The International Journal of Engineering and Science (The IJES)


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The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal's objective to promote engineering and technology education. All papers submitted to the Journal will be blind peer-reviewed. Only original articles will be published.

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The International Journal of Engineering and Science (The IJES)

  1. 1. The International Journal of Engineering And Science (IJES)||Volume|| 2 ||Issue|| 1 ||Pages|| 97-102 ||2013||ISSN: 2319 – 1813 ISBN: 2319 – 1805 Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Cost 1 S.N.Teli, 2Lokpriya Gaikwad, 3Pravin Mundhe, 4Nilesh Chanewar 1,2,3,4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SCOE, Mumbai University, India-------------------------------------------------------------Abstract----------------------------------------------------------------------------The supplier certification program has been expanding in recent years in industries, as they attempt to gain acompetitive edge in the world market. The supplier certification program seeks to improve quality and on-timedelivery, to share technology, to establish a long-term and stable relationship with a few suppliers, and toreduce cost of quality. This study investigates whether the supplier certification program is effective or not. Any supplier should be capable to meet the objectives of the buying organization and that have thecapability of providing the products or service of most importance to the organization. At this point, however,these suppliers have not undergone a thorough evaluation of their capabilities and objectives by the buyingorganization. The buying organization must continue to be wary of the products and services provided by itssuppliers unless some verification of the capabilities of their internal and external processes has beencompleted. This approach is referred to as supplier certification. The supplier certification program has beenexpanding in recent years in industries, as they attempt to gain a competitive edge in the world mark et. Thesupplier certification program seeks to improve quality and on-time delivery, to share technology, to establisha long-term and stable relationship with a few suppliers, and to reduce cost of quality. This study investigateswhether the supplier certification program is effective or not.Keywords - Buyer-supplier partnering, Supplier audit, Supplier certification, Quality cost.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: 20, December, 2012 Date of Publication: 05, January 2013------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ I. INTRODUCTION emphases. They define a supplier development program as follows:A s global competition grows keener, manufacturers are seeking competitive advantages fromsuppliers. With increasing frequency, manufacturers Supplier development program involves a long-term cooperative effort between a buying firmand suppliers are reporting changes in recent years. and its suppliers to upgrade the suppliers technical,One of the most salient changes is the supplier quality, delivery, and cost capabilities and to fostercertification program, which has emerged as a recent ongoing practice. The ultimate goal of these programs is to The supplier certification process defined in form a mutually beneficial relationship that will helpour study is a formalized assessment program that both firms compete more effectively in theevaluates the systems a supplier has in place in order assure customers a product that consistently meets The importance of the relationship betweena defined quality level and an on-time delivery time buying and supplying organizations has beentable at a market-driven cost. This program has very increasingly recognized as the nature of competitionspecific criteria that a supplier must meet, and the and business practices change. The Just-in-Timecustomer has trained personnel that can evaluate the inventory (JIT), Total Quality Control (TQC), Totalsuppliers compliance with these criteria. Quality Management (TQM) and lean production Watts and Hahns (1993) study found that techniques all require changes in buyer-supplierthe most commonly cited standards by which relationships. Many manufacturing firms in the USsuppliers are gauged are quality, delivery, price and have established supplier partnerships and theservice. Their study also indicates that many partnering concept has received attention from topcompanies in the US use supplier development managers as well as purchasing managers. Stuartprograms; such programs have a variety of different (1993) indicated that partnerships are strong inter- company dependency relationships with The IJES Page 97
  2. 2. Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Costplanning horizons. He elaborated that the partnering certification had jumped to over 9000 (an increase ofrelationship encourages limiting the number of 1340%). By year 2005, up to 150000 U.S. firms aresuppliers and emphasized that the keys to successful expected to pursue ISO 9000 certification. A recentpartnering are the sharing of information, the search update (ISO website, press release 830, July 2002)for continuous improvement, and joint problem- noted the worldwide total of ISO certifications to be atsolving efforts. Stuart and Mueller Jr (1994) reported in least 510, 616 as of December 2001. Together, thesetheir study that the supplier partnering effort yielded standards spanned a set of twenty elements that coverboth absolute and continuous productivity and documentation of all existing processes in a company.quality improvement when compared with performance These are: 1) management responsibility; 2) qualityduring the nonpartnership period. They pointed out system; 3) contract review; 4) design control; 5)that a full commitment to a long-term buyer-supplier document control; 6) purchasing; 