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Putting Children First: Session 2.4.A Vicky Johnson - Youth creativity in the face of uncertainty [24-Oct-17]


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Putting Children First: Identifying solutions and taking action to tackle poverty and inequality in Africa.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-25 October 2017

This three-day international conference aimed to engage policy makers, practitioners and researchers in identifying solutions for fighting child poverty and inequality in Africa, and in inspiring action towards change. The conference offered a platform for bridging divides across sectors, disciplines and policy, practice and research.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Putting Children First: Session 2.4.A Vicky Johnson - Youth creativity in the face of uncertainty [24-Oct-17]

  1. 1. Youth Creativity in the Face of Uncertainty Presenters : Vicky Johnson ( PhD ) PI for YOUR World research project University of Brighton Melese Getu ( PhD ) Country lead for YOUR World research Addis Ababa University Amid Ahmed (MSC) Research Assistant Milki Getachew Research assistant and PhD student Anannia Admassu Head of partner organization October 24,2017
  2. 2. Youth and Uncertainty Rights (YOUR) World Research Funded by ESRC-DFID Poverty Fund JULY 2016 – JUNE 2019 Partners: UNIVERSITY OF BRIGHTON, ActionAid Nepal, CHADET, ChildHope UK, University of Tribhuvan and University of Addis Ababa Insecurity and Uncertainty: Marginalised young people’s living rights in fragile and conflict affected situations in Nepal and Ethiopia Including 1000 young men, women and young people of the third gender in analysing their complex lives 250 case studies in each country Phase 1 Set up Phase 2 Co-construction with youth Phase 3 Detailed cases Phase 4 Verification Phase 5 Dissemination and take-up
  3. 3. PI Vicky Johnson Co-I Ande West RO Signe Gosmann Research Leads Melese Getu Sumon Kamal Tuladhar Research Ass/Officers Amid Ahmed Sabitra Neupane PhD Students Milki Getachew Shubhendra Man Shresthra Finance/admin Partner Directors Andrew Church Anannia Admasu Bimal Phnuyal Mentor Juliet Millican Programme Manager Jodie Ellis
  4. 4. Uncertainty defining factor in the complex lives of youth Daily coping strategies but uncertainty not necessarily negative How do marginalized and street-connected youth perceive and respond to uncertainty as they shape their rights?
  5. 5. Theory Bauman’s theories of insecurity, community and autonomy (2001, 2004, 2007, 2011) How do young people developing their identities and understandings of autonomy and a sense of belonging in response to uncertainty? How far does uncertainty lead youth to reject traditional norms, form new social norms and seek support and leadership in alternative groupings and forms of peer support? Reconceptualisation of Child Rights (Hanson and Nieuwenhuys 2013) Complexity – Living Rights, Social Justice and Translations Relational agency/ vulnerability – Oswell 2013, Butler 2014, 2017, Mizzen and Ofosu-kusi, Y. (2013)
  6. 6. Theoretical framework
  7. 7. Research sites and Study participants Focus groups NB until now- 50 WS & 50 cases Additional workshops with 250 youth to be conducted in verification stage Addis Ababa Hetosa Woreta Urban Rural Urban Rural 80 youths 80 youth 40 youth 40 youth Addis Ababa Hetosa Woreta 50 adults 50 adults 50 adults 12 stakeholders 12 stakeholders 12 stakeholders
  8. 8. Marginalised/ vulnerable young people and uncertainty Transitions and Growing Up Self/ Others and Relationships Mobility and Migration Place and Space Crisis Conflict/ Fragility Support Changes over Time Dimensions of Uncertainty to be assessed in YOUR World research
  9. 9. Participatory Research Methods 1: Open mapping 2. Youth led walk 3. Road and rivers of life 4. Physical map of mobility and migration 5. Photo narrative 6. Seasonal line of uncertainty 7. Relational mapping 8. Physical map of marginalization
  10. 10. Open mapping Physical map of marginalization Physical mobility map Rivers of life
  11. 11. Addis Ababa Ketema sub-city Case study Addisu , Oromo, age 21 I hold my passport in my pocket every day. Rather than living in poverty I am ready to take the risk of migrating illegally . I am always ready to go(Mesfin, 24, Male, Addis Ketema ) Mapping and youth-led walks help explore uncertainty in the places and spaces that marginalised young people inhabit and to explore structural inequalities in different contexts
  12. 12. Preliminary… • Due to high unemployment and underemployment many of the youth are feeling powerless in decision-making • Young women and men feel they are living in the certainty of poverty and want to escape and seek alternatives even if their journeys are risky • Young people don’t necessarily want to follow traditional transitions and move from rural to urban situations and out to the Gulf My family arranged a marriage with someone whom I don’t know. No one helped me in this condition and my only way out was to run away and move to the city (Taitu, 26, Female, Woreta town) • They are not looking at education as a way out – their aspirations are changing • They don’t see their solutions as education then to get a job, they want more immediate solutions like informal businesses • Due to growing landlessness there are family pressures and tensions
