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The International Journal of Engineering and Science (The IJES)


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The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal's objective to promote engineering and technology education. All papers submitted to the Journal will be blind peer-reviewed. Only original articles will be published.

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The International Journal of Engineering and Science (The IJES)

  1. 1. The International Journal of Engineering And Science (IJES)||Volume|| 2 ||Issue|| 1 ||Pages|| 103-113 ||2013||ISSN: 2319 – 1813 ISBN: 2319 – 1805 Optimization of Different Performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate & Material Removal Rate with the Selection of Various Process Parameters Such as Speed Rate, Feed Rate, Specimen Wear , Depth Of Cut in CNC Turning of EN24 Alloy Steel – An Empirical Approach 1 Ashish Bhateja 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gulzar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Khanna, Punjab - 141401, India 2 Jyoti Bhardwaj, 3Maninder Singh and 4Sandeep Kumar Pal 2, 3, 4 B.Tech Students, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gulzar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Khanna, Punjab - 141401, India---------------------------------------------------------------Abstract-----------------------------------------------------------This project is based upon the empirical study which means it is derived from experiment and observationrather than theory. For the fulfillment of objective our first motive is selection of cutting tool & work toolmaterial & geometry, selection of various process and performance parameters after parameter selectionaims to study various techniques for the optimization for that purpose literature review and industrial surveyis conducted. After this next objective is to study the process and machining parameters for the performancecharacteristics of turning operation on CNC using different grades of Tungsten Carbide and with varyingproperties & surface roughness testing of work piece material to be carried out after machining. After testingoptimization and compare the Effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness of different selected geometryon EN-24 alloy steel by using empirical approach i.e. Taguchi Analysis using Statistical Software. In the endalso aims to calculate Tool Wear Rate (TWR) & Material Removal Rate (MRR) related with the performanceparameters based upon the experimental investigation. Thus this study helps to compare the results in terms ofeffectiveness of the performance of different grades of Tungsten Carbide by varying process parameters.Keywords - Cutting Tool, Turning, Surface Roughness, MRR, TWR, Tool Steels, EN-24, Taguchi---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: 20, December, 2012 Date of Publication: 05, January 2013---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. Recent Trends in ManufacturingThe recent developments in science and technology invention of newer and newer cutting tools withhave put tremendous pressure on manufacturing respect to material and The manufacturing industries are trying todecrease the cutting costs, increase the quality of the EN24 is a high quality, high tensile, alloy steel andmachined parts and machine more difficult materials. finds its typical applications in the manufacturing ofMachining efficiency is improved by reducing the automobile and machine tool parts. Properties ofmachining time with high speed machining. When EN24 steel, like low specific heat, and tendency tocutting ferrous and hard to machine materials such as strain-harden and diffuse between tool and worksteels, cast iron and super alloys, softening material, give rise to certain problems in itstemperature and the chemical stability of the tool machining such as large cutting forces, high cuttingmaterial limits the cutting speed. High speed tool temperatures, poor surface finish and built-upmachining has been the main objective of the edge formation. This material is thus difficult toMechanical Engineering through ages. The trend to machine. [1].The purpose of metal cutting operationincrease productivity has been the instrumental in is commonly called machining is to produce a The IJES Page 103
