Leso spanish gender & number


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Learn how all Spanish nouns have gender (are masculine or feminine) and number (are singular or plural).

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Leso spanish gender & number

  1. 1. Spanish Word Gender & Number © Marie-Claire Hunter, 2013 www.learnenglishspanishonline.com
  2. 2. In Spanish every noun has a gender, it is either masculine or feminine.
  3. 3. Nouns that end in –o are usually masculine.
  4. 4. Spanish masculine nouns chico = boy gato = cat zapato = shoe
  5. 5. Of course there will always be exceptions! la mano = the hand although mano ends in ‘o’ this is a feminine noun
  6. 6. Nouns that end in –a are usually feminine.
  7. 7. Spanish feminine nouns chica = girl gata = cat luna = moon
  8. 8. Exceptions Now it would be wonderful if the –o and –a ending rule always worked for us to know if a noun was masculine or feminine but there are some exceptions.
  9. 9. Exceptions for nouns ending in ‘a’ There is a small group of words that come from the Greek language that end with –ma, -pa or –ta and these words are masculine. el problema = the problem el tema = the theme, subject el sistema = the system el mapa = the map el poeta = the poet el planeta = the planet el clima = the climate, the weather
  10. 10. Other common exceptions are … el día – the day, daytime el mediodía – noon el gorila – the gorilla el pijama – pajamas el sofá – sofa
  11. 11. But back to the easy ones, decide if these nouns are masculine or feminine by looking at their –o or –a endings (no tricks here) •la abuela (grandmother) •el cartero (mailman/postman) •la revista (magazine) •el niño (child/son) •el tío (uncle) •la reunión (meeting) •el teatro (theater) •el abuelo (grandfather) •el dormitorio (bedroom) •la enfermera (nurse) •la profesora (teacher) •la hija (daughter) •el libro (book) •la rosa (rose) •la guitarra (guitar) •la piscina (pool)
  12. 12. How did you do? •la abuela (grandmother) feminine •el cartero (mailman/postman) masculine •la revista (magazine) feminine •el niño (child/son) masculine •el tío (uncle) masculine •la reunión (meeting) feminine •el teatro (theater) masculine •el abuelo (grandfather) masculine •el dormitorio (bedroom) masculine •la enfermera (nurse) feminine •la profesora (teacher) feminine •la hija (daughter) feminine •el libro (book) masculine •la rosa (rose) feminine •la guitarra (guitar) feminine •la piscina (pool) feminine
  13. 13. ‘The’ Did you notice that each noun had either ‘el’ or ‘la’ in front of it? These are two of the Spanish words that mean ‘the’. ‘El’ and ‘la’ are called ‘definite articles’ because they indicate ‘definite’ or ‘specific’ nouns. Just like nouns, definite articles are either masculine (el) or feminine (la).
  14. 14. Definite & Indefinite Articles The definite article ‘the’ allows us to refer to a definite or specific noun. ‘the’ pencil – ‘el’ lapiz (the one on the table or the one that I’m pointing to etc) Theindefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘some’ allow us to speak about nouns in a general or non-specific way. ‘a’ pencil – ‘un’ lapiz (any old pencil) or ‘some’ pencils – ‘unos’ lapices (any old pencils)
  15. 15. A closer look at articles The English definite article is ‘the’. The English indefinite articles are ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘some’.
  16. 16. There are more articles in Spanish than there are in English: The definite articles ‘el’, ‘la’, ‘los’ and ‘las’ all mean ‘the’ but as you can see there are masculine and feminine, singular and plural forms.
  17. 17. And then you have the indefinite articles … ‘Un’ or ‘una’ meaning ‘a’ (nb. these words also mean ‘one’) and ‘unas’ and ‘unos’ meaning ‘some’.
  18. 18. Nouns with their articles Masculine articles go with masculine nouns the man: el hombre a man: un hombre Feminine articles go with feminine nouns the woman: lamujer awoman:unamujer
  19. 19. Now let’s practice, I’ll give you a phrase like ‘the’ man, and you change it to ‘a’ man. Eg. the man a man el hombre un hombre laseñorita (the young lady) ____señorita (a young lady) elchico (the boy) ____chico (a boy) la mesa (the table) ____ mesa (a table)
  20. 20. Did you say? laseñorita (the young lady)  unaseñorita (a young lady) elchico (the boy) unchico (a boy) la mesa (the table) unamesa (a table) If so, well done!
