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in production
an experience reportan experience report
what you should know before you go to production
ServerlessServerle...
Yan Cui
http://theburningmonk.com
@theburningmonk
Domas Lasauskas
apr, 2016
hey guys, vote on this post
and I’ll announce a winner at
10PM tonight
10PM
traffic
10PM
traffic
70-100x
low utilisation to leave room for spikes
EC2 scaling is slow, so scale earlier
lots of $$$ for unused resources
up to 30 mins for deployment
deployment required downtime
- Dan North
“lead time to someone saying
thank you is the only reputation
metric that matters.”
“what would good
look like for us?”
be small
be fast
have zero downtime
have no lock-step
DEPLOYMENTS SHOULD...
FEATURES SHOULD...
be deployable independently
be loosely-coupled
WE WANT TO...
minimise cost for unused resources
minimise ops effort
reduce tech mess
deliver visible improvements faster
nov, 2016
170 Lambda functions in prod
1.2 GB deployment packages in prod
95% cost saving vs EC2
15x no. of prod releases per month
time
is a good fit
1st function in prod!
time
is a good fit
?
time
is a good fit
1st function in prod!
ALERTING
CI / CD
TESTING
LOGGING
MONITORING
Practices ToolsPrinciples
what is good? how to make it good? with what?
Principles outlast Tools
170 functions
? ?
time
is a good fit
1st function in prod!
SECURITY
DISTRIBUTED TRACING
CONFIG MANAGEMENT
rebuilt search
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearch
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
new analytics pipeline
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
1 developer, 2 days
design production
(his 1st serverless pro...
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
“nothing ever got done
this fast at Skype!”
- Chris Twamley
- Dan North
“lead time to someone saying
thank you is the only reputation
metric that matters.”
Rebuilt
with Lambda
nov, 2016
evolving the PLATFORM
rebuilt search
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearch
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
new analytics pipeline
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
1 developer, 2 days
design production
(his 1st serverless pro...
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Google BigQuery
“nothing ever got done
this fast at Skype!”
- Chris Twamley
- Dan North
“lead time to someone saying
thank you is the only reputation
metric that matters.”
Rebuilt
with Lambda
Expensive operations
SNS retries for “free”
nov, 2016
nov, 2016
Decouple using events
Small iterative features
Proxy old endpoints
Focus on delivering value
Leverage cloud serv...
getting PRODUCTION READY
choose a tried-and-tested
deployment framework,
don’t invent your own
http://serverless.com
https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model
http://apex.run
https://apex.github.io/up
https://github.com/claudiajs/claudia
https://github.com/Miserlou/Zappa
http://gosparta.io/
TESTING
amzn.to/29Lxuzu
Level of Testing
1.Unit
do our objects do the right thing?
are they easy to work with?
Level of Testing
1.Unit
2.Integration
does our code work against code we
can’t change?
handler
handler
test by invoking
the handler
Level of Testing
1.Unit
2.Integration
3.Acceptance
does the whole system work?
Level of Testing
unit
integration
acceptance
feedback
confidence
Don’t Mock Types You Can’t Change
Don’t Mock Types You Can’t Change
Services
Paul Johnston
The serverless approach to
testing is different and may
actually be easier.
http://bit.ly/2t5viwK
LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB
LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB
Unit Tests
LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB
Unit Tests
Mock/Stub
is our request correct?
is the request mapping
set up correctly?is the API resources
configured correctly?
are we assuming ...
most Lambda functions are simple
have single purpose, the risk of
shipping broken software has largely
shifted to how they...
optimize towards shipping working
software, even if it means slowing
down your feedback loop…
learning the wrong thing faster does not
help us deliver working software faster
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
Test Input
Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda
Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
Test Input
Validate
integration tests exercise
system’s Integration with its
external dependencies
my code
acceptance tests exercise
system End-to-End from
the outside
my code
integration tests differ from
acceptance tests only in HOW the
Lambda functions are invoked
observation
CI + CD PIPELINE
end-to-end tests exercise both
the system and the process by which
it’s built and deployed
…has to be done
anyway repeated...
Yan
the earlier you consider CI/CD
the more time you save in the
long run
Yan
deployment scripts that only
live on the CI box is a disaster
waiting to happen…
Jenkins build config deploys and tests
unit + integration tests
deploy
acceptance tests
if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then
STAGE=$2
REGION=$3
PROFILE=$4
npm install
AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/...
if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then
STAGE=$2
REGION=$3
PROFILE=$4
npm install
AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/...
if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then
STAGE=$2
REGION=$3
PROFILE=$4
npm install
AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/...
build.sh allows repeatable

