Interphase
Mitosis
 Scientists have
identified a repeating
cycle of events in the
life of a cell
 This cycle of events is
called the cell c...
Every hour, about one billion (109
) cells die and
one billion cells are made in your body. Part of
the cell cycle include...
 The cell cycle has four phases:
 G1 Phase
 S Phase
 G2 Phase
 M Phase
Interphase
 Composed of G1, S,
G2
 Where cell spends
most (~90%) of its
time
 Often called the
“resting” phase but
cell is not at ...
 Often called the “resting”
phase but cell is not at rest
 Cell may not be dividing but
it is active
 Chromosomes are
stored in the
nucleus
 Every cell that
contains a nucleus
will have
chromosomes
 Genetic information is
stored on chromosomes
 The coded information
on chromosomes is
called DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid)
 Chromatin:
the unwound
form of the
chromosome
 Condensed:
the tightly
wound
(coiled) form
of the
chromosome
Nuclear
por...
 Chromosomes unwind
when the cell is not
dividing
 Unwound chromosomes
are available to be “read”
by the cell’s machiner...
 Condensation occurs at the
beginning of cell division
 Condensed chromosomes
are unavailable to be
“read” (like a close...
 Work in groups to model each phase of the cell cycle
using the candies provided
 You must should your model to your tea...
 Period of rapid growth
 New proteins and organelles are produced
 Chromosomes are unwound (chromatin)
 Preparing for ...
 Cell leaves cell
cycle
 Can be temporary
or permanent
 But not
necessarily dead
 Example: neurons
 Where a cell
checks to make
sure it is able to
continue to the
next phase
 Animation:
http://highered.mcgraw-
hill.com/...
 Cell size must be
large enough
 Environment
must be suitable
 Cell makes a copy of its
entire set of
chromosomes (DNA)
 Q: Why is this
necessary?
 Q: What would the
chromosome look...
 Chromsomes that have
duplicated will have
two sister chromatids
attached to the same
centromere
 Sister chromatids
have...
 Cell grows larger in
size in preparation
for cell division
 Produces organelles
and structures
needed for cell
division...
 Shortest part
of interphase
 DNA is replicated
 Cell size must be
large enough
 Environment
must be suitable
 All of the cell’s energy is
devoted to the process
of cell division
 M phase is divided into
mitosis and cytokinesis
 ...
PMAT
 Prophase
 Metaphase
 Anaphase
 Telophase
Overview of Mitosis Animation:
 http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/...
1. Use candies to represent chromosomes, centrioles, spindle
fibers and nuclear envelope
2. Set up your cell in G2
3. Use ...
 Chromosomes condense
(no longer chromatin) and
become visible
 Nuclear envelope
disappears
 Centrioles move to the
pol...
Image is showing:
 Chromosomes
condensing
 Nuclear envelope
disappearing
http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials...
Illustration is showing:
 Nuclear envelope
disappearing
 Centrioles moving
to poles
 Spindle fibers
forming
 Chromosomes line up
along equator (center of
the cell)
 Spindle fibers attach to
the centromeres of each
chromosome
http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/result.html?_IXMAXHITS_=1&_IXACTION_=query&_IXFIRST_=16&_IXemailreal=true&_IXbox=25...
 Spindle fibres shorten
pulling the
chromosomes to
opposite poles
 Sister chromatids
separate at the
centromere and move...
Image is showing:
 Chromosomes
moving to the
poles
 Chromosomes uncoil
and become invisible
 Nuclear envelope
reappears
 Spindle fibers disappear
 Occurs simultaneously
...
Image is showing:
 Chromosomes
uncoiling
 Nuclear
envelope
reforming
 Separation of the cell and cell
contents:
 Cytoplasm
 Organelles
 Cell membrane
 Shows difference between animal and plant
cytokinesis: http://highered.mcgraw-
hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/c...
 Does not have to be
an equal division
 Daughter cells can:
 be different sizes
 Have different cellular
content (but ...
