Musculoskeletal system


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Musculoskeletal system

  1. 1. Skeleton types Muscle types How the body moves Musculoskeletal System
  2. 2. Musculoskeletal  All the bones and muscles in the body
  3. 3. Skeleton  Consists of 3 different types of connective tissue:  Ligament  Cartilage  Bone  Connective tissue are cells are held together by a liquid / solid / gel matrix
  4. 4. Types of Connective Tissue
  5. 5. Ligament  Tough, elastic  Hold bones together at the joints
  6. 6. Cartilage  Dense connective tissue  Found the ends of bones that form joints  Provides strong, flexible, low-friction support
  7. 7. Chicken Leg Cartilage
  8. 8. Knee Joint Cartilage
  9. 9. Bone  Tissue is hard and dense  Consists of bone cells  In a matrix of minerals and collagen fibres  Canals inside bones contain nerves and blood vessels  206 bones in the adult human body
  10. 10. Bones in Head and Torso Bone Common term / location Cranium Mandible Clavicle Scapula Vertebra Sternum Ribs Sacrum Pelvic girdle
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Bones in Head and Torso Bone Common term / location Cranium Skull Mandible Jaw Clavicle Collar bone Scapula Shoulder blade Vertebra Spine Sternum Breast bone Ribs Rib cage Sacrum Tail bone Pelvic girdle Hips
  13. 13. Bones in the limbs Arm Bone Location Leg Location Humerus Femur Ulna Tibia Radius Fibula Patella Hand bones Location Foot bones Location Carpals Tarsals Metacarpals Metatarsals Phalanges Phalanges
  14. 14. Bones in the limbs Arm Bone Location Leg Location Humerus Upper arm Femur Thigh Ulna Forearm Tibia Leg Radius Forearm Fibula Leg Patella Knee cap Hand bones Location Foot bones Location Carpals Wrist Tarsals Ankle Metacarpals Hand Metatarsals Foot Phalanges Fingers Phalanges Toes
  15. 15. Muscle Tissue  Bundles of long cells  Capable of shortening or contracting  Function: movement  more than 600 muscles in human body  muscle makes up 30-40% of body mass
  16. 16. Types of Muscle  Smooth  Cardiac  Skeletal
  17. 17. Types of Muscle  Smooth  Cardiac  Skeletal
  18. 18. Smooth Muscles  Function: to alter activity of various body parts to meet the needs of the body at that time  contractions are slow and uniform  fatigue resistant  Involuntary  e.g. visceral organs: stomach, intestine, uterus, bladder, blood vessels
  19. 19. Cardiac Muscle  Function: to provide the contractile activity of the heart  form the heart’s thick walls  very fatigue resistant  striated  involuntary
  20. 20. Skeletal Muscle  Function: movement  During contraction, skeletal muscle shortens and moves various parts of the skeleton  most prevalent muscle in human body  attach to bone through connective tissue tendons or other tissue  striated or striped  Can be fatigued  voluntary control
  21. 21. Types of Muscle Muscle Types Smooth Cardiac Skeletal Function Structure (striations or not) Fatigue (resistant or not) Control (voluntary or involuntary) Examples
  22. 22. Muscle Cell  Also called muscle fiber  Long and striated  1-50 mm in length  Muscle fibers are largest cells in the body  diameter of the human hair  40-50 microns wide  Multi-nucleated
  23. 23. Tendon  attach muscle to bone  muscle fibers are continuous with the tendon
  24. 24. Muscles Consists of:  Bundle of muscle fibers/tissue  connective tissue  neurons  blood vessels
  25. 25. Movement  Nerve signals muscles to contract pulling on the bones they are attached to  Muscles can not push the bones back into position  Thus, muscles must always work in pairs to perform opposing movements
  26. 26. Muscle Pair Example
  27. 27. Types of Movement  Extension  Flexion  Adduction  Abduction  Circumduction  Rotation  Supination  Pronation  Inversion  Eversion Entertaining and educational:
  28. 28. Your Muscle Work: Instructions  Work in groups of 3  Choose a muscle or muscle group  Find the official scientific name of your muscle(s)  Research a stretching activity that prepares that muscle for other more strenuous activities  Identify one modification to the stretch that makes it either easier to perform, or more challenging  Classify the type of muscle movement involved in each activity  Present the activity to the class with appropriate explanations.  Hand in a complete summary chart (see next slide) for marks.
  29. 29. Muscle Work summary chart Common name of muscle Scientific name of muscle(s) Name of Stretch Sketch/picture (Use proper labels. If taken from the internet, provide APA reference) Explanation of activity Modification of activity Classification of modification (More or less challenging) Type of movement