  2. 2. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &...shape, size and finish of a component by removing cutter is typically a single-point cutting tool that isthe excess metal in the form of chips from rough also secured in the machine, although someblock of material. Metal cutting processes in general operations make use of multi-point tools. The cuttingshould be carried out at high speeds and feeds with tool feeds into the rotating work piece and cuts awaythe least cutting effort at a minimum cost. material in the form of small chips to create the desired shape.1.1 Tool Steels Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and The turning machines are, of course, everyalloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be kind of lathes. Lathes used in manufacturing can bemade into tools. Tool steel is generally used in a heat- classified as engine, turret, automatics, andtreated state. With carbon content between 0.7% and numerical control etc. CNC Machines Nowadays,1.5%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully more and more Computer Numerical Controlledcontrolled conditions to produce the required quality. (CNC) machines are being used in every kind of The manganese content is often kept low to manufacturing processes. In a CNC machine,minimize the possibility of cracking during water functions like program storage, tool offset and toolquenching. However, proper heat treating of these compensation, program-editing capability, varioussteels is important for adequate performance, and degree of computation, and the ability to send andthere are many suppliers who provide tooling blanks receive data from a variety of sources, includingintended for oil quenching. Recommended Tool & remote locations can be easily realized through onWork Material Combinations as shown in Table 1. board computer. The computer can store multiple- part programs, recalling them as needed for different Table 1 Recommended Tool & Work Material parts. Combination Fig1. HMT CNC Lathe Machine II. Research Background Literature has been collected from various1.2 Tool Materials journals, books, papers etc. & has been reviewed asProperties of cutting tool materials follows-  Red Hardness or Hot Hardness – It is the Increasing the productivity and the quality ability of a material to retain its hardness at of the machined parts are the main challenges of high temperature. manufacturing industries. This objective requires  Toughness – It relates to the ability of a better management of the machining system. This material to resist shock or impact loads literature includes information on hard materials, soft associated with interrupted cuts. materials, and soft and abrasive materials used in  Wear Resistance – It enables the cutting tool turning, coating materials for cutting tools, wear to retain its shape and cutting efficiency. observed during turning operations and surface finishOther properties are thermal conductivity, specific of the machined work piece. Optimization of cuttingheat, Hardenability etc. parameters is valuable in terms of providing high precision and efficient machining. So an attempt is1.3 Turning Machines made to optimize machining parameters using coated Turning is a form of machining, a material tools. The user of the machine tool must know how toremoval process, which is used to create rotational choose cutting parameters in order to minimizeparts by cutting away unwanted material. The turning cutting time, cutting force and produce better surfaceprocess requires a turning machine or lathe, work finish under stable conditions.piece, fixture, and cutting tool. The work piece is a It is necessary for tool materials to possesspiece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the high temperature strength. While many ceramicfixture, which itself is attached to the turning materials such as TiC, Al2O3 and TiN possess highmachine, and allowed to rotate at high speeds. The temperature strength, they have lower The IJES Page 104
  3. 3. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &...toughness than that of conventional tool materialssuch as high-speed steels and cemented tungstencarbides. The machining of hard and chemicallyreactive materials at higher speeds is improved bydepositing single and multi layer coatings onconventional tool materials to combine the beneficialproperties of ceramics and traditional tool materials[1]. J.A. Ghani et al [2] investigated the wearmechanism of TiN-coated carbide and uncoatedcermets tools at various combinations of cuttingspeed, feed rate, and depth of cut for hardened AISIH13 tool steel. They have observed that the timetaken for the cutting edge of TiN-coated carbide toolsto initiate cracking and fracturing is longer than thatof uncoated cermets tools, especially at thecombinations of high cutting speed, feed rate, anddepth of cut and at the combinations of low cuttingspeed, feed rate, and depth of cut, the uncoated 2.1 Gap in Literaturecermets tools show more uniform and gradual wear From the literature review, it is observedon the flank face than that of the TiN-coated carbide that less research work has been seen for En24 Alloytools.Yong Huang et al [3] have evaluated tool Steel in CNC Turning