical hero. Nudity as an attribute could not be used anymore.The complete marble sculpture reached Paris only in 1811, but it was not installed. Displayed today in the Apsley House, London which is the residence of the Duke of Wellington. Profoundly influenced by ancient art since the Renaissance. Neo-Classical sculptors avoided the dramatic twisting poses and colored marble surfaces characteristic of late Baroque and Rococo sculpture. Show next picutre) They preferred: Crisp contours. A noble stillness. Idealized white marble forms.
At the height of his youthful popularity and enthusiasm, part of a close circle of friends (including Chernier, Lafayette and Lavoisier) who were purshing for radical political reform, David painted this unusual historical picture in 1787. Commissioned by the Trudaine de Montigny brothers, leaders in the call for a free market system and more public discussion, this picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused scepticism and impiety in his students, Socrates heroicly rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock. For months, David and his friends debated and discussed the importance of this picture. It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-control even in the face of death . Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals . Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison . Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves . For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority . Thomas Jefferson was present at its unveiling, and admired it immensly. Sir Joshua Reynolds compared the Socrates with Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling and Raphael's Stanze, and after ten visits to the Salon described it as `in every sense perfect'. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/neocl_dav_soc.html
Oath of Horatio: Jacques David, 1784. Louvre. Depictions of masculinity, stoicism, patriotism, patriarchy This painting occupies an extremely important place in the body of David's work and in the history of French painting. It was commissioned by the Administrator of Royal Residences in 1784 and exhibited at the 1785 Salon under the title The Oath of the Horatii, between their Father's Hands. The story was taken from Titus-Livy . We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C . It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers . The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii . Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii's father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women. David succeeded in ennobling these passions and transforming these virtues into something sublime. Corneille and Poussin had already used this same subject and treated it as a sentimental and aristocratic game. Unlike these, David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action, seeing that initial moment as being charged with greater intensity and imbued with more grandeur. And, it was he who chose the idea of the oath (it is not mentioned in the historical accounts), transforming the event into a solemn act that bound the wills of different individuals in a single, creative gesture. He was not the first painter to do so, but certainly the first to do it in such a stirring manner.The viewer's eye spontaneously grasps two superimposed orders-that of the figures and that of the decor. The first is striking because it is organized into three different groups, each with a different purpose. To the appeal of the elder Horatius in the center, the reply on the left is the spontaneous vigor of the oath, upheld loudly and with a show of strength, while on the right it is a tearful anguish, movement turned in upon itself, compressed into emotion. The distance between the figures accentuates this contrast. To the heroic determination of the men the canvas opposes the devastated grief of the women and the troubled innocence of the children. The decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space--massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow. The three archways loosely correspond to the three groups. The contemplative atmosphere is softened by shades of green, brown, pink, and red, all very discreet. Instead of opening his painting out onto a landscape or an expanse of sky, David closes it off to the outside, bathes it in shadow. As a result, the light in this setting takes on a brick-toned reflection, which encircles his figures with a mysterious halo. Through David's rigorous and efficient arrangement, the superior harmony of the colors, and the spiritual density of the figures, this sacrifice, transfigured by the oath, becomes the founding act of a new aesthetic and moral order. He consciously intended it to be a proclamation of the new neoclassical style in which dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and gestural clarity are emphasized . Presenting a lofty moralistic (and by implication patriotic) theme, the work became the principal model for noble and heroic historical painting of the next two decades. It also launched David's personal popularity and awarded him the right to take on his own students.
The arch was commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 to commemorate his victories, but he was ousted before the arch was completed. In fact, it wasn't completed until 1836 during the reign of Louis-Philippe. The Arc de Triomphe is engraved with names of generals who commanded French troops during Napoleon's regime. The design of the arch by Jean Chalgrin is based on the Arch of Titus in Rome. The Arc de Triomphe is much higher (50m versus 15m), but it has exactly the same proportions.
Paris will be redisigned by Emperor Napoleon III….
Ingres: worked in the studio of Jacques David. Idolized the style of Raphael.
Munich, Germany Rathaus and Glockenspiel It was built between 1867 and 1908 by in a Gothic Revival architecture
Cologne, Germany For four years, 1880-84, it was the tallest structure in the world, until the completion of the Washington Monument Construction of Cologne Cathedral began in 1248 and took, with interruptions, until 1880 to complete With the 19th century romantic enthusiasm for the Middle Ages and spurred on by the lucky discovery of the original plan for the façade, it was decided, with the commitment of the Protestant Prussian Court, to complete the cathedral. Cost over $ 1 billion in today's money. The state saw this as a way to improve its relations with the large number of Catholic subjects it had gained in 1815, Congress of Vienna. Work resumed in 1842 to the original design of the surviving medieval plans and drawings, but utilising more modern construction techniques including iron roof girders. The nave was completed and the towers were added. The bells were installed in the 1870s. The completion of Germany's largest cathedral was celebrated as a national event in 1880, 632 years after construction had begun. The celebration was attended by Emperor Wilhelm I.
