Israeli-Palestinian Conflict


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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

  1. 1. April 25th/26th, 2011 Bell Ringer Given what you Have learned about the history of Anti-Semitism throughout the world,- Do you believe the Jewish People should have their own homeland?
  2. 2. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict <ul><li>1914-Present </li></ul>
  3. 3. An Introduction Video by The Council on Foreign Relations
  4. 4. A “Perfect Storm” <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Historical and Economic Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Geopolitics </li></ul>
  5. 5. An Old Idea, An Ongoing Problem <ul><li>Through medieval Christian folklore, Jews were blamed for the crucifixion of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>This legend began to spread across Europe in the 13th century </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism began to intertwine with Nationalism </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Myth of the “Wandering Jew”
  7. 7. Late1800s <ul><li>Theodor Herzl, a leading Jewish sympathizer, states that a Jewish homeland is needed to stop the violence against the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Along with others, pushed for social reforms to fight discrimination against Jews </li></ul>
  8. 8. $ Ten-Dollar Words $ <ul><li>Zionism - a political movement that has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Determination - the principle that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty without external interference </li></ul><ul><li>Diaspora - the movement, migration, or scattering of a people away from an established or ancestral homeland </li></ul>
  9. 9. WWI: Seeds of Conflict
  10. 10. The Ottoman Empire in WWI <ul><li>Britain sought to protect its interests in the east </li></ul><ul><li>Britain encourages the Arab Hashemite tribe to rebel against the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange, British officers pledge support for an independent Arab state, although the specifics are vague </li></ul>
  11. 11. East Meets West
  12. 12. Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 <ul><li>“...Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca...” </li></ul>Hussein Bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca
  13. 13. The Arab Revolt, 1916-1918
  14. 14. The “Scrap of Paper” that Changed History
  15. 15. The British Mandate, 1920 <ul><li>The League of Nations grants Britain and France Control over much of former Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The LoN reiterates the Balfour Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>Undermines peace agreements between Zionists and Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to allow self-determination of native people </li></ul>
  16. 16. Winners and Losers: the Treaty of Versailles
  17. 17. Islam in the Middle East
  18. 19. Jews & Arabs in Palestine in 1920 <ul><li>In 1920, there was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs for every Jew </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs felt that they were losing their country </li></ul>
  19. 20. Between the World Wars <ul><li>The British High Commission appointed Haj Amin Al Husseini as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Husseini pushed a militant, Palestinian Arab nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Began a campaign of terror against jews </li></ul><ul><li>“ Izbah Al-Yahud” meant, “Slaughter all the Jews” </li></ul>
  20. 21. Palestine-Arab Revolt 1936-1939 <ul><li>As Jewish immigration continues, more violence breaks out </li></ul><ul><li>A Jewish militia works with British forces to protect communities </li></ul><ul><li>3-year period of violence between Arab militants and Jewish and British forces </li></ul>
  21. 22. Essential Question How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 set the groundwork for the on-going conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in the Middle East Today?
  22. 23. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany <ul><li>Hitler consolidates his power </li></ul><ul><li>establishes concentration camps </li></ul><ul><li>Passes Nuremberg race laws </li></ul><ul><li>Jews flee to palestine and elsewhere in response </li></ul>After Kristalnacht, attacks against Jews in 1939
  23. 24. A Change of Course <ul><li>The Peel Commission in 1937 investigates Arab-Jewish Violence and recommends a long-term solution </li></ul><ul><li>Plans to end Mandate for Palestine and create two states: one Jewish and One Arab </li></ul><ul><li>Places limits on further immigration and resettles Jews and Arabs to respective areas </li></ul>
  24. 25. Post- WWII & Jewish Resistance
  25. 26. “ Aliyah Bet” <ul><li>Illegal immigration continued to defy the British White Papers </li></ul><ul><li>In a Post-Holocaust World, Jewish immigrants were enthusiastic in their will to leave Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Some used Civil Disobedience, others did not </li></ul>
  26. 27. Jewish Freedom Fighters or “Terrorists”?
  27. 28. The Peel Commission <ul><li>Formed to investigate the causes of the Arab Revolt in Palestine in 1936-1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Published a report recommending a partition </li></ul><ul><li>British government rejects the plan as unworkable </li></ul><ul><li>As WWII breaks out, British attempt to limit further Jewish immigration </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Arab League Map showing the Arab League members colored by the decade of joining. Color codes are as follows: <ul><li>Adopts a nationalist tone </li></ul><ul><li>Presses for freedom from colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>The prevention of a Jewish state in Palestine </li></ul>
  29. 30. Post World War II and the United Nations <ul><li>By 1947, the British have made plans to leave the mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Massacres continue by both sides </li></ul><ul><li>The U.N passes Resolution 181 calling for separate Jewish and Arab states in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs reject the plan which would give more land to the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>The moment the British complete their withdrawal in May 1948 .... </li></ul>
  30. 31. Israel Declares! The moment the British complete their withdrawal in May 1948....
  31. 32. The very next day... <ul><li>Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq all invade Israel </li></ul><ul><li>but they ultimately lose much of the land the U.N. had set aside </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt is left in control of the Gaza Strip, Jordan Controls the West Bank </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Arab-Israel War What if the surrounding Arab Countries didn’t invade Israel? <ul><li>Under the U.N. plan, Israel would have everything in blue </li></ul><ul><li>Under the U.N. plan, the Arabs would get everything in red and green </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, the Arabs are left with only green </li></ul>
  33. 34. Whose land is this anyways?
  34. 35. The Right to Return U.N. passes Resolution 194, “refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest predictable date.”
  35. 36. 1956:The Cold War and the Suez Crisis <ul><li>In July 1956, the Egyptian President nationalizes the Suez Canal formerly controlled by a British and French company </li></ul><ul><li>Israel, Britain, and France all invade Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>However, the U.S. pushes for a withdrawal for fear of a showdown with.... </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Six-Days War, 1967 <ul><li>Israel launches a pre-emptive strike against Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan and Syria attack from the north, but Israel resists </li></ul><ul><li>Israel captures the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria </li></ul>
  37. 39. Six Days War Continued <ul><li>The war deeply weakens the Arab Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Emboldens Israeli nationalism and militarism </li></ul><ul><li>The UN passes Resolution 242, calling for the return of Arab lands in exchange for a “lasting peace.” </li></ul><ul><li>Israel expands Jewish settlements </li></ul>
  38. 40. Desperation and Terror
  39. 41. The Yom Kippur War <ul><li>During Ramadan, Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs have much more success but are ultimately beaten back </li></ul><ul><li>A U.N ceasefire takes effect </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. helps negotiate Israel’s withdrawal from Sinai </li></ul>
  40. 43. Diplomacy & Radicalization