by the Use of different cuttingperformance in terms of tool life based on the flank tool geometry. Also very less work has been reportedwear criterion as a function of cutting conditions, that for Cutting tool Rhombus Geometry [Coated, TiNis, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. They found Finished], Rhombus Geometry [Uncoated] &out that cutting speed plays a dominant role in Triangular Geometry [Uncoated].determining the tool performance in terms of toollife, followed by feed and depth of cut, and overalltendencies agree with predictions from the generalTaylor tool life equation as well as experimentalobservations. Cutting fluid (coolant) is any liquid or gasthat is applied to the chip and/or cutting tool toimprove cutting performance. A very few cuttingoperations are performed dry, i.e., without theapplication of cutting fluids. Generally, it is essentialthat cutting fluids be applied to all machining Fig2.Insert CNMG 12 04 04-PM 4225 for T-Max Poperations. The Flow rates can be as low as 10Liter/min for turning and as 200 Liter/min for facemilling.The selection and proper application of a cuttingfluid can produce the following advantage.  Reduction of tool cost.  Increased productivity.  Reduction of labour cost.  Reduction of power cost.  High surface Finish. Fig3. Insert CNMG 12 04 04-MF 2025 for T-Max P Table 2 Recommended Cutting Fluids for Various The IJES Page 105
  4. 4. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &... These parameters are selected for each operation based upon the work piece material, tool material, tool size, and more. The three primary factors in any basic turning operation are speed, feed, and depth of cut. Other factors such as kind of material and type of tool have a large influence, of course, but these three are the ones the operator can change by adjusting the controls, right at the machine. 2.3.1 Process Parameters Cutting feed - The distance that the cuttingFig4. Insert TNMG 16 04 04-PM 4225 for T-Max P tool or work piece advances during one revolution of the spindle, measured in inches per revolution (IPR).It is observed that the effect on machining process of In some operations the tool feeds into the work piecetool geometry on work piece material by the selecting and in others the work piece feeds into the tool. For avarious process parameters with the use of empirical multi-point tool, the cutting feed is also equal to theapproach have not been explored yet, so it„s feed per tooth, measured in inches per tooth (IPT),interesting to Optimization of Different Machining and multiplied by the number of teeth on the cuttingParameters of En24 Alloy Steel in CNC Turning by tool.Use of Taguchi Method. All these aspects will be Cutting speed - The speed of the work pieceaddressed in research work. surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool during a cut, measured in surface feet per minute (SFM).2.2 Coatings Spindle speed - The rotational speed of the Machining efficiency is improved by spindle and the work piece in revolutions per minutereducing the machining time with high speed (RPM). The spindle speed is equal to the cuttingmachining. But the softening temperature and the speed divided by the circumference of the work piecechemical stability of the tool material limits the where the cut is being made. In order to maintain acutting speed. When cutting ferrous and hard to constant cutting speed, the spindle speed must varymachine materials such as steels, cast iron and super based on the diameter of the cut. If the spindle speedalloys, softening temperature and the chemical is held constant, then the cutting speed will vary.stability of the tool material limits the cutting speed. Feed rate - The speed of the cutting toolsTherefore, it is necessary for tool materials to possess movement relative to the work piece as the toolgood high-temperature mechanical properties and makes a cut. The feed rate is measured in inches persufficient inertness. Typical constituents of coating minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feedare Titanium Carbide (TiC), Titanium Nitride (TiN), (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM).Titanium Carbonitride (TiCN) and alumina (Al2O3).All these compounds have low solubility in iron and 2.3.2 Performance Parametersthey enable inserts to cut at much higher rate. “WhyTiN”: The majority of inserts presently used in Table 3 Processing Parameters in Machiningvarious metal cutting operations are carbide toolscoated with nitrides (TiN, CrN, etc.). TiN coating isusually used as an outermost layer.  It increases the wear resistance  Reduces the sticking of the work material.The golden color of the TiN coating helps in wear Material removal rate: This is a production termdetection by allowing the operator to distinguish usually measured in cubic inches per minute.between a used and a new cutting edge corner Increasing this rate will obviously get a part done quicker and therefore possibly for less money, but2.3 CNC Turning Parameters increasing the material removal rate is often In turning, the speed and motion of the accompanied by increases in tool wear, poor surfacecutting tool is specified through several parameters. finishes, poor tolerances, and other problems. Optimizing the machining process is a very difficult The IJES Page 106