Alexandre Calame, Swiss
Victorian dreams and nightmares…
Chios is a small Greek island, two miles off the coast of Turkey. It’s inhabitants, Chians, were accomplished and ancient traders. During Ottoman Rule, Chians were given autonomy and almost complete control over their affairs. The Chians were reluctant to join the Greek revolution, but in 1822, Greeks from a nearby island, Samos, came to Chios and attacked Turkish sites. The Chians joined the Greek revolution late, and suffered harshly when the Sultan learned of their joining. A Turkish fleet landed on Chios and for two weeks, Chians were tortured, raped, and massacred. Villages and churches were burned. Almost 50,000 Chians were enslaved. The painting shows the FEAR and DESPAIR of Greek families awaiting either death or slavery. Delacroix’s handling of this event demonstrates his sympathy for the Greek revolt. This attitude was common among Romantics, this inspired Victor Hugo to write a poem called “L’Enfant de Chios” or The Child of Chios. In 2009 a copy of this painting was displayed in a local Byzantine museum on Chios, but was withdrawn from the museum . The Greeek press protested the removal of the painting.
1830/35; Oil on canvas, 34 x 44 cm. National Gallery, Berlin.
During the Napoleonic threat a number of British painters had taken up the theme of the suppression of the Celtic Welsh by the English King Edward III, epitomized by the destruction of the ancient bards. Martin's vision of a lone bard driven to a rocky wasteland by the invading army comes close to an apocalyptic Romantic conception, the 'last man'. Thomas Gray’s Bard On a rock, whose haughty brow Frowns o'er cold Conway's foaming flood, Robed in the sable garb of woe With haggard eyes the Poet stood; (Loose his beard and hoary hair Streamed like a meteor to the troubled air) The subject comes from Thomas Gray's poem The Bard (1755) and had been popular throughout the Romantic period, with versions by Thomas Jones, William Blake and Henry Fuseli. Gray tells how Edward I, after his conquest of Wales, ordered all bards to be slaughtered in order to draw the people's cultural and nationalistic sting. The sole surviving bard here stands: 'On a rock, whose haughty brow Frowns o'er old Conways foaming flood, Robed in the sable garb of woe, With haggard eyes the Poet stood; (Loose his beard and hoary hair Stream'd, like a meteor, to the troubled air) (II. 15-20) He curses the departing armies: 'Ruin seize thee, ruthless King! Confusion on thy banners wait' (II. 1-2)
French art Academy established during Nap III empire. It set strict rules and techniques to uphold standards for French art. Info from Art: A World History (Hi Q text)
Example of Barbizon School: Theodore Rousseu
Info from Hi Q text
Compare this to DAVID’s Romanticised version!!!!
Manet will transition into impressionism.
Neoclassical, romantic, realism 2013
First a review…. Bernini’s examples of the Baroque.
► “I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the irons point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying.” Chapter XXIX; Part 17, Teresas Autobiography
THINKING QUESTION….► Around time do you think the three sculptures were created. Provide a brief rationale.
NEOCLASSICAL► From the mid 18th to the early 19th century► harkened back to the grandeur of ancient Greece and Rome (hence “neo” “classical”), many Greek and Roman references► was a reaction to the overly emotional and ornate Baroque► was restrained, rational, sometimes rigid and severe► As reason guided the philosophes’ minds, so too should reason guide artist’s hand► Major artists: Jacques David & Jean August Ingres► Coincided with the French and American revolutions
Oath of the Horatii, Jacques Louis David, 1784
Napoleon I on HisImperial Throne (1806)Jean August Ingres,Musee de l’Armee.
Westminster Palace, Parliament, was rebuilt in 1834. Heatedarguments ensued over the style. Planners decided againstneoclassical because of the connotations of revolution. Theysettled on Neo Gothic.
ROMANTICISM Was a general reaction to the Enlightenment emphasis on reason Rationalist quest to understand human nature lost sight of what really makes us human… Emotion and individuality. Romantics emphasized the importance of intuition, imagination, feeling and emotions Allowed for greater emotion and expression on the canvas
Often fanciful, sentimental, unreal, imaginative. Often associated with dreams, folklore, heroics of bygone days. Classical : mechanical :: Romantic: organic Romantics questioned the “progress” promised by society guided by reason. Napoleonic Wars? Napoleonic dictatorship? Materialism? Exploitation?