  21. 21. Nouns can also be singular or plural apple  apples If you want to make a noun plural: just add an -s if the noun ends in a vowel, or add an -esif the noun ends in a consonant manzana = apple manzanas = apples mujer = woman mujeres = women hombre = man hombres = men
  22. 22. Change these nouns from singular to plural. Eg. mesa (table)  mesas (tables) libro (book)  _______ (books) mujer (woman)  _______ (women) hombre (man)  _______ (men) pared (wall)  ______ (walls)
  23. 23. Hopefully you said … libro (book) libros(books) mujer (woman) mujeres (women) hombre (man) hombres (men) pared (wall) paredes(walls) If you did, great work!
  24. 24. You will need to use the plural articles with plural nouns. . Singular Plural Definite article‘the’ el, la los, las Indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘some’ un, una unos, unas Eg. The children. Losniños. Some children. Unosniños
  25. 25. See how these singular nouns go with singular articles, but that the plural nouns go with plural articles the man: el hombre the men: los hombres some men: unos hombres the woman: la mujer the women: lasmujeres some women: unasmujeres
  26. 26. Try this exercise! Depending on the gender and number of the noun, add the correct article. Eg. The men. Los hombres Some men. Unos hombres. • The children.  ____ niños. • Some children.  ____ niños. • The girls.  ____ chicas. • Some girls.  ____ chicas. • The books.  ____ libros. • Some books.  ____ libros. • The tables.  ____ mesas. • Some tables. ____ mesas.
  27. 27. How did you do? • The children.  Los niños. • Some children. Unosniños. • The girls.  Las chicas. • Some girls. Unaschicas. • The books. Loslibros. • Some books. Unoslibros. • The tables.  Las mesas. • Some tables. Unas mesas.
  28. 28. Everything must agree! We’ve learnt that nouns and their articles need to match, they can be singular or plural, masculine or feminine. El libro. The book. Los libros. The books. La mesa. The table. Las mesas. The tables. This rule also applies to words that describe nouns – adjectives. In English, adjectives usually go before the noun that they refer to, the ‘red’ book. But in Spanish they usually go after the noun. Try to train your ear to listen out for the similar sounds in a row of words in a sentence. (Masc/Sing) The red book. Ellibrorojo. (Fem/Sing) The red table. La mesaroja. (Masc/Pl) The red books. Loslibrosrojos. (Fem/Pl) The red tables. Las mesasrojas.
  29. 29. Here are some more adjectives that match the nouns that they describe - can you identify the masculine or feminine, singular or plural forms? El hombre gordo. = The fat man. Los hombres gordos. = The fat men. La mujergorda. = The fat woman. Las mujeresgordas. = The fat women.
  30. 30. gordo = fat (masculine singular) gorda = fat (feminine singular) gordos = fat (masculine plural) gordas = fat (feminine plural) El chico _________. (The fat boy.) La chica ____________. (The fat girl.) Los chicos ______. (The fat boys.) Las chicas ________. (The fat girls.) Can you choose the right form of gordo to complete the sentences?
  31. 31. You should have said … El chicogordo. (The fat boy.) La chicagorda. (The fat girl.) Los chicosgordos. (The fat boys.) Las chicasgordas. (The fat girls.) If you did, well done!
  32. 32. Some nouns are feminine but are used with the masculine singular article Agua is still really feminine noun, but to make it easier to say, it borrows the masculine singular article ‘el’. el agua (water) For the plural form it goes back to using the feminine plural articles ‘las’ or ‘unas’ as usual. lasaguas (the waters), unasaguas (some waters)
  33. 33. Now let’s see how much you can remember, fill in the gaps … In Spanish every ______ has a gender, it is either masculine or feminine. Nouns that end in –o are usually ________ and nouns that end in –a are usually _________. There are exceptions however, what gender are the following words? mapa, mano, día, agua, tema, planeta, sofa, mediodía? What are the four Spanish words that mean ‘the’? How do you say ‘a’ and ‘some’ in Spanish (four options)? How would you translate ‘the white tables’? What about ‘the white books’? What is special about ‘agua’ in its singular form?
  34. 34. How did you do? In Spanish every noun has a gender, it is either masculine or feminine. Nouns that end in –o are usually masculine and nouns that end in –a are usually feminine. There are exceptions however, what gender are the following words? mapa(masc), mano(fem), día(masc), agua(fem), tema(masc), planeta(masc), sofa (masc), mediodía(masc)? What are the four Spanish words that mean ‘the’? el,la, los, las How do you say ‘a’ and ‘some’ in Spanish (five options)? un, una, unos, unas How would you translate ‘the white tables’? las mesas blancas What about ‘the white books’? los librosblancos What’s special about ‘agua’ (water) in its singular form? It borrows the masculine article ‘el’ to make it easier to pronounce.