  5. 5. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &... Tool wear rate: The rate at which the cutting edge of Type of Sample: Cut Pieces of Steel a tool wears away during machining Sample Mark: EN-24 Surface Finish: The degree of smoothness of a parts surface after it has been manufactured. Surface finish is the result of the surface roughness, waviness, and Instrument Used: Glow Discharge Spectrometer flaws remaining on the part.III. Materials and Methods 3.1 Empirical Approach Empirical Approach means derived from experiment and observation rather than theory. Step 1 Literature Gap analysis & Conducting Industrial Survey for the selection of Cutting Tool Grades for experiment & Index preparation of objective function Fig5. Marks of Argon Gas on Specimen EN-24 Step 2 Composition testing of Work Piece i.e. EN-24 Step 3 Selections of Cutting Tool Grades Step 3 Selections of Cutting Tool Grades Step 4 Selection of Cutting Tool Holder Step 5 Specification of Job, Selection of Process for Some common types of tools are as follows: job to be performed on CNC turning & then Style A - 0 degree lead-angle turning tools Preparation of Job Style B - 15 degree lead-angle turning tools Step 6 Selection Process & Performance Parameters Style C - 0 degree square nose tools before Machining to be carried out from Literature Style D - 80 degree included angle pointed-nose tools Survey & Calculation of Performance parameters Style E - 60 degree included angle pointed-nose tools with the observation of selected process parameters Step 7 Optimization of Performance Parameters Using Empirical Approach Step 1 Literature Gap analysis & Conducting Industrial Survey for the selection of Cutting Tool Grades for experiment & Index preparation of objective function Literature Gap analysis has been collected by referring various journals, books, papers etc. for the purpose of the selection of cutting tool grades ,geometry ,tool holder ,cutting fluid grades commonly used for CNC turning operations and Fig5. Block Diagram of Cutting of Specimen EN-24 work piece material on which lesser study will be Tool Steel for Experimental Work. carried out. Another objective selection of Place where to Perform Experiment, Market availability of Sample Selection: the recommended tool steel & their Cost Analysis, Time Analysis to complete the experiment etc. More Sample A - Insert CNMG 12 04 04-MF 2025 for T- importantly to study various process and performance Max P - Rhombus Geometry [Coated, TiN Finished] parameters of CNC Turning Machines & to study & having 4 Cutting Edges [Style D - 80 degree various empirical approaches by the optimization. included angle pointed-nose tools] For defining the objective of study to be carried out more effectively and specific we designed Cutting Sample B - Insert CNMG 12 04 04-PM 4225 for T- Tool Performance Index CTPI 2012. Max P - Rhombus Geometry [Uncoated] & having 4 Cutting Edges [Style D - 80 degree included angle Step 2 Composition testing of Work Piece[ EN-24] pointed-nose tools] Place of Experiment: Research & Development Sample C - Insert TNMG 16 04 04-PM 4225 for T- centre for bicycle & sewing machine, Ludhiana Max P -Triangular Geometry [Uncoated] & having 6 The IJES Page 107
  6. 6. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &...Cutting Edges. [Style E - 60 degree included angle CNC Part Programming is carried out for thepointed-nose tools] objective of Machining & simulation to be carried out.Step 4 Selection of Cutting Tool Holder Sample Mark: EN-24Sample Selection: TNMG 20 X 20 Shank Instrument Used: HMT 3-Axis CNC Turning Machine Step 6 Selection Process & Performance Parameters before Machining to be carried out from Literature Survey & Calculation of Performance parameters with the observation of selected process parameters Selected Process Parameters: Cutting environment, Cutting Fluid Grade, Cutting Fluid Flow rate, Speed rate, Feed rate, Depth of Cut, Diameter (Actual &Step 5 Specification of Job, Selection of Process Measured), Specimen Wear, Length.for job to be performed on CNC Turning & thenPreparation of JobStep 1 Drafting, Defining Job Operations &Specification of Size:Job Preparation:Size Specification: 50 x 100 mmNumber of Samples: Three Fig7.CNC Turning Parameters –Process versus Performance Performance Parameters: For Surface Roughness Calculation Instrument Used: SURF-4, Least Count 0.0004 micrometer Surface roughness tests were conducted on all the samples, produced after each of the 9 trials. Inspection performed at the laboratory of Research &Fig6. 