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8 conservation of plants and animals


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8 conservation of plants and animals

  1. 1. CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALSW e saw in Class VII that Some natural causes of deforestation Paheli and Boojho had visited are forest fires and severe droughts. the forest along with Prof.Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to Activity 7.1share their experiences with their Add more causes of deforestation toclassmates. Other children in the class your list and classify them intowere also eager to share their experiences natural and some of them had visited BharatpurSanctuary. Some others had heardabout Kaziranga National Park, 7.2 Consequences ofLockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great DeforestationNicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger Paheli and Boojho recalled theReserve, etc. consequences of deforestation. They remembered that deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on What is the purpose of the earth. It increases the level of carbon making national parks, dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water wildlife sanctuaries and level also gets lowered. They know that biosphere reserves? deforestation disturbs the balance in nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad7.1 Deforestation and Its that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall Causes and the fertility of the soil will decrease.A great variety of plants and animalsexists on earth. They are essential forthe wellbeing and survival of mankind. How does deforestation reduceToday, a major threat to survival of these rainfall on the one hand andorganisms is deforestation. We know lead to floods on the other?that deforestation means clearing offorests and using that land for other Moreover, there will be increasedpurposes. Trees in the forest are cut for chances of natural calamities such assome of the purposes mentioned below: floods and droughts. Procuring land for cultivation. Recall that plants need carbon Building houses and factories. dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees Making furniture or using wood as would mean that less carbon dioxide will fuel. be used up resulting in its increased
  2. 2. amount in the atmosphere. This will lead Prof. Ahmad organises a visit to ato global warming as carbon dioxide biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho andtraps the heat rays reflected by the earth. their classmates. He selects a placeThe increase in temperature on the earth named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Hedisturbs the water cycle and may reduce knows that the plants and animals foundrainfall. This could cause droughts. here are similar to those of the upper Deforestation is a major cause which Himalayan peaks and to those belongingleads to the change in soil properties. to the lower western ghats. Prof. AhmadPhysical properties of the soil get affected believes that the biodiversity found hereby plantation and vegetation. Recall is unique. He requests Madhavji, a forestfrom Class VII how trees prevent soil employee, to guide the children insideerosion. Fewer trees result in more soil the biosphere reserve. He explains thaterosion. Removal of the top layer of the preserving areas of such biologicalsoil exposes the lower, hard and rocky importance make them a part of ourlayers. This soil has less humus and is national heritage.less fertile. Gradually the fertile land Biosphere is that part of the earth ingets converted into deserts. It is called which living organisms exist or whichdesertification. supports life. Biological diversity or Deforestation also leads to a decrease biodiversity, refers to the variety ofin the water holding capacity of the soil. organisms existing on the earth, theirThe movement of water from the soil interrelationships and theirsurface into the ground (infiltration rate) relationship with the reduced. So, there are floods. The Madhavji explains to the childrenother properties of the soil like nutrient that apart from our personal efforts andcontent, texture, etc., also change efforts of the society, governmentbecause of deforestation. agencies also take care of the forests and We have studied in Class VII that we animals. The government lays downget many products from forests. List these rules, methods and policies to protectproducts. Will we face the shortage of these and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,products if we continue cutting trees? national parks, biosphere reserves, etc., are protected areas for conservation ofActivity 7.2 plants and animals present in that area. Animal life is also affected by deforestation. How? List the points To protect our flora and fauna and and discuss them in your class. their habitats, protected areas called sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves have been7.3 Conservation of Forest earmarked. Plantation, cultivation, and Wildlife grazing, felling trees, hunting and poaching are prohibited there.Having become aware of the effects of Sanctuary : Areas where animals aredeforestation, Paheli and Boojho are protected from any disturbance toworried. They go to Prof. Ahmad and ask them and their habitat.him how forests and wildlife can be saved.78 SCIENCE