7)customer-suppliedpartnering relationship is required to support material; 8) product identification and traceability; 9)continuing success. This study examines differences process control; 10) inspection and testing; 11)between the firms that have adopted a supplier inspection, measuring, and testing equipment; 12)certification program and those that have refused it in inspection and test status; 13) control ofterms of the geographic location, the number of nonconforming product; 14) corrective action; 15)suppliers, the average length of contract and the handling, storage, packaging, and delivery; 16) qualityselection program for internal supplier. The records; 17) internal quality audits; 18) training; 19)certification program represents a change from the servicing; and (20) statistical techniques [8]. Thetraditional sourcing to a new sourcing program. The implementation of these standards is expected togeographic location of suppliers is an important factor ensure that the certified company establishesin implementing the JIT inventory system and documents and maintains a system that ensuresreducing transportation costs. Japanese automobile process consistency.companies are known for their close workingrelationship with lean-production networks of parts A. Certification Paradigmssuppliers. The history of certification programs has brought about many changes in the concepts and ideas being utilized by industry leaders. Some of the A. Certification Efforts: changes that have taken place are shown as belowObjectives of the supplier certification program: table I. The objective is that the suppliers beingselected for long-term relationships with the TABLE Iorganization are capable of meeting the needs of their CERTIFICATION PARDIGMSworks for them. Many were told by customers to begintotal quality management (TQM) initiative or they Sr. O ld paradigm New paradigmwould stop doing business with them. While this Nos.created a furor, it did help companies to take seriously Supplier quality management council No procurementthe need of the customer. The result has been higher 1. provides policy & direction, with supplier strategyquality product and service from supplier and a more quality management as a key policy.trusting relationship from customers. 2. One-time procurement Long-term partnerships. Lowest long-term ownership cost reduced 3. Lowest price through joint cost targeting. II. THEORY DEVELOPMENT 4. Specifications arbitrary Established through design of experiment. Certification system was started in 1987 by Poor assessment of Goal of minimum process capability of 2 tothe International Standards Organization with the 5. process capability 8 through use of DOE.intention of standardizing process quality tracking Measurement through 6. Cpk , cycle time, yield, SPC charts.practices and product quality conformity assessment AQLs or PPMacross the world. The standards did not gain any Incentives built into selection process and 7. Few incentivessignificant acceptance until they were incorporated performance criteria.into the European Community’s 1989 global Reliability testing 8. included accelerated FMEA, T aguchi, Weibullassessment procedures that enabled European firms to life tests.reject products or services from companies that are Individual departments Commodity teams coordinating corporatenot certified by the ISO. Thus, at the end of 1992, 9. talking to supplier for objectives and assisting supplier with qualityfewer than 30000 companies worldwide were certified. their need improvements.Over 20000 of these were in Europe and less than 700 Cycle-time not 10. Important part of overall T QM effort.were in the U.S. Since then, the momentum for consideredcertification has grown with mounting competitivepressures. By 1997, worldwide certification had risento over 127000 (an increase of 420%) and the The IJES Page 98
  3. 3. Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Cost Some leading organizations have shifted  Receipt inspection: Does the organization simplycompletely to the new paradigms, while others have accept all products as supplied? Does it havedone so partially. Each buying organization must different policies for different levels of supplierconsider all the benefits and risks of shifting to the certification? Is the supplier’s goal to reduce thenew paradigms before making a blind move. amount of incoming inspection by certifying its After 1991, 84% of the company’s businessgoes to certified suppliers. own suppliers? Is there a clear way of separatingFollowing are the five basic conditions or rules for rejected materials from acceptable materials?suppliers: What are the return policies?  Material management: Does the supplier have up-1. Understand and agree to all quality requirement to-date material management system? Are there identified in specifications. policies for the optimization of stocking levels? Is2. Resolve all major quality problems to the just-in-time manufacturing practice followed? satisfaction of all user plants.  Material storage, handling, and shipping: Are there3. Develop and document a quality plan outlining the controls for shelf life of time-dependent raw process and product controls used to assure materials? Are toxic materials properly secured, conforming products. labelled, handled, and protected to safe guard4. Prepare to provide to a visiting certification team against environmental accidents? Are modern, evidence that your quality system is working. up-to-date material handling equipment used and5. Define and institute a system to achieve annual proper maintenance procedures followed? Are quality improvement. products properly protected during shipping Now the most of the companies has through adequate packaging?demanded that its suppliers have an ongoing annual  Process management: Are process controls inquality improvement program coupled with aneducation process for their people. place? Are employees trained to recognize out of control conditions