The Enlightenment’s Impacton Romanticism Romanticism can be traced back to Rousseau’s idea that European’s needed to get “back to nature” (i.e. noble savage) In its purity, could mean a retreat to wild places… example: British landscape artists such as Constable and Turner reacted to/against industrialism’s impact, especially on nature
We can see Immanuel Kant as a romantic Critique of Pure Reason (1781) & Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Mind is not tabula rasa; human beings possess an innate sense of moral duty: categorical imperative
Romanticism Glorified the individual Individuals portrayed as heroes in art Mimicked the intellectual trend of J.G. Fichte (1762-1814) Believed the world is as it is because strong willed individuals imposed their wills on the world The emotion of Romanticism is strongly related to Nationalism and Liberalism
Romantic Landscapes Romantic British landscape artists such as Turner and Constable Reflected new attitudes toward nature Rousseau’s idyllic image of natural world contrasted to the corrupt and artificial contemporary materialist society God’s creative spirit could be seen in nature New emphasis on the emotive effects of landscapes, calming, tranquil or dramatic and frightening THE SUBLIME
Romanticism and religion Romantics saw religion as basic to human nature; faith as a means to knowledge Many urged a revival of Christianity based on the inner emotions of humankind as the foundations
The Romantics looked back… Appreciated the Middle Ages, a time before... the overemphasis on reason, where religion was still appreciated… the materialism of the Renaissance… the social ills associated with industrialization… … this was reflected in the architecture Neo Gothic
CologneCathedralConstruction began in1248 and wascompleted in 1880
The Bard John Martin, 1817On a rock, whose haughty browFrowns oer cold Conwaysfoaming flood,Robed in the sable garb of woeWith haggard eyes the Poetstood;Loose his beard and hoary hairStreamed like a meteor to thetroubled air.He curses the departing armies:“Ruin seize thee, ruthless King!Confusion on thy banners wait!”~ Excerpt from a popular poem by Thomas Gray (1755),telling of the conquest of Wales by English King Edward III inthe 13th century
Death of Marat• Death of Marat by Jacques by Jacques- David Louis David
Explain the ways in which the Romanticism of this painting is consistent with that of Wordsworth’s poetryand Chateaubriand’s description of a Gothic Cathedral.
THE BIRTH OF REALISM IN ART• Began during the 1830 and 1848 revolutions in France and reached its peak during the Second French Empire (1852-1870)• Generally, realists shifted away from idealism of the romantics to a more realistic rendering of nature, social relationships, and the world at large• Realist artists became disillusioned by the “polished artists” who studied at the Art Academies, especially in France
The Barbizon School in France• a group of French, realist landscape artists who rejected the Academic tradition, abandoning theory in an attempt to achieve a truer representation of life in the countryside• Considered to have sown the seeds of Modernism with their individualism, and were the forerunners of the Impressionists, who took a similar philosophical approach to their art• For the artists such as Theodore Rousseau, nature became a place of nostalgia and refuge from the social and political troubles of 1840 and 1848 as well as the refusal from the Salons• Considered a “link” between the Romantics and Realists
Theodore RousseauEdge Of The Forest, Near The Gorges DApremontOil On Canvas: (31.67 x 39.58 in)Signed and dated at lower right: 1866 / TH. Rousseau
REALISTS EMPHASIZED THE ORDINARY• The subjects of paintings were drawn directly from observable life, no longer allegorical and/or mythological• “Democratization of art”• In the wake of the 1848 Revolutions and the release of the Communist Manifesto, realism reflected a new attitude of social disillusionment• Workers, the poor, and the homeless were chosen not only as protest, but also to document contemporary life
• Realists carried on some aspects of Romanticism such as…• reverence for natural beauty and attention to the individual, but…• Realists did not transform these things into picturesque, sublime works…• instead they appreciated these things for their imperfect, unfinished, ordinary, sometimes ugly, ordinariness. (i.e. Millet, Corbet, Daumier)• Often times people were offended by this “vulgar” art.
Shepherdess with Her Flock, Jean-Francois Millet, 1864, Musee dOrsay, Paris, Oil oncanvas, 32 x 39 3/4 in. (81 x 101 cm)
A Wagon of the Third Class. Honore Daumier. c. 1862-64. Oil on canvas. Museum of FineArts, Ottawa, Canada.
The Gross ClinicEakins, Thomas1875Oil on canvas96 x 78 in.Jefferson Medical College ofThomas Jefferson University,Philadelphia
The Legislative Belly. Perspective View of the Ministers Seats of 1834. Honore Daumier.
Olympia, Edouard Manet, 1863, Oil on canvas, 51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in. (130.5 x 190 cm),Musee dOrsay, Paris
The Realists gave rise to the artistic rebellion of the Impressionists• Progressive minded realists, like Manet, were not allowed to show their works at the official Salon of the Academy• 1863, Napoleon III called for an alternative show for the public to decide for themselves…• Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused)