Acids, Bases, Salts<br />Notes<br />PropertyAcidsAlkalisDefinitionA substance that produces Hydrogen ions, H+, when dissol...
Carbon
Potassium
Zinc
Calcium
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Acids, bases, salts

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Acids, bases, salts

  1. 1. Acids, Bases, Salts<br />Notes<br />PropertyAcidsAlkalisDefinitionA substance that produces Hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in waterA metal oxide or metal hydroxide that produces is soluble in waterpH valueAbove 7Below 7Litmus paper effectTurns blue litmus paper redTurns red litmus paper blue<br />Acids<br />Strong acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) fully ionize in water to form H+ ions.HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />Weak acids (ethanoic acid: CH3COOH) only partially ionize in water to form H+ ions.CH3COOH (aq) CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq)<br />ReactionsChemical EquationsAcid + Base --> Salt + H20HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l)Acid + Metal --> Salt + H2 (g)H2SO4 (aq) + Zn (s) --> ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)Acid + Metal Oxide --> Salt + H20HNO3 (aq) + Mg0 (aq) ---> Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H20 (l)Acid + Metal Carbonate --> Salt + C02 (g) + H20HCl (aq) + Cu(OH)2 (aq) --> CuCl2 + C02 (g) + H20 (l)<br />Alkalis<br />Strong alkalis (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH4OH) fully ionize in water to form OH- ions.NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />Weak alkalis (NH3) only partially ionize in water to form OH- ions.NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />ReactionsChemical EquationsAlkali + Acid --> Salt + H20NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l)Alkali + Ammonium salt --> Salt + NH3 (g) + H20 (l)NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) --> NaCl (aq) + NH3 (g) + H20 (l)Alkali + Metal salt (aq) --> Metal Hydroxide + another saltCa(OH)2 (aq) + KCl (aq) --> KOH (aq) + CaCl2 (aq)<br />Oxides<br />Basic OxideAmphotetic OxideAcidic OxidesNeutral OxidesMetal OxidesTransition metal OxidesNon-metal OxidesSome non-metal Oxides<br />Salts- Solubility<br />Soluble Insoluble Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-Cl-PbCl2, AgClSO42-BaSO4, CaSO4, PbSO4Na2CO3, K2CO3 ,(NH4)2CO3CO32-<br />Salts – Qualitative Analysis<br />CationNaOH(aq)Excess NaOH (aq)NH3 (aq)Excess NH3 (aq)Ca2+White pptInsolubleNo pptNo pptAl3+White pptDissolvesWhite pptInsolubleZn2+White pptDissolvesWhite pptDissolvesFe2+Green pptInsolubleGreen pptInsolubleFe3+Brown pptInsolubleBrown pptInsolublePb2+White pptDissolvesWhite pptInsolubleCu2+Blue pptInsolubleBlue pptDissolves, deep blue solutionNH4+No ppt<br />AnionTestObservationsCl-Add HNO3 and AgNO3White ppt (AgCl)I-Add HNO3 and AgNO3Yellow ppt (AgI)NO3-Add NaOH (aq), warm, add AlNH3(g) liberatedSO42-Add HNO3 and Ba(NO3)2White ppt (BaSO4)CO32-Add HCl (aq)CO2(g) liberated<br />GasTestH2Extinguishes a lighted splint with a ‘pop’ soundO2Relights a glowing splintCO2Forms white ppt with limewaterCl2Moist blue litmus turns red then whiteNH3Moist red litmus turns blueSO2Turns potassium dichromate green<br />Testing for H2O<br />Anhydrous CuSO4 (white) turns blue,Anhydrous CoCl2 (blue) turns pink.<br />Workout Questions<br /><ul><li>Element X burns in air to form an oxide that dissolves in both acids and alkalis. What is X likely to be?
  2. 2. Carbon
  3. 3. Potassium
  4. 4. Zinc
  5. 5. Calcium
  6. 6. Bubbles are seen when which of the following is added to dilute sulphuric acid?
  7. 7. NaOH (aq)
  8. 8. Cu (s)
  9. 9. MgO
  10. 10. ZnCO3
  11. 11. Which of the following is true of alkalis in aqueous solutions?
  12. 12. They produce CO2 (g) when reacted with metal carbonates
  13. 13. They produce a pungent gas when reacted with ammonium salts
  14. 14. They produce bubbles when neutralized with acids
  15. 15. They turn blue litmus paper red
  16. 16. When Y dissolves in HNO3 (aq), the gas produced extinguished a lighted splint with a ‘pop’ sound. What could Y be?
  17. 17. Hydrogen gas
  18. 18. Carbon dioxide
  19. 19. Zinc
  20. 20. Copper
  21. 21. When CaCo3 is added to aqueous HCl, which of the following takes place?
  22. 22. A gas is produced that turns limewater chalky
  23. 23. There is a white ppt produced
  24. 24. A gas is liberated that relights a glowing splint
  25. 25. The resulting solution turns red litmus paper blue
  26. 26. Which compound will not neutralize acidic soils?
  27. 27. Sodium carbonate
  28. 28. Sodium chloride
  29. 29. Sodium oxide
  30. 30. Sodium hydroxide
  31. 31. A sample of aqueous nitric acid has a pH value of 2. What could be a possible pH value after adding Potassium Iodide?
  32. 32. 2
  33. 33. 5
  34. 34. 7
  35. 35. 9
  36. 36. When Ammonium Chloride is added to solution P, gas Q is liberated.
  37. 37. Which is likely to be P and Q?
  38. 38. PQa.Hydrochloric acidChlorine b.Calcium hydroxideCarbon dioxidec.Potassium hydroxideAmmonia d.Water Ammonia
  39. 39. Which of the following will produce Copper(II) Sulphate when added to H2SO4?
  40. 40. I. CopperII. Copper Oxide
  41. 41. III. Copper CarbonateIV. Copper Hydroxide
  42. 42. I only
  43. 43. II and III only
  44. 44. II, III and IV only
  45. 45. All of the above
  46. 46. Which of the following react to produce salt and water only?
  47. 47. HCl and Ca(OH)2
  48. 48. H2SO4 and MgCl2
  49. 49. Ca(OH)2 and NH4Cl
  50. 50. HCl and ZnCO3
  51. 51. Barium carbonate is added to an excess of nitric acid.
  52. 52. Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for this reaction
  53. 53. What is observed?
  54. 54. ________________________________________________________________________
  55. 55. Write out balanced chemical equations with state symbols for the following reactions. Describe any expected observations and briefly outline tests for any gases formed.
  56. 56. Calcium hydroxide and ammonium sulphate
  57. 57. Hydrochloric acid and copper
  58. 58. Sulphuric acid and iron (III) carbonate
  59. 59. Phosphoric acid and aluminium oxide

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