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Putting Children First: Session 2.1.C Foster Kholowa - Can CBCCs do the magic [24-Oct-17]

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Putting Children First: Identifying solutions and taking action to tackle poverty and inequality in Africa.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-25 October 2017

This three-day international conference aimed to engage policy makers, practitioners and researchers in identifying solutions for fighting child poverty and inequality in Africa, and in inspiring action towards change. The conference offered a platform for bridging divides across sectors, disciplines and policy, practice and research.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Putting Children First: Session 2.1.C Foster Kholowa - Can CBCCs do the magic [24-Oct-17]

  1. 1. Foster Kholowa Senior Lecturer, School of Education, University of Malawi, fkholowa@cc.ac.mw 24th October 2017 Can community based approaches to Early Childhood Development do the magic?: Exploring contributions of the ECD programme implementation to child poverty reduction in Malawi
  2. 2. Motivation [My curiosity and ‘frustration’?]  Research on ECD in Malawi – Mostly around CBCCs in the past 16 years  Commissioned Research  Basic Research  Is research CBCCs pro-poor?? Is practice around implementation of CBCCs pro-poor?  Research uptake and practice in Malawi?
  3. 3.  Malawi’s gross national income per capita at USD320 (World Bank, 2016).  85% of the population rely on subsistence farming for their livelihoods.  50.7 % of the population still living under the poverty line (below $1/day) in 2015 (MGDSIII, 2017)  Poverty rate slightly declined from 52.4% in 2005 to 50.7 % in 2015  Incidence of ultra-poor increased from 22.4 percent to 25 percent over the same period. Context
  4. 4.  Total population of 17.2 million,  46% is below the age of 15.  Most (32%) of the children for the Early Childhood Development Programme are within this age band (MGSDIII, 2017, MDHS, 2015- 2016). Malawi (cont’d)
  5. 5.  HIV prevalence among adults aged 15 to 49 is 8.8%  Child Protection: 2.4 million children growing up in violent homes, witnessing domestic violence  Access to health facilities and services  Food security and nutrition Malawi (cont’d)
  6. 6.  Various forms of ECD services  Access steadily increased from 2.63% in 2000 to 45.3% in 2016 (MoGCDSW, 2016)  Community-Based Model has made huge contribution to ECD access for rural and vulnerable children  Community Based Child Care Centres (CBCCs) ECD Status
  7. 7.  Good progress in this area  Gaps in the enforcement of some of the instruments  Affects implementation on the ground Legal and institutional framework for ECD
  8. 8.  Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (III),(2017-2022)  ECD policy (2003), revised in 2006, recent revision 2015  ECD National strategic Plan, (2015-2019)  Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS), (2010)  National ECD Operational and Accreditation Guidelines, (2012)  National ECD Syllabus (2012)  ECD care givers guidelines (2012)  National Parenting Education and Support Manual/Handbook, (2008)  Child care, Protection and Justice Act No 22 (2010)  Health Sector Strategic Plan, 2011-2016  Roadmap for accelerating the reduction of maternal and neonatal Morbidity and Mortality (2012)  National registration Act, 2010  Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, (2006) (Not enacted)  ECD policy and parenting education and support manual (2012)  National nutrition policy and Strategic plan (2009) Legal and Institutional Framework for ECD
  9. 9.  The CBCC is to evolve a self-sustaining community based childcare system in order to improve the life expectancy of children.  equipping mothers with appropriate basic know-how in care and growth of children  improving child nutrition  stimulation and development  developing linkages between community and government and other services  mobilising communities for social action The CBCC: How are CBCCs Established and organised?
  10. 10.  Strong body of international evidence on the high payoffs of investment in ECD  International evidence suggests that approaches that integrate education, health, sanitation, nutrition and protection are particularly effective  CBCCs tend to follow this pattern What are the key CBCC implementation issues to learn from?
  11. 11. Overall CBCC Contribution  ECD Access YES  Quality services remain a big challenge in Malawi despite some strides on access – promoting inequalities in education provision for the most vulnerable Implementation Issues to learn from?
  12. 12. Examples – PERMANENT ECD BUILDINGS
  13. 13. Issues to learn from?
  14. 14.  Informal set up for CBCCs  Huge expectation for community contribution  Some CBCCs ‘disappear’ or ‘rest’ at certain periods of the year (Lack of food, inadequate shelter, insufficient numbers of children, lack of learning materials, caregiver absenteeism)  Infrastructure ‘nightmare’ - shapes and designs, ranging from dilapidated structures, temporary grass shelters, churches, private homes, garages, bottle stores, among others. - Efforts being made by stakeholders in putting up standard structures although minimal Issues to learn from?
  15. 15.  Staffing challenges - Caregivers usually work as volunteers  Low Education qualifications (Primary 1-8)  Limited training (17,888 out of 35,063) by 2016  No incentives except in rare cases  Effects on performance and turnover  Resource Challenges - basic play and learning materials for use by children and caregivers. Locally made resources? Issues to learn from?
  16. 16.  Underfunding- ECD sector is severely underfunded  Dismal national budget allocation to ECD despite positive move to increase budget  MoGCDSW 2008/9: MK0.017 billion Vs required MK11.4 billion a year (NSP for ECD 2009-2014) Advocacy  MoGCDSW 2016/17: MK0.63 billion vs. MK14.3 billion a year required in the new NSP for ECD (2015-2019) Issues to learn from?
  17. 17.  CBCCs seem pro-poor but are fragile in terms of sustainability  CBCCs have the magic but need anchoring Issues to learn from?
  18. 18. Recent research findings “….each CBCC in Malawi exist on a spectrum of sustainability. On one end, centers can close permanently and on the other end, centers can be fully operational and follow all national guidelines. In between, centers may fluctuate between operating and closing, potentially changing status several times within a school year” (Newman, McConnell & Kholowa, 2014) Issues to learn from?
  19. 19. Big questions?  What are the implications for rural and vulnerable children in terms of child outcomes??  What child outcomes are achieved in the various child domains in the context of this fragility? Are these measured? How?  Are we systematically promoting inequality of education provision?  Are CBCCs helping reduce cycle of child poverty then? Issues to learn from?
  20. 20.  Move beyond rhetoric to effective practice:  From legal frameworks to anchoring implementation of child programmes  National budgets must reform to substantially support ECD  Focusing on child outcomes rather than programmes inputs  Formalise CBCCs and strengthen the education component without neglecting the health and nutrition  Social safety nets (e.g. Cash Transfers) should include families with pre-school children  Constituency Development Funds focused on child related programmes What could help for the CBCC?
  21. 21. END THANKS YOUR FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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