OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)


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Introduction to OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)

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OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)

  1. 1. OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) Dipesh Kumar Electronic and Communication Engineering 2011 Batch Group NCIT
  2. 2. What is an OLED? OLED - Organic Light Emitting Diode An OLED is any light emitting diode (LED)An OLED is any light emitting diode (LED) which emissive electroluminescent layer iswhich emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds.composed of a film of organic compounds.
  3. 3. History of OLEDs • First developed in the early 1950s in France • Early technology would emmite a short burst of light when a voltage was applied • This early form applied high-voltage alternating current field to crystalline thin films of acridine orange and quinacrine. • 1960s - AC-driven electroluminescent cells using doped anthracene was developed • In a 1977 paper, Shirakawa et al. Reported high conductivity in similarly oxidized and iodine-doped polyacetylene. • In 1987 Chin Tang and Van Slyke introduced the first light emitting diodes from thin organic layers. • In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered.
  4. 4. Architecture of OLEDs Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - The substrate supports the OLED. Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device. Organic layer: o Conducting layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. o Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device.
  5. 5. Types of OLEDs Passive OLEDs • The organic layer is between strips of cathode and anode that run perpendicular • The intersections form the pixels • Easy to make • Use more power • Best for small screens Active OLEDs • Full layers of cathode and anode • Anode over lays a thin film transistor (TFT) • Requires less power • Higher refresh rates • Suitable for large screens
  6. 6. Current Research for OLEDs • Manufacturers focusing on finding a cheap way to produce o "Roll-to-Roll" Manufacturing • Increasing efficiency of blue luminance • Boosting overall lifespan
  7. 7. Applications of OLEDs • TVs • Cell Phone screens • Computer Screens • Keyboards (Optimus Maximus) • Lights • Portable Divice displays
  8. 8. OLEDs as a Light Source
  9. 9. OLED Televisions • Released XEL-1 in February 2009. • First OLED TV sold in stores. • 11'' screen, 3mm thin • $2,500 MSRP • Weighs approximately 1.9 kg • Wide 178 degree viewing angle • 1,000,000:1 Contrast ratio Sony
  10. 10. Optimus Maximus Keyboard • Small OLED screen on every key • 113 OLED screens total • Each key can be programmed to preform a series of functions • Keys can be linked to applications • Display notes, numerals, special symbols, HTML codes, etc... • SD card slot for storing settings
  11. 11. Advantages of OLEDs • Much faster response time • Consume significantly less energy • Able to display "True Black" picture • Wider viewing angles • Thinner display • Better contrast ratio • Safer for the environment • Has potential to be mass produced inexpensively • OLEDs refresh almost 1,000 times faster then LCDs OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma OLED Lighting Vs. Incandescent and Fluorescent • Cheaper way to create flexible lighting • Requires less power • Better quality of light (ie. no "Cold Light") • New design concepts for interior lighting
  12. 12. Disadvantages of OLEDs OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma • Cost to manufacture is high • Overall luminance degradation • Constraints with lifespan • Easily damaged by water • Limited market availability OLED Lighting Vs. Incandescent and Fluorescent • Not as easy as changing a light bulb
  13. 13. Future Uses for OLED Lighting • Flexible / bendable lighting • Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space • Transparent lighting doubles as a window Cell Phones • Nokia 888
  14. 14. Future Uses for OLED It may only be 4" across (diagonally) and 320x240 pixels at the moment but this flexible transparent OLED display has massive implications for how we use and interact with technology in the future. 4" flexible transparent OLED from LG
  15. 15. Future Uses for OLED Transparent Car Navigation System on Windshield • Using Samsungs' transparent OLED technology • Heads up display • GPS system Scroll Laptop • Nokia concept OLED Laptop
  16. 16. OLED Technology
  17. 17. References • http://impnerd.com/the-history-and-future-of-oled • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_light-emitting_diode • http://www.oled-research.com/oleds/oleds-history.html • http://www.voidspace.org.uk/technology/top_ten_phone_techs.sht ml#keep-your-eye-on-flexible-displays-coming-soon • http://www.pocket- lint.com/news/news.phtml/23150/24174/samsung-say-oled-not- ready.phtml • http://www.cepro.com/article/study_future_bright_for_oled_lighti ng_market/ • http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/21116/page1/ • http://optics.org/cws/article/industry/37032 • http://jalopnik.com/5154953/samsung-transparent-oled-display- pitched-as-automotive-hud
  18. 18. Thank You Dipesh Kumar dipesh@asia.com NCIT