and know what actions to B. The Supplier Audit: follow to bring the process back into control? Is Verification is one of the first objectives that there a good tie from the process managementneeds to be met when trying to certify a supplier. It is area to improvement processes?extremely important to determine if the supplier is  Inspection, testing, and examination: Are first itemworthy of being considered for a long–term samples sent for testing and inspection beforerelationship with the buyer. One of the way to do this approval of initial shipments from a new supplier?through a supplier audit. In a supplier audit, the Are follow up inspection made until the supplierbuying organization establishes the criteria it wants to attains the appropriate certification levelverify that the supplier meets. Some of the criteria according to the acceptable risk of a defect?should be standard for all suppliers of the firm, while  Specification and change control: Is there a setothers are more commodity or industry specific. The following are a few of many potential methodology to keep track of and assure thatareas of concentration for supplier audit teams. specification and process changes are recorded Management: Commitment to quality, style, and approved by all involved before empowerment, educational background, previous implementation of the change, that all employees experience, etc. affected are properly trained in the new Design process: What is the design process? Is it procedures, and that lots are properly tracked to systematic? Does it involve appropriate affected reflect the process in effect when the lot was areas or only R&D? manufactured? Procurement: Is the procurement process fast? Are  Calibration and lab controls: Does the supplier levels of authority clearly defined? Are customer have a periodic maintenance and testing schedule requirements considered in the bidding process? to calibrate all measurement devices? Is the Is price considered before quality? Are all schedule in place in the lab area as well as on the affected parties involved in major procurement manufacturing floor or anywhere else that decisions? Does the supplier have up-to-date measurements are made? procurement systems? Does the supplier use or  Quality information: Has quality information plan to use electronic data interchange? system been put in place, whereby information Quality assurance: How does the supplier assure can be tracked by lot, supplier, timing process the quality of the process output? Is it inspection status, customers, rejects, costs, or any other data driven or does the supplier methodology include field that the supplier or the buying organization prevention –based methods? may feel is an important quality characterstic? The IJES Page 99
  4. 4. Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Cost Nonconforming material control: Is there a method certified individually by the buying organization in place to identify and tag nonconforming against its specific requirements. materials, whether incoming or work in process?  Governor’s Sterling Award for Quality and This material must be excluded from the regular Productivity: This is the state of Florida’s quality award. It is patterned after the Malcolm Baldrige flow of work in order to avoid the possibility of it Awards, but has been expanded to include some being combined with acceptable material. sectors not included in the Baldrige. Corrective action process: Does a method exist to  The Deming Prize: This is one of the most follow up on corrective actions identified by all prestigious quality awards. It is given in Japan. levels of employees? This could range from a One of the categories is the international award. suggestion system to a more sophisticated team Florida Power & Light is the only company improvement project tracking system. outside of Japan that has ever won that award. Types of Certification: The criteria are very systematic and follow the teaching of Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, and manySome of the different types of certification processes of the Japanese gurus. The award program isin use throughout manufacturing and service administered by the Japanese Union ofindustries today are: Scientists and Engineers (JUSE).1) Some Specific Certification programs: Each buyingorganization could determine the criteria it deems It is important to reiterate that even though aimportant and the process it will use for supplier supplier may have received one of these awards orcertification. The main reason an organization would certifications, it is still up to the buying organization touse these criteria is that it is in a very unique industry determine if the criteria are sufficient for their ownand has very specific needs that would not be quality needs. Most importantly, the buyingcovered by one of the standard industry criteria. organization must be sure that its own quality specifications are being met adequately for specific2) Standard industry certification processes: Rather products and services.than developing their own certification processes,some companies use standard industry certifications. Influence of Certification on supplier selection:This is a much easier approach because these Different suppliers can be certified in different ways. Some of these certifications are unique to the buyingprocesses are readily available and they represent the organization, while others are more standard.most important generic requirements to verify that thesupplier is followed good quality management As shown in ―figure- 1‖., 71.5% of thepractices. These programs do not specifically certify respondents to a survey conducted by Electronic Buyers News concurred that they were influenced byany particular products or service of the supplier, but knowing that a supplier under consideration hadinstead examine the processes and methods that the received some form of certification, either standard orsupplier organization follows. It is then left to the specific, as defined earlier. Of these certifications, thebuying organization to assure that the quality respondents most frequently selected the Malcolmspecifications for the specific item or service are met. Baldrige Award as the certification that mostSome of the standard industry certification processes influenced them. ISO 9000 certification and individualare as follows: company certification were the next most frequently ISO 9000: This is an international specification that identified. It is important to note that other awards and has been accepted by over 100 countries. other company certifications were also influential. