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Organic chemistry


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Organic chemistry

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons Functional Groups
  2. 2. Types of Molecular Compounds  Inorganic compounds  Organic compounds: containing only carbon  Exceptions: CN, CO2, CO3 (these are not organic)  Hydrocarbons: limited to carbon and hydrogen atoms
  3. 3. Examples of hydrocarbons Fig. 4.2, page 54
  4. 4. Examples of hydrocarbons Fig. 4.4, page 55
  5. 5. Classes of Hydrocarbons  Alkane  Alkene  Alkyne
  6. 6. Alkanes  Distinguishing Feature: Single Bonds  Have only single bonds between carbon atoms  General Formula: CnH2n+2
  7. 7. Prefix Naming System #C Inorganic Organic 1 Mono Meth 2 Di Eth 3 Tri Prop 4 Tetra But 5 Penta Pent 6 Hexa Hex 7 Hepta Hept 8 Octa Oct 9 Nona Non 10 Deca Dec Organic Prefix mnemonic: Monkeys Eat Peeled Bananas
  8. 8. Naming Alkanes # C Prefix Alkane name Alkane formula 1 Meth Methane CH4 2 Eth Ethane C2H6 3 Prop Propane C3H8 4 But Butane C4H10 5 Pent 6 Hex 7 Hept 8 Oct 9 Non 10 Dec
  9. 9. Alkenes  Distinguishing Feature: Double Bonds  Have at least one double bond between carbon atoms  General formula: CnH2n
  10. 10. Naming Alkenes # C Prefix Alkene name Alkene formula 1 Meth 2 Eth Ethene C2H4 3 Prop Propene C3H6 4 But Butene C4H8 5 Pent 6 Hex 7 Hept 8 Oct 9 Non 10 Dec
  11. 11. Alkynes  Distinguishing Feature: Triple Bonds  Have at least one triple bond between carbon atoms  General Formula: (CnH2n-2):
  12. 12. Naming Alkynes # C Prefix Alkyne name Alkyne formula 1 Meth 2 Eth Ethyne C2H2 3 Prop Propyne C3H4 4 But Butyne C4H6 5 Pent 6 Hex 7 Hept 8 Oct 9 Non 10 Dec
  13. 13. Naming Hydrocarbons If there are multiple double/triple bonds:  Number chain from the end that gives the lowest number to the double/triple bond  Use number-comma-number-dash (#,#-) system for indicating location of double/triple bond  Multiple double/triple bonds and functional groups indicated with prefix (di, tri)
  14. 14. Examples with multiple double or triple bonds  1,3-pentadiene  1,4-pentadiene
  15. 15. What you won’t be tested on:  Molecules with BOTH double and triple bonds
  16. 16. Branching  Side chains that come off the parent chain  Be careful, some drawings look like there are side chains but they aren’t  Always count the number of carbons to get the longest continuous carbon chain
  17. 17. Naming Branches  Identify the parent chain:  the longest continuous chain of carbon  If there are double/triple bonds, they take priority and must be part of the parent chain  Number the parent chain to identify location of branch(es)  Use number-dash indication  Prefix (di, tri) used if more than one of the same type of branching exists  Branches can be listed in alphabetical order or by complexity
  18. 18. Examples with Branching  3-methyl-1,4pentadiene  2,4-dimethyl-1,3pentadiene  3-methyl-2-ethyl-1,3pentadiene
  19. 19. What you won’t be tested on:  Branches that have double or triple bonds  However don’t be tricked. The example below is NOT a branch with a double bond:  2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene
  20. 20. Drawing Organic Compounds  Complete structural diagram: shows how all atoms in a structure are bonded  Condensed structural diagram: simplifies the presentation of the structure by omitting the use of lines to represent bonds  Line structure diagram  Combination of line and structural
  21. 21. Line Diagrams  Carbon bonds are indicated with a line segment where the ends and points of the line segment represents a carbon  Hydrogens are not shown but assumed  Other atoms are shown as necessary
  22. 22. Functional group  A group of atoms that impart specific physical and chemical properties to an organic compound
  23. 23. Applications of functional groups  Knowing what functional groups a molecule contains allows for prediction of the properties of that molecule  Examples of physical properties: solubility, boiling point  Examples of chemical properties: reactivity
  24. 24. Useful in industries Pharmaceutical industry Perfume and cosmetics (alcohol-OH) Biomedical engineering Materials science engineering (ceramics, polymers, metals)  Aerospace industry (airplanes, spacecraft)    
  25. 25. Functional Group: Alcohol (hydroxyl)  Functional group called hydroxyl  Naming ends in –ol  Example: Methanol, ethanol
  26. 26. Naming Alcohols  Location of functional group must be indicated with a number for chains with 3 or more carbons  Example: 1-propanol, 2-propanol
  27. 27. Priorities in Naming  Functional group names take priority over double/triple bond on the parent chain  Thus, the presence of an alcohol group means that the carbon that the OH is attached to MUST be part of the parent chain regardless of length and MUST be lowest number
  28. 28. Examples of hydroxyl with priorities  3-butyn-2-ol  2-methyl-2-butyl1,3-propandiol
  29. 29. What you won’t be tested on:  Double/triple bonds that end up as branches because of the presence of the OH group  But you can be given a molecule with OH and double/triple bonds that are both on the parent chain  1-propen-2-ol