Marriage Poverty - Maryland


Published on

Published in: Education, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Marriage Poverty - Maryland

  1. 1. Marriage:Maryland’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
  2. 2. Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in Maryland, 1929–2010 In 2010, a record 41.9 percent PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKof children in Maryland were bornoutside marriage. This is very high 50%by historic standards. BeforeWorld War II, only seven percent 41.9%of children in Maryland were born 40% 40.8%outside marriage. By 1980, thenumber had risen to 25 percent. Maryland National 30%Note: Data on non-marital births inMaryland are unavailable between1940 and 1979. However, all states thathave data for this period had rateswhich parallel the national trend shown 20%in the chart. In these states, the non-marital birth rates remained low untilthe onset of the federal War onPoverty in the mid-1960s, and then 10%began to rise steadily. The Marylandunwed birth rate between 1943 and1979 very likely parallels the overallnational trend. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Health Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  3. 3. In Maryland, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Povertyby 89 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 25%cause of high levels of child pov- 22.4%erty in Maryland. Some 22.4 percent of single 20%mothers with children were poorcompared to 2.5 percent of mar-ried couples with children. Single-parent families with 15%children are nine times morelikely to be poor than families inwhich the parents are married. 10% The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due bothto the lower education levels of 5%the mothers and the lower income 2.5%due to the absence of the father. 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-ParentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Female-Headed FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Families Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland s
  4. 4. In Maryland, One-Third of All Families with Children Are Not Married Overall, married couples headabout two-thirds of families withchildren in Maryland. One-thirdare single-parent families. Unmarried Families 34.7% Married Families 65.3%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  5. 5. In Maryland, 81 Percent of Poor Families with ChildrenAre Not Married Among poor families withchildren in Maryland, eight in tenare not married. By contrast, only19.2 percent of poor families with Marriedchildren are headed by married Familiescouples. 19.2% Unmarried Families 80.8%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  6. 6. In Maryland, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are often PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSconfused erroneously with teen BY AGE OF MOTHERbirths, but only 6.4 percent ofout-of-wedlock births in Maryland Underoccur to girls under age 18. Age 18: 6.4% By contrast, some 73 percent ofout-of-wedlock births occur toyoung adult women between the Age 30–54: Ageages of 18 and 29. 21.1% 18–19: 12.6% Age Age 25–29: 20–24: 24.6% 35.3%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  7. 7. Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs most PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALfrequently among the women who OR OUT OF WEDLOCKwill have the greatest difficulty sup- 100% Unmarriedporting children by themselves: those 8.1%with low levels of education. 90% Mothers In the U.S., among women who 42.0%are high school dropouts, about 65.2 80%percent of all births occur outside 54.5%marriage. Among women who have 70%only a high school diploma, well over 65.2% 60%half of all births occur outside mar- 91.9% Marriedriage. By contrast, among women 50% Motherswith at least a college degree, only8.1 percent of births are out of wed- 40%lock. 58.0%Note: Specific data on out-of-wedlock 30% 45.5%births and maternal education are notavailable in Maryland. However, the 20% 34.8%pattern varies little between states.Maryland data will be very similar to 10%the national data presented in thischart. 0% High School High School Some College Mother’sSource: U.S. Department of Health and Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationHuman Services, Centers for Disease (0–11 (12 (13–15 (16+ levelControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Years) Years) Years) Years)data. Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  8. 8. Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effectivein Reducing Child Poverty in Maryland The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families by WITH CHILDREN THAT Singlecouples with children is dramati- Education and Marital Status ARE POOR Marriedcally lower than the rate for house- of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents. 50%This is true even when the married 44.3%couple is compared to single par-ents with the same education level. 40% For example, in Maryland, thepoverty rate for a single mother 30%who has only a high school 26.6%diploma is 26.6 percent, but thepoverty rate for a married couple 20% 17.3%family headed by an individualwho, similarly, has only a highschool degree is far lower at 3.9 10% 9.8%percent. 7.2% 3.9% On average, marriage drops the 1.8% 1.1%poverty rate by around 84 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some College Dropout Graduate College Graduateeducation level.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  9. 9. Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in Maryland Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race. 80% In 2008 (the most recent yearfor which racial breakdown is 8.3%available), over four in ten births 70% 64.2%(42.4 percent) in Marylandoccurred outside marriage. 60% 57.1% The rate was lowest amongwhite non-Hispanics. Among that 50%group about one in four births 42.4%(26.7 percent) were non-marital. 40% Among Hispanics, about six inten births (57.1 percent) were to 30%unmarried women. Among black 26.7%non-Hispanics, almost two-thirdsof births (64.2 percent) were out 20%of wedlock. 10%Source: U.S. Department of Health and 0%Human Services, Centers for Disease All Races White Hispanic BlackControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non-data. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  10. 10. Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Births in Maryland In Maryland in 2008, some 46.1 ALL BIRTHS OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSpercent of all births occurred tonon-Hispanic whites, 33.6 percentoccurred to non-Hispanic blacks,and 13.6 percent occurred toHispanics. 46.1% 29.1% White Non- Because blacks and Hispanics Hispanicare more likely to have childrenwithout being married, theyaccount for disproportionatelylarger shares of all out-of-wedlockbirths. 50.9% In Maryland in 2008, 50.9 per- Black Non-cent of all non-marital births were Hispanicto black non-Hispanic women, 33.6%29.1 percent were to non-Hispanicwhite women, and 18.4 percentwere to Hispanic women. 13.6% Hispanic 18.4% 6.7% 1.6%Source: U.S. Department of Health and Asian/OtherHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded. Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  11. 11. Non-Married White Families Are Eight Times More Likely to Be Poorin Maryland Marriage leads to lower poverty PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORrates for whites, blacks, and His-panics. 16% For example, in 2009, the pov- 14.3%erty rate for married white families 14%in Maryland was 1.7 percent. Butthe poverty rate for non-married 12%white families was nearly eighttimes higher at 14.3 percent. 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 1.7% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  12. 12. Non-Married Black Families Are Seven Times More Likely to Be Poorin Maryland In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in Marylandwas 2.6 percent, while the poverty 20% 19.0%rate for non-married black familieswas seven times higher at 19 18%percent. 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2.6% 2% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  13. 13. Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Four Times More Likely to Be Poorin Maryland In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORHispanic married families inMaryland was 4.7 percent, while 25%the poverty rate among non-married families was over fourtimes higher at 20.1 percent. 20.1% 20% 15% 10% 4.7% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in Maryland
  14. 14. Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
  15. 15. The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 •