THE BERLIN WALL
Another Cold War crisis <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>East – West rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin divided – contra...
What they wanted <ul><li>The West </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>To...
Map
1958-Soviet demands <ul><li>West should: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise GDR (East Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw troops ...
Who’s this then?
Events of 1961 <ul><li>Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy (TV story!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded...
Events cont’d <ul><li>13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed b...
Results <ul><li>Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin  was divided, free access ...
 
Results cont’d <ul><li>Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war....
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Berlinwall

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Berlinwall

  1. 1. THE BERLIN WALL
  2. 2. Another Cold War crisis <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>East – West rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. </li></ul>WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
  3. 3. What they wanted <ul><li>The West </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>To see a united, democratic Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The East </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain control over E Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Make the West recognise it as an independent state </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany </li></ul>
  4. 4. Map
  5. 5. 1958-Soviet demands <ul><li>West should: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise GDR (East Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw troops from West Berlin </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who’s this then?
  7. 7. Events of 1961 <ul><li>Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy (TV story!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused </li></ul><ul><li>July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day </li></ul><ul><li>July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending </li></ul>
  8. 8. Events cont’d <ul><li>13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks </li></ul><ul><li>All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points </li></ul><ul><li>This was against the settlement reached after the Berlin Airlift (1949) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results <ul><li>Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall </li></ul>
  10. 11. Results cont’d <ul><li>Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed? </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘ Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin </li></ul>

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