Traumatic brain injury


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Traumatic brain injury

  1. 1. Traumatic brain injury
  2. 2. • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.• TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Males sustain traumatic brain injuries more frequently than do females. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those suffering from automobile accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of automobile accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws. Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.
  3. 3. TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. The 20th century saw critical developments in diagnosis and treatment that decreased death rates and improved outcome. Some of the current imaging techniques used for diagnosis and treatment include CT scans computed tomography and MRIs magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. Physical therapy, speech therapy, recreation therapy, occupational therapy and vision therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.• Classification• Traumatic brain injury is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile.[2] Brain function is temporarily or permanently impaired and structural damage may or may not be detectable with current technology.[3]
  4. 4. • TBI is one of two subsets of acquired brain injury (brain damage that occur after birth); the other subset is non-traumatic brain injury, which does not involve external mechanical force (examples include stroke and infection).[4][5] All traumatic brain injuries are head injuries, but the latter term May also refer to injury to other parts of the head.[6][7][8] However, the terms head injury and brain injury are often used interchangeably.[9] Similarly, brain injuries fall under the classification of central nervous system injuries[10] and neurotrauma.[11] In neuropsychology research literature, in general the term "traumatic brain injury" is used to refer to non-penetrating traumatic brain injuries. TBI is usually classified based on severity, anatomical features of the injury, and the mechanism (the causative forces).[12] Mechanism- related classification divides TBI into closed and penetrating head injury.[2] A closed (also called nonpenetrating, or blunt)[6] injury occurs when the brain is not exposed.[7] A penetrating, or open, head injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and breaches the dura mater, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain.[7]
  5. 5. SeverityBrain injuries can be classified into mild, moderate, and severecategories.[12] The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the most commonlyused system for classifying TBI severity, grades a persons level ofconsciousness on a scale of 3–15 based on verbal, motor, and eye-opening reactions to stimuli.[14] It is generally agreed that a TBI witha GCS of 13 or above is mild, 9–12 is moderate, and 8 or below issevere.[3][8][15] Similar systems exist for young children.[8] However,the GCS grading system has limited ability to predict outcomes.Because of this, other classification systems such as the one shown inthe table are also used to help determine severity. A current modeldeveloped by the Department of Defense and Department ofVeterans Affairs uses all three criteria of GCS after resuscitation,duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and loss of consciousness(LOC).[13] It also has been proposed to use changes that are visible onneuroimaging, such as swelling, focal lesions, or diffuse injury asmethod of classification.[2] Grading scales also exist to classify theseverity of mild TBI, commonly called concussion; these use durationof LOC, PTA, and other concussion symptoms.
  6. 6. Signs and symptomsUnequal pupil size is potentially a sign of a serious brain injury.[32]Symptoms are dependent on the type of TBI (diffuse or focal) and thepart of the brain that is affected.[33] Unconsciousness tends to lastlonger for people with injuries on the left side of the brain than forthose with injuries on the right.[7] Symptoms are also dependent onthe injurys severity. With mild TBI, the patient may remain consciousor may lose consciousness for a few seconds or minutes.[34] Othersymptoms of mild TBI include headache, vomiting, nausea, lack ofmotor coordination, dizziness, difficulty balancing,[35]lightheadedness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, badtaste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, and changes in sleep patterns.Cognitive and emotional symptoms include behavioral or moodchanges, confusion, and trouble with memory, concentration,attention, or thinking.[34] Mild TBI symptoms may also be present inmoderate and severe injuries.[34]
  7. 7. A person with a moderate or severe TBI may have a headache thatdoes not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions, aninability to awaken, dilation of one or both pupils, slurred speech,aphasia (word-finding difficulties), dysarthria (muscle weakness thatcauses disordered speech), weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss ofcoordination, confusion, restlessness, or agitation.[34] Common long-term symptoms of moderate to severe TBI are changes in appropriatesocial behavior, deficits in social judgment, and cognitive changes,especially problems with sustained attention, processing speed, andexecutive functioning.[27][36][37][38][39] Alexithymia, a deficiency inidentifying, understanding, processing, and describing emotionsoccurs in 60.9% of individuals with TBI.[40] Cognitive and social deficitshave long-term consequences for the daily lives of people withmoderate to severe TBI, but can be improved with appropriaterehabilitation.[39][41][42][43]When the pressure within the skull (intracranial pressure, abbreviatedICP) rises too high, it can be deadly.[44] Signs of increased ICP includedecreasing level of consciousness, paralysis or weakness on one sideof the body, and a blown pupil, one that fails to constrict in responseto light or is slow to do so.[44] Cushings triad, a slow heart rate withhigh blood pressure and respiratory depression is a classicmanifestation of significantly raised ICP.[3]
  8. 8. Anisocoria, unequal pupil size, is another sign of serious TBI.[32]Abnormal posturing, a characteristic positioning of the limbs causedby severe diffuse injury or high ICP, is an ominous sign.[3]Small children with moderate to severe TBI may have some of thesesymptoms but have difficulty communicating them.[45] Other signsseen in young children include persistent crying, inability to beconsoled, listlessness, refusal to nurse or eat,[45] and irritability.[3] CausesThe most common causes of TBI in the U.S. include violence,transportation accidents, construction, and sports.[35][46] Motorbikes are major causes, increasing in significance in developingcountries as other causes reduce.[47] The estimates that between1.6 and 3.8 million traumatic brain injuries each year are a resultof sports and recreation activities in the US.[48] In children aged twoto four, falls are the most common cause of TBI, while in olderchildren traffic accidents compete with falls for this position.
  9. 9. • [49] TBI is the third most common injury to result from child abuse.[50] Abuse causes 19% of cases of pediatric brain trauma, and the death rate is higher among these cases.[51] Domestic violence is another cause of TBI,[52] as are work-related and industrial accidents.[53] Firearms[7] and blast injuries from explosions[54] are other causes of TBI, which is the leading cause of death and disability in war zones.[55] According to Representative Bill Pascrell (Democrat, NJ), TBI is "the signature injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan."[56] There is a promising technology called activation database guided EEG biofeedback which has been documented to return a TBIs auditory memory ability to above the control groups performance [57] [58] Treatment It is important to begin emergency treatment within the so-called "golden hour" following the injury.[81] People with moderate to severe injuries are likely to receive treatment in an intensive care unit followed by a neurosurgical ward.[82] Treatment depends on the recovery stage of the patient. In the acute stage the primary aim of the medical personnel is to stabilize the patient and focus on preventing further injury because little can be done to reverse the initial damage caused by trauma.[
  10. 10. 82] Rehabilitation is the main treatment for the subacute and chronic stages of recovery.[82] International clinical guidelines have been proposed with the aim of guiding decisions in TBI treatment, as defined by an authoritative examination of current evidence.[2]• POSTED BY ATTORNEY RENE G. GARCIA: For more information:- Some of our clients have suffered this kind of injuries due to a serious accident. The Garcia Law Firm, P.C. was able to successfully handle these types of cases. For a free consultation please call us at 1-866- SCAFFOLD or 212-725-1313.Links