  13. 13. Preliminary… Drought in Hetosa • Seasonal uncertainty due fragile environment and drought • School drop-out and seasonal migration • Intersect with boys and girls mobility differently In the drought season I dropout as my brothers move with the cattle's to other places and the burden of the house lay on my hand (Chaltu, 15, Female, Hetosa rural ) • The drought shaped youth transition • When it rained and productivity was up they still migrated
  14. 14. Seasonal line of uncertainty
  15. 15. Support networks - peer group support • peers influencing education, migration decisions, delinquency If you are unemployed person you are most likely to be pulled into a peer group of drug users and create a problem for yourself and the community at large (Daniel, 20, Male, Addis Ketema) • But they also share in a positive way experience, information, resources, strategies especially amongst boys to migrate • Girls want to maintain relationships with family although some are rejected when they return from migration without resources or money
  16. 16. Overview of CHADET’s work - Operational areas o Addis Ababa – ‘Merkato” o Amhara o Oromiya - Projects: o HIV/AIDS, Prevention and rehabilitation project for children exposed to sexual exploitation, Alternative Basic Education, o Urban o Research about the migrant boys and girls
  17. 17. The Rural Project Implementation strategy Places of origin Transit Towns Destination Cities Refocusing its direction into: • Helping children avoid risky migration • Enhancing community engagement, CBOs • Girls Education
  18. 18. CHADET’s Music and Drama Group:
  19. 19. How CHADET’s work is informed by research • Research taken as one of its CHADET’s strategic objective, • Part of the initiative of CRPF • Collaborates with research and Higher learning Institutions (in and out of the country) • Serving as a local partnering organization for YOUR world Research in Ethiopia; • The National Reference Group
  20. 20. How does the outcomes of the research IMPACT on our work 1) Its impact on young people’s lives and for understanding the local context, i.e. adult attitudes, local practices, change local practices and design new interventions- 2) Informs CHADET’s policy and practice- develop programs that would build on the learning; 3) National level: the National reference group – MoWCA, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Population Counsel, YL, media 4) International: Advisory policy group, YL, academic discourses, International NGOs, DFID – inviting the government and other funders.
  21. 21. My Research My Background • The charity experience • Tension b/w the rights-based approach and the socio-cultural practices on childhood and children’s education/migration • Provide an autobiographical section reflexive position, changes in my own experience Title: Conceptualizing Childhoods: Perceptions and Practices of childhood migration and education among communities in North eastern Ethiopia
  22. 22. Research questions 1. How do the cultural environment, context and issues of globalization influence perceptions and practices of childhood migration and education? 1. How do intergenerational and peer relationships affect perceptions and practices of education and migration? 1. What are the prospects of the current educational, social protection and children’s policies for children and the challenges in their implementation?
  23. 23. Argoba Woreda ‘District’ • Relatively isolated and remote • Identity- Homogeneous ethnic group • Predominantly followers of a similar religion • Special Administrative structure
  24. 24. Thank you! Vicky Johnson ( PhD ) PI for YOUR World research project University of Brighton Melese Getu ( PhD ) Country lead for YOUR World research Addis Ababa University Amid Ahmed (MA) Research Assistant Milki Getachew Research assistant and PhD student Anannia Admassu Head of partner organization and PhD student October 24,2017
  25. 25. Review of the literature • Theoretical framework (new sociology of childhood-Different childhoods, The UN convention, national laws, constructivist approach ) • Intergenerational relations (changing overtime, children’s agency, the influence of peers,…) • Migration and Globalization (effects of global processes of transport, internet, telecommunications, influence on remote communities) • The educational policies (changing over time, ESDP, prospects and challenges of implementation…)
  26. 26. Preliminary Findings: • Improved interest on the part of the community to send their kids to school; • Since most of the primary schools are located in rural areas, many children are not able to go to high school; • Children are expected to start working at younger ages (starting from five yrs. on), • There is a changing tendency on the intergenerational relations as children tend to decide for themselves, e.g. decisions to migrate,
  27. 27. Preliminary Findings …(cont’d) • Limited space for children to participate in decisions, more serious on girls – but are given the opportunity to go to school for those living near schools, • Child marriage is considered as normal – expected at 15, • Seeing the impact of globalization, Mobile phones, Movies on TV – at least in semi-urban centers – Contesting existing cultural and religious values; • Young boys and girls migrate to Djibouti and Saudi – they invest in buying houses in an emerging town that is currently serving as administrative center; • Other young people in the community tend to migrate as they see others supporting their parents.
  28. 28. Thank you. Vicky Johnson ( PhD ) Melese Getu ( PhD )