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Total Physical Response (Tpr)


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This slide is about the Total Physical Response.

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Total Physical Response (Tpr)

  2. 2. <ul><li>TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action. </li></ul><ul><li>It attempts to teach language through physical(motor) activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California. </li></ul><ul><li>It draws on several traditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanictic pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language teaching procedures </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>According to James Asher adult second language learning is parallel to child first language acquisiton. </li></ul><ul><li>Commands  Physical Response  Verbal Response </li></ul><ul><li>The less stress the more learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Grammar based </li></ul><ul><li>Skillful use of imperative  Grammatical structure and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>The more intensively and the more often the trace, the stronger memory association will be. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Bio-Program </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Lateralization </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction Of Stress </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Asher sees three processes as central: </li></ul><ul><li>---Listening competence  Speaking ability </li></ul><ul><li>Children understand complex utterances that they cannot spontaneously produce or imitate. </li></ul><ul><li>---Parental command  Listening comprehension  Physical response </li></ul><ul><li>---Once listening comprehension has been established speech evolves naturally and effortlessly. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Internalizing a ‘cognitive map’ of the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening should be accompanied by physical movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and other productive skills come later. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Asher sees TPR as directed to right brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere activities must occur before the left hemisphere can process languge for production. </li></ul><ul><li>While adult proceed to language mastery through right hemisphere motor activities, the left hemisphere watches and learns. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The absence of stress is an important condition for successful language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>First language acquisition  Stress free environment Adult language learning  Stressful, causes anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Focus meaning through movement Not language forms </li></ul>
  10. 10. DESIGN: OBJECTIVES, SYLLABUS, LEARNING ACTIVITIES, ROLES OF LEARNERS, TEACHERS, AND MATERIALS <ul><li>General Objectives Teach oral proficiency at a beginning level </li></ul><ul><li>Teach basic speaking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication </li></ul><ul><li>All goals must be attainable through the use of action-based drills in the imperative form </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence-based syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical and lexical criteria are primary </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike others, TPR requires initial attention to meaning rather than to the form of items. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is taught inductively. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Learning Activities </li></ul><ul><li>A fixed number of items to facilitate ease of differentiation and assimilation. </li></ul><ul><li>12-36 items in an hour depending upon the size of the group and the stage of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative drills are the major classroom activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational dialogues begin after 120 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Other activities: role plays and slide presentations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Roles Of Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Listener and performer </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are expected to recognize and respond to novel combinations of previously taught items. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are required to produce novel combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. </li></ul><ul><li>They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Roles Of Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers play an active and direct role. </li></ul><ul><li>They decide what to teach, they model, present new materials and select supporting materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should allow speaking abilities to develop in learners at the learners’ own natural pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must be like parents while giving feedback. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Roles Of Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Generally no basic text </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s voice, actions, and gestures  common classroom objects(books, pens, cups, furniture)  supporting materials(pictures, realia, slides, and word charts) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and realia play an increasing role later on. </li></ul><ul><li>Asher developed TPR student kits that focus on specific situations, such as the home, the supermarket, the beach. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONCLUSION <ul><li>TPR was popular in the 1970s ad 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>Krashen(1981) supported TPR. </li></ul><ul><li>Asher says that TPR should be in association with other methods and techniques and is compatible with other approaches to teaching. </li></ul>