A geological formation that was formed by the growth of sediments into a sea. A formation that was buried over many thousands of years and compressed to produce an organic-rich black shale. Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas.
Starts at the base of the Catskills in upstate New York. Stretches across New York State toward Marcellus, New York and then southwest to West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio. Borders the ridge and valley regions of Pennsylvania and Maryland. This map shows the approximate depth to the base of the Marcellus Shale. It was prepared using the map by Robert Milici and Christopher Swezey above and adding depth-to-Marcellus contours published by Wallace de Witt and others, 1993, United States Department of Energy Report: The Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays.
Diagram of a Typical Hydraulic Fracturing Operation Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat to underground water. Scientists are also worried that waste fluids spilled on the surface will impact the environment. Source: ProPublica, http://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic- fracturing-national
Developing Energy from Shale Must Be Done: Safely Responsibly Reduce environmental impacts Avoid interference with existing commercial activity.
More affordable energy and more stable prices. It means energy-intensive manufacturing companies, which had been moving overseas for cheaper energy, can stay home promising more jobs Clean-burning natural gas addresses climate change concerns because of its low carbon-content. Marcellus Shale has been identified as potentially rich in fossil fuels, paint and iron.
The U.S. Energy Information Administrations Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (Early Release) estimates that the United States possessed 2,214 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable natural gas resources as of January 1, 2010. Natural gas from proven and unproven shale resources accounts for 542 Tcf of this resource estimate. Shale gas in 2010 made up 23% of total U.S. natural gas supply. Production of shale gas is expected to continue to increase, and constitute 49% of U.S. total natural gas supply in 2035, as projected in EIAs Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (Early Release). At the 2010 rate of U.S. consumption (about 24.1 Tcf per year), 2,214 Tcf of natural gas is enough to supply over 90 years of use.
According to Energy from Shale, natural gas reserves grew 30 percent and in the last few years. The United States has increased onshore natural gas production by more than 20 percent – an accomplishment that most energy experts thought impossible a few years ago. The availability of large quantities of shale gas should enable the United States to A natural gas derrick rises from the consume a predominantly countryside near family homes in rural domestic supply of gas for Hopewell Township, Pennsylvania. many years and produce more natural gas than it consumes
Promisesjobs in areas hard hit by unemployment. The industry is promising 20,000 new jobs by the year 2020. Potential new energy technologies.
Water consumption. Many harmful chemicals are used. Incorrect treatment and handling of waste water. Leads to increased property taxes. Water contamination. Many uncertainties.
Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection - U.S Geological Survey Fracking causes small earthquakes, but they are almost always too small to be a safety concern. Fracking wastewaters are frequently disposed of by injection into deep wells. The injection of wastewater into the subsurface can cause earthquakes that are large enough to be felt and may cause damage.
According to a report from the Pennsylvania Land Trust In the last two and a half years, drilling companies were cited for 1,435 violations -- 952 of which were considered most likely to harm the environment.
President Barack Obamas remarks on energy from 2012 State of the Union Address “We have a supply of natural gas that can last America nearly one hundred years, and my administration will take every possible action to safely develop this energy.” “ Experts believe this will support more than 600,000 jobs by the end of the decade.” “ And Im requiring all companies that drill for gas on public lands to disclose the chemicals they use.” America will develop this resource without putting the health and safety of our citizens at risk.” “The development of natural gas will create jobs and power trucks and factories that are cleaner and cheaper, proving that we dont have to choose between our environment and our economy. “ “And by the way, it was public research dollars, over the course of thirty years, that helped develop the technologies to extract all this natural gas out of shale rock -- reminding us that government support is critical in helping businesses get new energy ideas off the ground.”
“There it goes. Im not even getting a gallon of water. Im done. I lived here 16 years and the only thing I know thats changed in my environment is these gas wells," said McEvoy”. “Ive never seen a rush of complaints about drinking water problems like I have since the Marcellus shale industry moved in here," said Myron Arnowitt, the director of Pennsylvanias Clean Water Action”. “The drilling is far too close to where peoples houses are, to where there drinking water is coming from. There needs to be much greater protection, said Arnowitt”. “I think it adds to the security the country can have, that we can do what President (Barack) Obama talked about and do it safely and have the economic benefit, this is not an either or." said Kathryn Klaber, director of the Marcellus Shale Coalition, a group that represents drilling companies”.
Drillingfor Marcellus shale uses millions of gallons of water at each well. The average amount used per well is around 4 million gallons .
Marcellus Shale employees earn $30,000 more than Pa. workers. According to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Utica and Marcellus shale wells have been drilled in Monroe and Noble counties, and permits have been obtained for several others.
Based on a New York Times survey 45 percent of people said they support drilling. 33 percent of people said they neither support nor oppose drilling. And 21 percent of people said they oppose drilling.
Size • 63 Million acres over 6 states (New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Ohio) • 1,700 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) of gas in place • 500 TCF recoverable potential • 500,000 potential well sites Field Development • 2000+ wells drilled to date 2005-2010 (Pennsylvania) • 900 to be drilled in 2010, up from 195 in 2008 (Pennsylvania) • 2000 well permits issued in 2010 (Pennsylvania) • $100+ Billion in projects committed to the gas field
Production • 1 BCF/Day (Mid 2010) • 6-8 BCF/Day projected by 2014 • 10% of us Gas production by 2011, 30% by 2014 • $1 per MCF wellhead production costs achieved by Chesapeake in 2009 Infrastructure • $30 Billion in infrastructure projects needed over the next 5 years • $100 Billion in infrastructure needed over the next 20 years
Corbett announces new environmental regulations law in regards to Marcellus Shale Drilling in PA. Optional fee by County can be imposed on the drilling for gas in the Marcellus Shale.
Ifall eligible counties adopt the fee into law estimated revenues will approximate $180 million this year Optional Marcellus Shale fees could reach $264 million in 2014.
As America demands more and more energy, the role that natural gas will play in that demand is uncertain. One thing that is certain is the Marcellus play is shaping up to be a key supplier for domestic natural gas. Impacts from this industry are uncertain as well. Historically, the energy industry has gone through times of "boom and bust" and is driven by the economical conditions present across the nation. The industry is also known for paying a higher wage, on average, compared to an equivalent manufacturing job. One thing that is not uncertain is that the natural gas industry associated with Marcellus Shale exploration will give the nation another source to potentially reduce the intake of foreign supplies of natural gas.
"Marcellus Shale - Appalachian Basin Natural Gas Play." Marcellus Shale Gas: New Research Results Surprise Geologists! Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://geology.com/articles/marcellus- shale.shtml>. "What Is Shale Gas and Why Is It Important?" EIAs Energy in Brief:. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.eia.gov/energy_in_brief/about_shale_gas.cfm>. "Marcellus Shale Gas Drillers Committed 1,435 Violations in 2.5 Years, Report Says." The Patriot-News. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2010/08/marcellus_shale_gas_drillers_ c.html>. "The Promise." Energy From Shale. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.energyfromshale.org/about- shale-gas>. "Marcellus Shale Employees Earn $30,000 More than Pa. Workers." The Rocket. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.theonlinerocket.com/mobile/news/marcellus-shale-employees- earn-30- 000-more-than-pa-workers-1.2794581>. "What President Obama Will Say About Natural Gas Drilling During The State Of The Union." StateImpact Pennsylvania. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://stateimpact.npr.org/pennsylvania/2012/01/24/what-president-obama-will-say- about-natural-gas-drilling-during-the-state-of-the-union/>.
"FAQs - Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection." U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/faq/?faqID=357>.