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Leisure presentation


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Leisure presentation

  1. 1. LEISURE
  2. 2. Etymology: c.1300, "opportunity to do something," also "time at one's disposal," from O.Fr. leisir (Fr. loisir) "permission, leisure, spare time," noun use of infinitive leisir "be permitted," from L. licere "be permitted“ From When one is not at Leisure Where one is compelled to do a certain action as a means to and end Where one is free to choose one’s own action as an end unto itself
  3. 3. Criticism of Leisure Jean-Jacques Rousseau Karl Marx Guy Debord Religious Protestant Work Ethic Sloth is one of the seven deadly sins
  4. 4. Rousseau • Argued that humans originally lived in a state of nature, as animals do, where their main focus was on surviving • As technology developed, and survival no longer became an imminent problem, humans developed leisure time • This however led to an increased corruption of humanity, because we became dependant on what were once considered luxuries- this idea is similar to Frankfurt School ideas of “false needs” • This forms part of Rousseau’s argument for why we cannot return to a state of nature- we require the State to regulate our behaviour as corrupted humans Marx • Theory of alienation-argued that the split between Work and Leisure is one of the defining elements of wage labour under capitalism, as labour itself is so unfulfilling that it requires leisure time to balance it • He argued that in previous societies (e.g. Feudalism) that there was far less division between what was work and what was Leisure • Criticises most Leisure under Capitalism as being non-productive- alienates us from ourselves as Capitalism makes us productive beings
  5. 5. “Under Capitalism man is Animal in his human functions and only human in his animal ones” Human Functions Productive Labour- Work Man becomes “animal” in the sense that s/he can only react to direction/demands of work environment Animal Functions Eating, Sleeping, Reproducing etc., This time is when man is “human” in the sense of being able to direct own actions (leisure) but this is entirely occupied with fulfilling “animal” needs
  6. 6. Debord • In The Society of the Spectacle, criticises Leisure for offering the appearance of free time, when it is actually something taken from the worker (via wage slavery) and sold back to them through Leisure activities, which are commodities and therefore require the worker to earn enough to afford them, further preventing any freedom from work. All human time is “free time” in nature- we can choose when/what to do (within limits of survival) Under Capitalism, humans need to work to earn money to live-they have no choice on whether or not to work Therefore Leisure is merely the illusion of free time, something first stolen and then sold back to people
  7. 7. How has leisure evolved over time? •Effectively began in the 19th century with the passing of certain acts in relation to Museums, Libraries and Recreational areas •Government noted that these leisure activities were simple and effective ways of generating captital •Higher incomes allow people of all social backgrounds to engage in leisure activities – weekend saw people from all status come together in public as they would not be divided or stand out from what they would normally look like in their work clothes •Today, leisure takes the form in recreational sports, culture and the arts, shopping and numerous other classifications. What people get up to in the spare time and away from work can be defined as leisure although there are different social interpretations as to what leisure actually is.
  8. 8. Brighton • The Promenade Pier – Fred Gray • “The new Pier was a speculative venture, built to attract visitors able and willing to pay to promenade on its deck”. Social status and sign of wealth that people could afford to “promenade” as a leisure activity. • Promenading seen as a “passive pleasure” and likeminded people would take part and socialise together as part of a so called holiday crowd. Middle class families especially saw it as a safe environment to meet, socialise and take in both the views of nature and society • Popularity of sun tans and sun bathing increased after WWII – fashionable to be bronzed and therefore people flocked to beaches around the country • Evolution from Victorian times of promenading to new leisure activities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; e.g Brigthon Swimming Club used the pier as club house • Pier provided aquatic sports and entertainment ( which in themselves are leisure activities) but encouraged tourists to come and see the spectacles • “The passive and sedate promenade Pier increasingly gave way to spectacle and performances on what was becoming a pleasure pier”
  9. 9. ‘Mass Observation’ • Humphrey Jennings, Charles Madge, Tom Harrisson • Watching people and how they behaved in different situations outside their working environment – simply how they engaged in leisure. • Social and Political reasoning behind ‘Mass Observation’: Newspapers and radio speak in the name of the people, but what do we know of the people and how they think and feel?
  10. 10. ‘Spare Time’ • 1939, Humphrey Jennings • Another observational project, but this time on how workers spend their time when not in the working environment •