2-D & 3-D View of the Specimen EN-24 Development centre for bicycle & sewing machine, Ludhiana by using the surface roughness tester madeFor the objective of specification of size we used 2D by Mitutoyo Company, Germany can measure aSoftware AutoCAD 2010. After the drafting & Value up to 100µm.Process selection machining will be carried out withthe help of three grades of selected cutting tools For Tool Wear Rate [TWR], Material Removal Rate [MMR] CalculationStep 2 CNC Programming & Job Preparation Instrument Used: Electronic Weight Machine [ForPlace of Experiment: Research & Development Tool Weight Actual & Measured for TWR & Forcentre for bicycle & sewing machine, Ludhiana Specimen Weight Actual & Measured for MMR] The IJES Page 108
  7. 7. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &...Referred Density Table, Mathematically Expression& Geometrical Calculation is also being carried outfor calculation of MMR, TWR & compares theperformance.Step 7 Optimization of Performance ParametersUsing Empirical Approach Fig10. For heavy cutting, it is advisable to have cutting fluid directed at the top and bottom of theFor Optimization of Surface Roughness Parameter cutting area.Four process parameters are selected for In a turning operation, the coolant must be suppliedoptimization: Speed rate, Feed Rate, Depth of Cut & to the area where the chip is being produced. ForSpecimen Wear. turning and facing operations, the nozzle should beTool Used: Minitab Statistical 16 (30-Days Trial directed so that the coolant is supplied directly overVersion) Software [For Taguchi Design & Analysis] the tool.For Optimization of Tool Wear Rate [TWR], Table 4 Cutting Tool Machining Parameters for CNCMaterial Removal Rate [MMR] Parameter Turning for Tool Steel i.e. EN-24.Tool Used: MS-Excel [Graphical Method]Results & Discussion4.1 Composition Testing of EN-24Fig8. Comparison of Composition of EN-24 used as aspecimen with AISI Standard CompositionConclusion: In Comparison All the values Match-able as per AISI Standard .Shows the originality ofMaterial used for testing leads to validity ofperformances outcomes that carried out further . Fig11. Overview of three finished specimens of EN- 24 as per dimensions desired using three different tool inserts on CNC machine. 4.2 Performance Parameters Table 5 Surface Roughness of three different geometry of tool insertsFig9. Pictorial view of machining of workpiece EN-24 on CNC MachineCutting Fluid Grade used: No-68 Soluble Oil &Flow rates can be as low as 10 Liter/min for turningThe Use of Cutting Fluids in Turning The IJES Page 109
  8. 8. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &... 4.3 Taguchi Design & Analysis Steps An experimental design methodology that allows you to choose a product or process that performs more consistently in the operating environment. By using Minitab Statistical 16 (30-Days Trial Version) Software. 4.3.1 Design of Experiment [DOE]Fig12. Surface Roughness comparison of threedifferent geometry Step 1 Create Taguchi DesignTable 6 Calculation of Tool Wear Rate TWR Stat - DOE –Taguchi – Create Taguchi Design(mm3/min) of three different geometry of tool inserts Taguchi Design: Taguchi designs use orthogonal arrays, which estimate the effects of factors on the response mean and variation. Orthogonal arrays allow you to investigate each effect independently from the others and may reduce the time and cost associated with the experiment when fractionated designed are used. Taguchi Orthogonal Array Design L9(3**4) Factors: 4 , Runs: 9 Columns of L9(3**4) Array 1234Fig13. Tool Wear Rate TWR (mm3/min) comparison Step 2 Define Custom Taguchi Designof three different geometry All these four Process parameters were varied at threeTable 7 Calculation of Material Removal Rate MMR levels C1, C2, C3, and C4(mm3/min) of three different geometry of tool inserts Response Variable – C5 Step 3 Analyze Taguchi DesignFig14 Material Removal Rate MMR (mm3/min)comparison of three different The IJES Page 110