 Pinching the cell membrane
forming a furrow
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/cleavage.jpg
Fluorescence Microscopy
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/fluorescencemitosis/cytokinesis2large.html
Green: microtubules
...
 Formation of a cell plate
 Formation of a cell
plate
http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/telophase3_pc.jpg http://ww...
 Two daughter cells
each containing
identical genetic
information
 Daughter cells have the
same number of
chromosomes as...
 The whole process (G1, S, G2, M):
http://highered.mcgraw-
hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/
animation__h...
 Illustrations are only a snapshot in time and
often give the illusion that the phases are
quite distinct but the process...
For each diagram:
 Identify the stage
of mitosis
 Name one
characteristic
that helped you
identify the stage
http://home...
 Green: microtubules (spindle fibres and cytoskeleton)
 Blue: chromosomes
 Orange: mitochondria
http://preuniversity.gr...
http://www.blackspvbiology.50megs.com/Images2/OnionRootTipMitosis.jpg
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
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Cell cycle

  1. 1. Interphase Mitosis
  2. 2.  Scientists have identified a repeating cycle of events in the life of a cell  This cycle of events is called the cell cycle
  3. 3. Every hour, about one billion (109 ) cells die and one billion cells are made in your body. Part of the cell cycle includes making new cells in a process called cell division.
  4. 4.  The cell cycle has four phases:  G1 Phase  S Phase  G2 Phase  M Phase Interphase
  5. 5.  Composed of G1, S, G2  Where cell spends most (~90%) of its time  Often called the “resting” phase but cell is not at rest  Cell is not dividing but it is active
  6. 6.  Often called the “resting” phase but cell is not at rest  Cell may not be dividing but it is active
  7. 7.  Chromosomes are stored in the nucleus  Every cell that contains a nucleus will have chromosomes
  8. 8.  Genetic information is stored on chromosomes  The coded information on chromosomes is called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  9. 9.  Chromatin: the unwound form of the chromosome  Condensed: the tightly wound (coiled) form of the chromosome Nuclear pore Nuclear membrane
  10. 10.  Chromosomes unwind when the cell is not dividing  Unwound chromosomes are available to be “read” by the cell’s machinery  e.g. open book  the DNA is accessible  thus the cell can carry out the instructions coded in it  Not visible under the microscope http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/interphase1_pc.jpg
  11. 11.  Condensation occurs at the beginning of cell division  Condensed chromosomes are unavailable to be “read” (like a closed book)  visible under the microscope
  12. 12.  Work in groups to model each phase of the cell cycle using the candies provided  You must should your model to your teacher after each phase is taught  Do NOT eat in the science classroom Model legend Licorice = chromosomes Large plate = cell Small plate = nucleus Other parts to show, but you will determine how Centromere Centrioles Spindle fibers Other materials available: Marshmallow Hard candy Toothpicks
  13. 13.  Period of rapid growth  New proteins and organelles are produced  Chromosomes are unwound (chromatin)  Preparing for DNA synthesis (S phase)
  14. 14.  Cell leaves cell cycle  Can be temporary or permanent  But not necessarily dead  Example: neurons
  15. 15.  Where a cell checks to make sure it is able to continue to the next phase  Animation: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/9834092339/student _view0/chapter10/control_of_the_ cell_cycle.html
  16. 16.  Cell size must be large enough  Environment must be suitable
  17. 17.  Cell makes a copy of its entire set of chromosomes (DNA)  Q: Why is this necessary?  Q: What would the chromosome look like now?
  18. 18.  Chromsomes that have duplicated will have two sister chromatids attached to the same centromere  Sister chromatids have identical genetic information
  19. 19.  Cell grows larger in size in preparation for cell division  Produces organelles and structures needed for cell division  Example: centrioles and nucleolus are duplicated http://biology.uoregon.edu/reference/ort_mitosis/images/I-image1-label.jpg
  20. 20.  Shortest part of interphase
  21. 21.  DNA is replicated  Cell size must be large enough  Environment must be suitable
  22. 22.  All of the cell’s energy is devoted to the process of cell division  M phase is divided into mitosis and cytokinesis  Q: Explain why the chromosome would be condensed in M phase.
