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Putting Children First: Session 3.1.C Barbara Kalima-Phiri - Link between child marriage and economic empowerment [25-Oct-17]

Putting Children First: Identifying solutions and taking action to tackle poverty and inequality in Africa.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-25 October 2017

This three-day international conference aimed to engage policy makers, practitioners and researchers in identifying solutions for fighting child poverty and inequality in Africa, and in inspiring action towards change. The conference offered a platform for bridging divides across sectors, disciplines and policy, practice and research.

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Putting Children First: Session 3.1.C Barbara Kalima-Phiri - Link between child marriage and economic empowerment [25-Oct-17]

  1. 1. Child Marriage and Economic Empowerment of Households in Africa Putting Children first Conference, 23- 25th October,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Paper presented by: Barbara Kalima-Phiri World Vision International
  2. 2.  Introduction  Our Promise 2030  Livelihood Strategic Focus  Poverty - key driver of child marriages in Africa  Mozambique Case Study on savings groups & child marriages, and UPLIFT Project Uganda  Recommendations CONTENTS
  3. 3. TITLE GOES HERE  WV has launched Global Strategy, Our Promise 2030  WV Livelihoods strategy - ending intergenerational cycles of poverty  Our response: equipping the MV families with the knowledge, skills, and resources to ensure that children/ Adolescents and families are: • Well nourished and free of hunger • Resilient livelihoods, income, and assets • Resources and reasons to be in school • develop hope and skills for a productive future  Introduction
  4. 4. TITLE GOES HERE  Extreme Poverty is driving most HH to embark on negative coping strategies  Over 50% of girl children are brides before age 18  Nearly half of all children in sub-SSA live in extreme poverty-385m children surviving on less than $1.90 a day (World Bank/UNICEF)  children will account for 43% of global poverty by 2030 SDGTarget date (ODI Report, 2016).  Nearly 2m children u14 yrs old are HIV positive in SSA  43% of children in SSA do not have safe, accessible drinking water.  Poverty driving child marriages
  5. 5. Poverty - key driver of child marriages…others include 1. Economic factors 2. Lack of child policy enforcement & coordination 3. Traditional and religious beliefs and practices G r a p h , c h a r t , o r i m a g e c a n g o i n t h i s s p a c e
  6. 6. Lived Experiences of early marriages Pontinanta J. from South Sudan has nine siblings and neither of her parents is employed. She told Human Rights Watch that she was married in 2006 at the age of 13 because “my father did not want to pay my school fees. Sometimes we had no food at home”. Aguet N., married at age 15 to a 75-year-old man said,“This man went to my uncles and paid a dowry of 80 cows. I resisted the marriage. They threatened me.They said,‘If you want your siblings to be taken care of, you will marry this man.’ I said he is too old for me.They said,‘You will marry this old man whether you like it or not because he has given us something to eat. Helen, 16, stands with her husband Jade, 50, outside their home in a village near Juba. Helen married at 15 and said she would have chosen school over marriage, but her family was unable to afford school fees. Source: © 2013 Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch
  7. 7. Poverty is driving decisions to marry young. For poor families, with little money even for food and basic necessities, marrying their daughter early is an economic survival strategy: it means one less child to feed or educate.
  8. 8. TITLE GOES HERE Pathway out of poverty is about:  Graduating the most vulnerable families out of extreme poverty  Building secure livelihoods and market access  Promoting sustainable employment opportunities and;  Women Economic Empowerment  World Vision’s Approach to Ending Child Poverty
  9. 9.  2year Project ( 2013-2015) implemented in Chongoene located in Gaza Province.  To contribute to reduction in early marriages among girls aged 12-16 through access to savings and the provision of social support. Key Interventions:  18 Communities were sensitized about the importance of girls’ participation in savings groups. About 5.800, of whom 80% were teenagers and youth.  70 Adolescent savings groups formed with 1400 members of whom 60% are girls.  84 promoters trained on Savings Groups methodologies and SG monitoring;  800 adolescents trained on personal hygiene, sexual and reproductive health  35 Religious leaders trained on prevention of early marriages, GBV in partnership with UJAMA Centre from the University of Kwazulu Natal (South Africa).  3 religious leaders trained and linked with national forum of religious leaders against early marriages.  Used Provincial Radio station to broadcast messages about ending child marriage  Having started with 40 groups and 60.000,00 Mt ( $1000) savings in FY14, this year the 70 groups have savings of about 320.000,00 Mt ( $5,000) in 9 months. Mozambique Case Study - Improving the Well-being of Adolescent Girls
  10. 10.  Although DHS data for 2011 show a decrease to 48% the number of girls being married off by age 18, from 52% in 2008 (UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey), there is no statistical evidence of reduction in early marriages among girls aged 12-16 from the project despite: Increased access to savings and investment tools Increased financial literacy Increased awareness of root causes of early marriage BUT what is emerging is that:  Peer education - creating a positive influence and act as a “distraction”  Creative partnerships forged  Community engagement improved  Sustainability of project – use of community promoters Mozambique Case Study – Emerging Lessons
  11. 11. Selected Economic Empowerment interventions & CWB outcomes • Destiny Savings Group- World Vision Sierra Leone • Ghana, Study (Karlan et Udry, 2012) • Ghana Study (Cameron et Ananga, 2013) • Malawi Study (Ksoll et Forskningsenhed, 2013). More Research needed on economic strengthening and ending early child marriages  Income plays a role in building household assets and meeting basic needs etc  Income in a HH is necessary but not sufficient to reduce early marriages – other factors at play  Economic strengthening interventions act as “distraction”  Economic strengthening interventions are more effective when implemented with complementary activities – CASH +
  12. 12. Change stories Continued… UPLIFT project- EmpoweringYouth in Kampala- WorldVision Uganda VIDEO plift-project-empowering- youth-kampala Picture: Girls being taught to be a hairdresser (Credit-World Vision Uganda)
  13. 13. TITLE GOES HERE  Any interventions for improving social protection of children specifically in ending child marriage should include provision of consumption stipends and productive asset transfers  Investment in long term productive resilient livelihoods programs is essential to break intergenerational forms of poverty  Economic empowerment interventions targeting women are essential to ensuring that the benefits of livelihood reach children  Governments need to include children in poverty reduction plans and policies & ensure that child poverty is routinely measured and addressed at national levels  Proposed Recommendations
  14. 14. 1. Invest in impact evaluations to build evidence beyond story telling to position WV as a thought leader either at the regional level and at global levels. 2. Consider outsourcing M&E (Impact evaluations and report writing) to have credible data and evidence for external engagement. Partnering with universities and M&E agencies should be explored. 3. We have enough raw data that requires documentation to preposition with donors for funding but also to engage with governments for scale up of our approaches and our Campaign.This requires dedicated person to do documentation for targeted audiences 3 Issues for SLT to Consider