Judge Advocate Gen. Francisco OliveAfter fishing as much evidence as possible, on November 20, 1896, the preliminary investigation on Rizal began. During the five-day investigation, Rizal was informed of the charges against him before Judge Advocate Colonel Francisco Olive. He was put under interrogation without the benefit of knowing who testified against him. Presented before him were two kinds of evidences – documentary and testimonial. There were a total of fifteen exhibits for the documentary evidence. Testimonial evidences, on the other hand, were comprised of oral proofs provided by Martin Constantino, Aguedo del Rosario, Jose Reyes, Moises Salvador, Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato Arellano, Pio Valenzuela, Antonio Salazar, Francisco Quison, and TimoteoPaez. These evidences were endorsed by Colonel Olive to Governor Ramon Blanco who designated Captain Rafael Dominguez as the Judge Advocate assigned with the task of deciding what corresponding action should be done. Dominguez, after a brief review, transmitted the records to Don Nicolas de la Peña, the Judge Advocate General, for an opinion. Peña's recommendations were as follows: Rizal must be immediately sent to trial He must be held in prison under necessary security His properties must be issued with order of attachment, and as indemnity, Rizal had to pay one million pesos Instead of a civilian lawyer, only an army officer is allowed to defend Rizal. Although given with “privilege” to choose his own defense counsel, this was limited to a list of 100 names – both first and second lieutenants - that the Spanish authorities provided him. Of the list, one familiar name stood out – Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade. Rizal discovered that the said lieutenant was the brother of Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade who worked as Rizal's personal body guard in Calamba in 1887.
Two kinds of evidence were presented against Rizal, namely documentary and testimonial. Documentary evidence included letters which allegedly implicate Rizal in the Propaganda movement, several transcripts of speech wherein his name was used by the Katipunan, as well as several of his poems which were highly nationalistic in nature. Testimonial evidence, on the other hand, consisted of the oral testimonies of Rizal's various acquaintances.
Rebellion - open, organized, and armed resistance to one's government orrulerSedition - anyaction, especially in speech or writing, promoting such discontentorrebellion.
Manifesto – a public written declaration of principles
Written in German
On May 18, 1935, the lost "original" document of Rizal’s retraction was discovered by the archdiocesan archivist Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M.
Summary• July 31 – left Dapitan• August 6 – arrived in Manila• September 3 – left Manila for Spain• September 7 – stopped over in Singapore• September 30 – left for Spain• October 3 – ship arrived in Barcelona
Summary• October 6 – jailed at Montjuich Castle; 8:00 p.m. sailed for Manila• November 3 – arrived in Manila• November 20 – preliminary investigation began
Personalities• Judge Advocate Gen Francisco Olive• Gov. Ramon Blanco• Capt. Rafael Dominguez• Don Nicolas dela Pena
Dela Pena’sRecommendation• Rizal be immediately brought to trial• Be kept in prison• An order of attachment be issued against his properties, with PhP1M indemnity• Be defended by an army officer
Personalities• Gov. Gen. Camilo Polavieja• Don Luis Taviel de Andrade
Summary• December 8 – chose his defender• December 11 – presented with charges• December 13 – charges were referred to Gov. Gen. Polavieja
Charges• Rebellion• Sedition• Illegal association
Rizal’s Manifesto• December 15• appeal - stop the unnecessary shedding of blood• education and industry = key to liberty• Judge Advocate Gen. Nicolas dela Pena recommended to Gov. Polavieja to suppress the Manifesto
Letter to BlumentrittMy Dear Brother: When you receive this letter I shall bedead. Tomorrow at seven I shall be shot, but Iam innocent of the crime of rebellion. I am going to die with a clear conscience. Goodbye, my best, my dearest friend andnever think ill of me.Fort Santiago, December 29, 1896 Jose Rizal
Summary• December 25 – sent a letter to Andrade• December 26 – trial began
The trial• Cuartel del Espana• Members of the military court • Lt. Colonel Jose Togores Arjona • Capt. Ricardop Munoz Arias • Capt. Manuel Reguera • Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio • Capt. Braulio Rodriguez Nunez • Capt. Manuel Diaz Escribano • Capt. Fernando Perez Rodriguez
The trial• Defense Counsel - Lt. Taviel de Andrade• Judge Advocate - Capt. Rafael Dominguez• Prosecuting Attorney – Lt. Enrique de Alcocer• Spectators
Letter to his father• December 30, 6:00 a.m Pardon me for the pain with which Irepay you for your sorrow and sacrifices formy education. I did not want this nor didprefer it.Goodbye, Father, goodbye… Jose Rizal
The Retraction• December 29, 11:30 p.m• Witnesses • Juan del Presno, Chief of the Guard Detail • Eloy Moure, Adjutant of the Plaza
The RetractionI declare myself a catholic and in this Religion in which Iwas born and educated I wish to live and die.I retract with all my heart whatever in my words,writings, publications and conduct has been contrary tomy character as son of the Catholic Church. I believe andI confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatevershe demands. I abominate Masonry, as the enemy whichis of the Church, and as a Society prohibited by theChurch. The Diocesan Prelate may, as the SuperiorEcclesiastical Authority, make public this spontaneousmanifestation of mine in order to repair the scandalwhich my acts may have caused and so that God andpeople may pardon me.
The Retraction• Four copies • December 30. 1896 • La Voz Espanola • Diario de Manila • February 14, 1897 • La Juventud (Barcelona, Spain) • May 1935 • Fr. Balaguer’s text