  3. 3. National Park : Areas reserved for 7.4 Biosphere Reserve wild life where they can freely use Children along with Prof. Ahmad and the habitats and natural resources. Madhavji enter the biosphere reserve Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of area. Madhavji explains that biosphere protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animal resources and reserves are the areas meant for traditional life of the tribals living in conservation of biodiversity. As you are the area. aware that biodiversity is the variety of plants, animals and microorganismsActivity 7.3 generally found in an area. The biosphere reserves help to maintain the Find out the number of national biodiversity and culture of that area. A parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserve may also contain biosphere reserves in your district, other protected areas in it. The state and country. Record in Table Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists of one national park named Satpura and 7.1. Show these areas in an outline two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and map of your state and India. Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1). Table 7.1 : Protected areas for conservation.Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere ReserveIn my districtIn my stateIn my country ↑N PACHMARHI SANCTUARY TAWA TO PIPARIYA RESERVIOR NEEMGHAN PANARPANI GATE SATPURA NATIONAL PARK CHURNA PACHMARHI DHAIN BORI BORI SANCTUARY Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere ReserveCONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
  4. 4. Activity 7.4 a rabbit and wants to catch it. She starts running after it. Prof. Ahmad List the factors disturbing the stops her. He explains that animals are biodiversity of your area. Some of comfortable and happy in their own these factors and human activities habitat. We should not disturb them. may disturb the biodiversity Madhavji explains that some animals unknowingly. List these human and plants typically belong to a activities. How can these be checked? particular area. The plants and animals Discuss in your class and write a found in a particular area are termed brief report in your notebook. flora and fauna of that area.7.5 Flora and Fauna Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns,As the children walk around the arjun, etc are the flora and chinkara,biosphere reserve they appreciate the blue-bull, barking deer, cheetal,green wealth of the forest. They are very leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. arehappy to see tall teak trees and animals examples of the fauna of theinside the forest. Suddenly, Paheli finds Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (Fig. 7.2). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. 7.2 : (a) Wild dog (b) Cheetal (c) Wolf (d) Leopard (e) Fern (f) Jamun80 SCIENCE
  5. 5. Activity 7.5 Try to identify the flora and fauna of your area and list them. I have heard that some of the endemic species may vanish.7.6 Endemic Species Is it true?Soon the group quietly enters the deep endemic flora of the Pachmarhiforest. Children are surprised to see avery big squirrel. This squirrel has a big Biosphere Reserve. Bison, Indian giantfluffy tail. They are very curious to know squirrel [Fig. 7.3 (b)] and flying squirrelabout it. Madhavji tells them that this are endemic fauna of this area. known as the giant squirrel and is Ahmad explains that the destruction ofendemic to this area. their habitat, increasing population and Endemic species are those species introduction of new species may affectof plants and animals which are found the natural habitat of endemic speciesexclusively in a particular area. They are and endanger their existence.not naturally found anywhere else. Aparticular type of animal or plant maybe endemic to a zone, a state or a country. Madhavji shows sal and wild mango(Fig. 7.3 (a)] as two examples of the Fig. 7.3 : (b) Giant squirrel Species is a group of populations which are capable of interbreeding. This means that the members of a species can reproduce fertile offspring only with the members of their own species and not with members of other species. Members of a species have common characteristics. Activity 7.6 Find out the endemic plants and animals of the region where you live. Fig. 7.3 : (a) Wild MangoCONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 81
  6. 6. 7.7 Wildlife Sanctuary instead of their natural habitat? InSoon Paheli sees a board with ‘Pachmarhi your opinion, will the animals beWildlife Sanctuary’ written on it. comfortable in a zoo or in their Prof. Ahmad explains that, like natural habitat?reserve forests, wildlife sanctuariesprovide protection and suitable living 7.8 National Parkconditions to wild animals. Madhavji On the roadside there was anotherfurther explains that sanctuaries are board on which was written ‘Satpuraplaces where killing (poaching) or National Park’.capturing of animals is strictly Children are now eager to go there.prohibited. Madhavji tells them that these reserves are large and diverse enough to protect Some of the threatened wild animals whole sets of ecosystems. They like black buck, white eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink headed preserve flora, fauna, landscape and duck, gharial, marsh crocodile, historic objects of an area. Satpura python, rhinoceros, etc. are protected National Park is the first Reserve Forest and preserved in our wild life of India. The finest Indian teak is sanctuaries. Indian sanctuaries have found in this forest. unique landscapes—broad level forests, mountain forests and bush Rock shelters are also found inside lands in deltas of big rivers. the Satpura National Park. These are the prehistoric evidences of human It is a pity that even protected forests life in these