  9. 9. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &...Table 8 Taguchi Design analysis for Response For this experimental work, the responseVariable characteristics have been studied as under : Table 9 Response Characteristics 5. Conclusion of Study Conclusion for Surface Roughness In the first step of step turning the roughness value for TNMG is least, showing the optimal value. In second step of step turning we observed that the roughness value for coated CNMG is least indicating optimal value. In third step of turning the roughness value of TNMG is least and constant from the second step. Hence giving the optimum value for surface roughness. Thus from above observation, we conclude that the optimality of TNMG is acceptable reason being the constancy from step2 , as well as lesser that Ra value of uncoated and coated step3 (turning).Fig15. Main Effects Plot for Means of ProcessParameters for Response Variable Conclusion for TWR On comparing the calculated values of TWR for three different grades of tungsten carbide tool, we observed that TNMG (triangular) has the least value of TWR, which fulfill the conditions. As we know lesser is the TWR more is the optimality of tool. Hence, it proves that TNMG gives most optimum value which is obtained from the experimental as well as calculation work. Conclusion of MRR On comparing the calculated values of MRR for three specimen of same material (EN-24) machined with different grades of tool, we observed that specimen B (uncoated), C (TNMG) has the maximum value of MRR which fulfill the condition. More is the MRR; more is the optimality of work specimen. Hence, it proves that specimen B and C gives the most optimum value which is obtained from the experimental and calculation work. From the above results, we declared that overall optimality of TNMG tool is more as compare to the other grades of tool taken for the experiment. So, we prefer specimen C for MRR value which is being machined with TNMG tool giving the optimal value of MRR. Most defects in turning are inaccuracies in a featuresFig16. Interaction Plot for Response Variable i.e. dimensions or surface roughness. There are severalSurface Roughness possible causes for these defects, including the The IJES Page 111
  10. 10. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate &... In determining the cycle time, the tool replacementIncorrect Cutting Parameters - If the cutting time is adjusted for the production of a single part byparameters such as the feed rate, spindle speed, or multiplying by the frequency of a tool replacement,depth of cut are too high, the surface of the work which is the cut time divided by the tool lifetime.piece will be rougher than desired and may containscratch marks or even burn marks. Also, a large Following the turning process cycle, there is no postdepth of cut may result in vibration of the tool and processing that is required. However, secondarycause inaccuracies in the cut. processes may be used to improve the surface finish of the part if it is required.Dull Cutting Tool - As a tool is used, the sharp edgewill wear down and become dull. A dull tool is less The scrap material, in the form of small materialcapable of making precision cuts. chips cut from the work piece, is propelled away from the work piece by the motion of the cutting tool andUnsecured Work piece - If the work piece is not the spraying of lubricant. Therefore, no process cyclesecurely clamped in the fixture, the friction of turning step is required to remove the scrap material, whichmay cause it to shift and alter the desired cuts. can be collected and discarded after the production.5.1 Process Cycle 5.2 Cost DriversThe time required to produce a given quantity of Material cost: The material cost is determined by theparts includes the initial setup time and the cycle quantity of material stock that is required and thetime for each part. The setup time is composed of the unit price of that stock. The amount of stock istime to setup the turning machine, plan the tool determined by the work piece size, stock size, methodmovements (whether performed manually or by of cutting the stock, and the production quantity. Themachine), and install the fixture device into the unit price of the material stock is affected by theturning machine. The cycle time can be divided into material and the work piece shape. Also, any costthe following four times: attributed to cutting the work pieces from the stock also contributes to the total material cost.Load/Unload time - The time required to loadthe work piece into the turning machine and secure it Production cost: The production cost is a result ofto the fixture, as well as the time to unload the the total production time and the hourly rate. Thefinished part. The load time can depend on the size, production time includes the setup time, loadweight, and complexity of the work piece, as well as time, cut time, idle time, and tool replacement time.the type of fixture. Decreasing any of these time components will reduce cost. The setup time and load time are dependentCut time - The time required for the cutting tool to upon the skill of the operator. The cut time, however,make all the necessary cuts in the work piece for each is dependent upon many factors that affect the cutoperation. The cut