  23. 23. PMAT  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase Overview of Mitosis Animation:  http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter10/mitosis.html  http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__mitosis_and_cytokinesis.html
  24. 24. 1. Use candies to represent chromosomes, centrioles, spindle fibers and nuclear envelope 2. Set up your cell in G2 3. Use additional candy to create structure for prophase 4. Create metaphase structure by making changes to your prophase structure 5. Create anaphase structure by making changes to your metaphase structure 6. Create telophase & cytokinesis structure by making changes to your metaphase structure
  25. 25.  Chromosomes condense (no longer chromatin) and become visible  Nuclear envelope disappears  Centrioles move to the poles of the cell  Spindle fibers begin to extend from the poles
  26. 26. Image is showing:  Chromosomes condensing  Nuclear envelope disappearing http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/early_late_prophase1_pc.jpg
  27. 27. Illustration is showing:  Nuclear envelope disappearing  Centrioles moving to poles  Spindle fibers forming
  28. 28.  Chromosomes line up along equator (center of the cell)  Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of each chromosome
  29. 29. http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/result.html?_IXMAXHITS_=1&_IXACTION_=query&_IXFIRST_=16&_IXemailreal=true&_IXbox=259047&_IXSPFX_=templates%2Ft&_IXFPFX_=templates%2Ft
  30. 30.  Spindle fibres shorten pulling the chromosomes to opposite poles  Sister chromatids separate at the centromere and move to the poles
  31. 31. Image is showing:  Chromosomes moving to the poles
  32. 32.  Chromosomes uncoil and become invisible  Nuclear envelope reappears  Spindle fibers disappear  Occurs simultaneously with cytokinesis  Daughter cells have identical genetic information
  33. 33. Image is showing:  Chromosomes uncoiling  Nuclear envelope reforming
  34. 34.  Separation of the cell and cell contents:  Cytoplasm  Organelles  Cell membrane
  35. 35.  Shows difference between animal and plant cytokinesis: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/ch apter10/animation_-_cytokinesis.html
  36. 36.  Does not have to be an equal division  Daughter cells can:  be different sizes  Have different cellular content (but nuclear content is the same)  Example: budding http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch31/31_07BuddingYeast.jpg
  37. 37.  Pinching the cell membrane forming a furrow http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/cleavage.jpg
  38. 38. Fluorescence Microscopy http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/fluorescencemitosis/cytokinesis2large.html Green: microtubules Blue: chromosomes Orange: mitochondria
  39. 39.  Formation of a cell plate
  40. 40.  Formation of a cell plate http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/telophase3_pc.jpg http://www.bio.txstate.edu/~dlemke/botany/1410lab/lab_exercises/lab3/cell_cycle/cytokinesis.jpg
  41. 41.  Two daughter cells each containing identical genetic information  Daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell
  42. 42.  The whole process (G1, S, G2, M): http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/ animation__how_the_cell_cycle_works.html  Mitosis dance: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ZEwddr9ho-4
  43. 43.  Illustrations are only a snapshot in time and often give the illusion that the phases are quite distinct but the process is actually fluid.  Animation: http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html  Stages of Mitosis (by HybridMedical): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGV3fv-uZYI
  44. 44. For each diagram:  Identify the stage of mitosis  Name one characteristic that helped you identify the stage http://home.comcast.net/~mjmayhew42/Reading%20Guides/Chapter%2010_files/image004.jpg
  45. 45.  Green: microtubules (spindle fibres and cytoskeleton)  Blue: chromosomes  Orange: mitochondria http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/2_CELL_DIVISION_files/image009.jpg
  46. 46. http://www.blackspvbiology.50megs.com/Images2/OnionRootTipMitosis.jpg

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