jungles. They give us anare not safe because people living in the idea of the life of the primitive people.neighbourhood encroach upon them Rock paintings are found in these shelters. A total of 55 rock sheltersand destroy them. have been identified in Pachmarhi Children are reminded of their visit Biosphere the zoo. They recall that zoos are also Figures of animals and men fighting,places where animals receive protection. hunting, dancing, and playing musical instruments are depicted in these paintings. Many tribals still live in the area. What is the difference between a zoo and a As children move ahead, they see a wildlife sanctuary? board with ‘Satpura Tiger Reserve’ written on it. Madhavji explains thatActivity 7.7 Project Tiger was launched by the Visit a nearby zoo. Observe the government to protect the tigers in the conditions provided to the animals. country. The objective of this project Were they suitable for the animals? was to ensure the survival and Can animals live in artificial setting maintenance of the tiger population in the country.82 SCIENCE
  7. 7. Fig. 7.4 : Tiger Fig. 7.5 : Wild buffalo Fig. 7.6 : Barasingha Madhavji tells Paheli that small animals are much more in danger of becoming extinct than the bigger animals. At times, we kill snakes, Are tigers still found in frogs, lizards, bats and owls ruthlessly this forest? I hope that I without realising their importance in can see a tiger! the ecosystem. By killing them we are harming ourselves. They might be Tiger (Fig. 7.4) is one of the many small in size but their role in thespecies which are slowly disappearing ecosystem cannot be ignored. Theyfrom our forests. But, the Satpura Tiger form part of food chains and foodReserve is unique in the sense that a webs, about which you learnt insignificant increase in the population Class VII.of tigers has been seen here. Once upon An ecosystem is made of all thea time, animals like lions, elephants, plants, animals and microorganisms inwild buffaloes (Fig. 7.5) and barasingha an area along with non-living(Fig. 7.6) were also found in the Satpura components such as climate, soil,National Park. Animals whose numbers river deltas, etc.are diminishing to a level that they mightface extinction are known as theendangered animals. Boojho isreminded of the dinosaurs whichbecame extinct a long time ago. Survival I wonder if there isof some animals has become difficult any record of thebecause of disturbances in their natural endangered species!habitat. 7.9 Red Data Book Prof. Ahmad explains about Red Data Book to the children. He tells them that Red Data Book is the source book Are only big animals which keeps a record of all the facing the extinction? endangered animals and plants. ThereCONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 83
  8. 8. are different Red Data Books for plants, 7.11 Recycling of Paperanimals and other species. (For further Prof. Ahmad draws the attention ofdetails about Red Data Book, you can the children to another cause oflog on to deforestation. He tells them that itprimates/page102htm/new/nwdc/ takes 17 full grown trees to make oneplants.htm) tonne of paper. Therefore, we should7.10 Migration save paper. Prof. Ahmad also tells that paper can be recycled five to sevenThe excursion party then enters deeper times for use. If each student saves atinto the forest under the guidance of least one sheet of paper in a day, weMadhavji. They sit near the Tawa can save many trees in a year. WeReservoir to relax for some time. Paheli should save, reuse used paper andobserves some of the birds near the recycle it. By this we not only saveriver. Madhavji tells the children that trees but also save energy and waterthese are the migratory birds. These needed for manufacturing paper.birds have flown here from other parts Moreover, the amount of har mfulof the world. chemicals used in paper making will Migratory birds fly to far away areas also be reduced.every year during a particular timebecause of climatic changes. They flyfor laying eggs as the weather in theirnatural habitat becomes very cold andinhospitable. Birds who cover long Is there any permanentdistances to reach another land are solution to the problemknown as the migratory birds as Paheli of deforestation?learnt in Class VII. 7.12 Reforestation Prof. Ahmad suggests that the answer to deforestation is reforestation. What would happen if we Reforestation is restocking of the had no wood? Is there destroyed forests by planting new trees. any alternative The planted trees should generally be available for wood? of the same species which were found I know that paper is one in that forest. We should plant at least of the important products as many trees as we cut. Reforestation we get from forests. I wonder whether can take place naturally also. If the there are any alternatives deforested area is left undisturbed, it re- available for paper! establishes itself. In natural reforestation there is no role of human beings. We84 SCIENCE
  9. 9. have already made a tremendous meeting the basic needs of the peopledamage to our forests. If we have to living in or near the forests.retain our green wealth for generations, After some rest Madhavji asksplantation of more trees is the only children to start moving back becauseoption. it is not advisable to stay back in the Prof. Ahmad told them that in India jungle after sunset. On getting back,we have the Forest (Conservation) Act. Prof. Ahmad and the children thankThis act is aimed at preservation and Madhavji for guiding them through thisconservation of natural forests and exciting experience.CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 85