time for any given operation is length and feed rate. The cut length can be shortenedcalculated by dividing the total cut length for that by optimizing the number of operations that areoperation by the feed rate, which is the speed of the required and reducing the feature size if possible. Thetool relative to the work piece. feed rate is affected by the operation type, work piece material, tool material, tool size, and various cuttingIdle time - Also referred to as non-productive time, parameters such as the radial depth of cut. Lastly, thethis is the time required for any tasks that occur tool replacement time is a direct result of the numberduring the process cycle that do not engage the work of tool replacements which is discussed regarding thepiece and therefore remove material. This idle tooling cost.time includes the tool approaching and retractingfrom the work piece, tool movements between Tooling cost: The tooling cost for machining isfeatures, adjusting machine settings, and changing determined by the total number of cutting toolstools. required and the unit price for each tool. The quantity of tools depends upon the number of unique toolsTool replacement time - The time required to required by the various operations to be performedreplace a tool that has exceeded its lifetime and and the amount of wear that each of those toolstherefore become to worn to cut effectively. This time experience. If the tool wear exceeds the lifetime of ais typically not performed in every cycle, but rather tool, then a replacement tool must be purchased. Theonly after the lifetime of the tool has been reached. lifetime of a tool is dependent upon the tool material, cutting parameters such as cutting speed, and The IJES Page 112
  11. 11. Optimization of Different performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate & cut time. The unit price of a tool is affected by is part of my Major Project carried outthe tool type, size, and material. recently in the month of Dec 2012 under the guidance of Professor Ashish Bhateja,References Grouped Name [G3]. It tock‟s period of two months to complete that & we all workedJournal Papers: together as a team.[1] Cho. S. S., Komvopoulos, K., Wear, Mechanisms of Multi-Layer Coated Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools, Journal of Tribology, 119, 1997, 8-17. 3. Maninder Singh, B.Tech Final Year [2] J.A. Ghani, I.A. Choudhury, H.H. Masjuki. Student of Department of Mechanical “Wear mechanism of TiN coated carbide and Engineering at Gulzar Institute of uncoated cermets tools at high cutting speed Engineering & Technology, Khanna, applications”, Journal of Materials Processing Punjab. Promising Personality In terms of Technology, 2004, 1067–1073. technical Aspects are concerned & Artist by[3] Yong Huang, Steven Y. Liang, “Effect of nature. This Contribution of Research work Cutting Conditions on Tool Performance in is part of my Major Project carried out CBN Hard Turning” , Journal of recently in the month of Dec 2012 under the Manufacturing Processes , 7( 1) , 2005. guidance of Professor Ashish Bhateja,Books: Grouped Name [G3]. It tock‟s period of two[4] Smith, G. T., Advanced Machining: The months to complete that & we all worked Handbook of Cutting Technology, (IFS together as a team. Publications, 1989).Biographies 4. Sandeep Kumar Pal, B.Tech Final Year Student of Department of Mechanical Engineering at Gulzar Institute of 1. Ashish Bhateja, M.Tech regular pass Engineering & Technology, Khanna, and out Student from NIT Jalandhar, June 2009 Punjab . Efficient, Hardworking & and my area of specialization is Dedicated Personality. This Contribution of Manufacturing Technology. Presently Research work is part of my Major Project working as an Assistant Professor in carried out recently in the month of Dec Mechanical Department at Gulzar Group of 2012 under the guidance of Professor Ashish Institutes, Khanna (Punjab) AICET Bhateja, Grouped Name [G3]. It tock‟s Approved & affiliated by Punjab technical period of two months to complete that & we university, Jalandhar (Punjab). Having 1.5 all worked together as a team. years of total Teaching & Research experience .My area of research topic is Production Engineering & Management. Already total four research papers are published internationally on Green Supply Chain Management, Heat Treatment, RCACV and further plans to contribute more in the field of Production Engineering & Management. This is Very Exciting for me to be appointed as a supervisor of such outstanding students Grouped Name [G3]. 2. Jyoti Bhardwaj, B.Tech Final Year Student of Department of Mechanical Engineering at Gulzar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Khanna, Punjab. Young, Dynamic & Creative by Nature. This Contribution of Research The IJES Page 113