  35. 35. Well done, if you were able to answer the previous questions I think you are ready to move on to the next subject. But if you would like to know more about nouns and their gender, the following is supplementary information.
  36. 36. What about nouns that don’t end in o or a how can you know if they are masculine or feminine? Here are some general rules ….. Nouns ending in -dad / -tad / -tud are normally feminine la ciudad = the city la edad = the age la universidad = the university
  37. 37. Can you make those nouns plural? la ciudad = the city la edad = the age la universidad = the university hmmmm….
  38. 38. Did you say? …. lasciudades = the cities lasedades = the ages lasuniversidades = the universities Then you would be quite right!
  39. 39. Nouns that end in –cion / -sión / -gion are usually feminine la canción = the song la estación = the station la lección = the lesson
  40. 40. … so are nouns that refer to women: la madre – mother la mujer – woman, wife la chica – the girl la hija – the daughter la tía – the aunt la abuela – the grandma
  41. 41. Nouns with a stressed ‘a’ or ‘ha’ syllable at the beginning Intheir singular form these nouns borrow the masculine singular pronouns "el” and "un" . el asma (asthma), el habla (speech), el hada (fairy), el hambre (hunger) But in their plural forms, it's back to normal with the feminine articles …. el alma (soul) lasalmas(souls)
  42. 42. Some nouns have different meanings depending on which article you with them. el capital = capital la capital = capital city el cólera = cholera la cólera = anger, bile el coma = coma la coma = comma el corte = cut la corte = court el cura = priest la cura = cure el final = ending la final = sports final el frente = front la frente = forehead el papa = the pope la papa = potato el pendiente = earring la pendiente = slope, hillside el pez = fish la pez = tar, pitch
  43. 43. Abstract nouns ending in –ez are also usually feminine rigidez – rigidity la sensatez – soberness la validez – validity la vejez - old age, oldness So are nouns ending –triz la actriz – the actress la directriz – the directive la emperatriz – the empress
  44. 44. More feminine nouns Nouns ending in –umbre la costumbre (habit, custom) la incertidumbre (uncertainty, doubt) la legumbre (legume) Nouns that are feminine in their full form stay feminine even when shortened: la disco* – la discoteca la foto – la fotografía la moto – la motocicleta la tele – la televisión *(but when referring to a disk it’s el disco, masc)
  45. 45. Masculine Noun Endings Most nouns that end in –r, -l, -sand –n will be masculine. Other endings that can indicate a masculine noun include …. – ambreand –aje el alambre = wire el enjambre = swarm of bees el equipaje = luggage el paisaje = landscape
  46. 46. More masculine noun endings Nouns that end in –or or –ánare usually masculine as are those that end in a stressed vowel (í, ú etc). el amor = love el calor = heat el sudor = sweat el champú = shampoo
  47. 47. Nouns that refer to people Some nouns referring to people don’t change their endings but used with the feminine article they refer to a female and with the masculine article they refer to a male. la modelo = the model el modelo = the model A number of these nouns end in –istaor –crata. un/unaamante = a lover un/unaguía = a (tour) guide el/la idiota = the idiot, el/la testigo = the witness el/la artista = artist el/la florista = florist el/la aristócrata = aristocrat
  48. 48. Would you like to see how much you remember? Name the Spanish singular masculine article that means ‘the’. How about the feminine ‘one’ that also means ‘the’? What are the plural forms of ‘el’ and ‘la’? Now can you tell me the two Spanish words for ‘some’? Halfway there, now let’s test those noun endings, are these nouns masculine or feminine?: alambre?and how aboutlección? And what’s different about ‘mano’ (hand)?
  49. 49. And here you have the answers. Name the Spanish singular masculine article that means ‘the’: el How about the feminine one that also means ‘the’? la What are the plural forms of ‘el’ and ‘la’? los and las Now can you tell me the two Spanish words for ‘some’? unos or unas Now let’s test those noun endings, are these nouns masculine or feminine? alambre? masculine because it has the –ambre ending lección? feminine because it has the -ción ending. And what’s different about ‘mano’ (hand)? It ends in ‘o’ but it’s a feminine noun, la mano. Top work ¡bienhecho! I think you’re ready to move on to the next subject!  © Marie-Claire Hunter, 2013 www.learnenglishspanishonline.com