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award: When an organization applies for this award, it must perform an in-depth self-appraisal. The appraisal includes seven major areas of reviews. This assessment is provides to the National Institute of Standards for review by a Board of Examiners and judges composed of quality experts. An award winner must demonstrate excellent preventive based quality processes, through deployment of these processes, and significant improvement results at world-class levels. Therefore, a Malcolm Baldrige Award winner can probably be considered to have good quality processes and to provide quality products and Fig. 1 Certification Influenece (Source: Electronic Buyer News) services. Again, specific products must The IJES Page 100
  5. 5. Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality CostC. Supplier Quality Cost: Due to the certification program supplier must follows Supplier quality cost is significant and good the guidelines which has been beneficial for improvingindicators of problem areas. A system of managing quality of the product and reduction in quality cost.and tracking supplier quality cost are categorized asprevention cost elements such as the cost of supplierIII. CONCLUS IONquality survey, appraisal cost elements such as the Survey results indicate that 46% of thecost of receiving and source inspection;, and failure respondents are involved in a certification program.cost elements such as the cost of scrap and rework of Firms with supplier certification and firms without asupplier caused non-conformances and the cost of certification program consider quality as the numbersite visits to correct supplier service problems. one concern.Hidden Supplier Quality Costs: Respondents from firms without aThere has been hidden supplier quality cost in any certification program believe in the traditionalquality cost system. Hidden supplier quality costs are purchasing philosophy, which is based on marketdivided into three parts: competition and spot market bidding. They are much Those incurred by the supplier at the supplier’s more concerned about problems associated with afacility single source. Those incurred by the buyer in solving problems atthe supplier’s facility We conclude that a supplier certification Those usually not allocated to suppliers but program has a significant impact on quality, buyer-incurred by the buyer as a result of potential or actual supplier relationships, cost, delivery, cooperation andsupplier problems. technology sharing. Quality change as measured byQuality costs incurred by the supplier at their facility rejection rates shows a remarkable improvement.are unknown to the buyer and, therefore, hidden. Even Significant reductions in rejection rates were realizedthough the magnitude is hidden, the types of costs are in the first three-year period.not. They are the same types of quality costs the Second, suppliers have to meet thebuyer incurs. challenging requirements of high quality, on-timeThe second type of hidden cost, that which is incurred delivery schedule and low costs. The supplierby the buyer in solving problems at the supplier’s certification program may reduce suppliers profitfacility, is usually not specifically allocated to margins and may also lead to lax market monitoring assuppliers. Except for an awareness of troublesome buyers and sellers continue to move toward the long -suppliers. An example is the cost to the buyer of term relational contracts. However, long-term relationalsending a quality engineer to a supplier to resolve a contracts should improve the commitment and trustcrisis. between buyers and sellers.The last type of hidden quality cost occurs at thebuyer’s facility. This type of cost may include the Third, it will be interesting to see if supplierfollowing: certification programs will continue to command the Specifying and designing gages that must be used same attention of managers despite their diminishingby the buyer’s receiving inspection and, perhaps as impact. Partnering relationships and monitoring thewell, by the supplier prior to shipping. performance of suppliers require constant Designing appropriate specifications that the communication and long-term commitment to bringsupplier must follow in the manufacture of the product continuing success.or performing the service. Fourth, a third-party certification program has Adding special inspection operations and quality been emerging as a new way of economizing thecontrol effort in the buyer’s . certification process. GM, Ford and Chrysler recognize Production line related specifically to a supplier each others certification program and call it QS 9000.product. The ISO 9000 has also been recognized widely and has Reviewing test and inspection data on supplier become an industry standard. Quality has beenmaterial to determine acceptability for processing in improving so rapidly in the US that it may not be athe buyer’s facility. concern of competitive strategy in the future. Calibrating and maintaining equipment necessary inthe quality control of supplier material. Losing production time due to unavailability ofgood material.Field engineering required to analyze and correct aproblem caused by a The IJES Page 101
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