  10. 10. KEYWORDS WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT BIODIVERSITY Wildlife sanctuary, national park and BIOSPHERE RESERVE biosphere reserve are names given to the areas meant for conservation and preservation DEFORESTATION of forest and wild animals. DESERTIFICATION Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms in a specific area. ECOSYSTEM Plants and animals of a particular area are ENDANGERED known as the flora and fauna of that area. SPECIES Endemic species are found only in a particular area. ENDEMIC SPECIES Endangered species are those which are facing EXTINCT the danger of extinction. Red Data Book contains a record of the FAUNA endangered species. FLORA Migration is the phenomenon of movement of MIGRATORY BIRDS a species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year NATIONAL PARK for a specific purpose like breeding. RED DATA BOOK We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save trees, energy and water. REFORESTATION Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees. SANCTUARY Exercises 1. Fill in the blanks: (a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called . (b) Species found only in a particular area is known as . (c) Migratory birds fly to far away places because of changes. 2. Differentiate between the following: (a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve (b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary (c) Endangered and extinct species (d) Flora and fauna86 SCIENCE
  11. 11. 3. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following: EXERCISES (a) Wild animals (b) Environment (c) Villages (Rural areas) (d) Cities (Urban areas) (e) Earth (f) The next generation 4. What will happen if: (a) we go on cutting trees. (b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed. (c) the top layer of soil is exposed. 5. Answer in brief: (a) Why should we conserve biodiversity? (b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why? (c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How? (d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation? (e) What is Red Data Book? (f) What do you understand by the term migration? 6. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report. 7. How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you. 8. Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall. 9. Find out the information about the national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India. 10. Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 87
  12. 12. 11. Complete the word puzzle: EXERCISES Down 1. Species on the verge of extinction. 2. A book carrying information about endangered species. 5. Consequence of deforestation. Across 1. Species which have vanished. 3. Species found only in a particular habitat. 4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area. Extended Learning - Activities and Projects 1. Plant at least five different plants in your locality during this academic year and ensure their maintenance till they grow. 2. Promise yourself that this year you will gift at least 5 plants to your friends and relatives on their achievements, or on occasions like birthdays. Ask your friends to take proper care of these gifted plants and encourage them to gift five plants to their friends on such occasions. At the end of the year count the plants that have been gifted through this chain.88 SCIENCE
  13. 13. 3. Is it justifiable to prevent tribals from staying in the core area of the forest? Discuss the matter in your class and note down the points for and against the motion in your notebook. 4. Study the biodiversity of a park nearby. Prepare a detailed report with photographs and sketches of flora and fauna. 5. Make a list of the new information you have gathered from this chapter. Which information did you like the most and why? 6. Make a list of various uses of papers. Observe currency notes carefully. Do you find any difference between a currency paper and paper of your notebook? Find out where currency paper is made. 7. Karnataka Government had launched ‘Project Elephant’ to save Asian elephants in the state. Find out about this and other such campaigns launched to protect threatened species. Did You Know? 1. India has more than half of the world’s wild tigers, 65% of the Asian elephants, 85% of the great one-horned rhinoceros and 100% of the Asian lions. 2. India is sixth on a list of 12 mega-biodiversity countries in the world. It contains two of the 13 biodiversity hot spots of the world – North-East India and the Western Ghats. These areas are very rich in biodiversity. 3. One of the most important factors that threatens wildlife today is habitat destruction due to encroachment. 4. India contains 172 species of animals considered globally threatened or 2.9% of the worlds total number of threatened species. This includes 53 species of mammals, 69 of birds, 23 of reptiles and 3 species of amphibians. India contains globally important population of some of Asia’s rarest animals such as the Bengal fox, Marbled cat, Asiatic lion, Indian elephant, Asiatic wild ass, Indian rhinoceros, gaur, Wild asiatic water buffalo, etc. For knowing more, you may contact: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India Environment, Forest and Wildlife Department Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex, Block – B, Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110003, Website : http:/ Project Tiger : Biodiversity Hotspots : www.biodiversityhotspots.orgCONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 89