builds on both local & CI
or NPM script, or Gradle, or …
Auto Auto Manual
nov, 2016
Automate early
Reproducible locally & on CI
Use version control
Release process to fit your team
recap
LOGGING
2016-07-12T12:24:37.571Z 994f18f9-482b-11e6-8668-53e4eab441ae
GOT is off air, what do I do now?
2016-07-12T12:24:37.571Z 994f18f9-482b-11e6-8668-53e4eab441ae
GOT is off air, what do I do now?
UTC Timestamp API Gateway ...
CloudWatch Logs are too basic
…but you can stream them somewhere else
CloudWatch Logs are too basic
CloudWatch Logs AWS Lambda ELK stack
…
AWS CloudTrail

events on resource operations
CloudWatch Events
Serverless Framework
DISTRIBUTED TRACING
a user
my followers didn’t receive
my new post!
where could the
problem be?
correlation IDs*
* eg. request-id, user-id, yubl-id, etc.
wrap HTTP client & AWS SDK clients
to forward captured correlation IDs
kinesis client
http client
sns client
use X-Ray for performance tracing
Amazon X-Ray
Amazon X-Ray
X-Ray traces do not span over API
Gateway, or async event sources
MONITORING + ALERTING
no place to install agents/daemons
• invocation Count
• error Count
• latency
• throttling
• granular to the minute
• support custom metrics
• same metrics as CW
• better dashboard
• support custom metrics
https://www.datadoghq.com/blog/monitoring-lambda-function...
my code
my code
my code
internet internet
press button something happens
those extra 10-20ms for
sending custom metrics
would compound when
you have microservices
and multiple APIs are
called wit...
Amazon found every 100ms of latency
cost them 1% in sales.
http://bit.ly/2EXPfbA
no more background processing,
other than what the platform provides
console.log(“hydrating yubls from db…”);
console.log(“fetching user info from user-api”);
console.log(“MONITORING|14897953...
CloudWatch Logs AWS Lambda
ELK stack
logs
metrics
CloudWatch
don’t forget to setup dashboards
& CW alarms
CONFIG MANAGEMENT
design for easy & quick
propagation of config changes
me
Environment variables make it
hard to share configurations
across functions.
me
Environment variables make it
hard to implement fine-grained
access to sensitive info.
config service
goes here
SSM
Parameter
Store
sensitive data should be encrypted
in-flight, and at-rest
enforce role-based access to sensitive
configuration values
SSM Parameter Store
HTTPS
role-based access
encrypted in-flight
SSM Parameter Store
encrypt
role-based access
SSM Parameter Store
encrypted at-rest
HTTPS
role-based access
SSM Parameter Store
encrypted in-flight
invest into a robust client library
fetch & cache at cold-start
invalidate at interval & weak signals
that’s all for now, folks ;-)
API Gateway and Kinesis
Authentication & authorisation (IAM, Cognito)
Testing
Running & Debugging functions locally
Log ag...
@theburningmonk
theburningmonk.com
github.com/theburningmonk
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)
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Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)

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AWS Lambda has changed the way we deploy and run software, but this new serverless paradigm has created new challenges to old problems - how do you test a cloud-hosted function locally? How do you monitor them? What about logging and config management? And how do we start migrating from existing architectures?

In this talk Yan and Domas will discuss solutions to these challenges by drawing from real-world experience running Lambda in production and migrating from an existing monolithic architecture.

Published in: Technology
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Serverless in production, an experience report (IWOMM)

  1. 1. in production an experience reportan experience report what you should know before you go to production ServerlessServerless
  2. 2. Yan Cui http://theburningmonk.com @theburningmonk Domas Lasauskas
  3. 3. apr, 2016
  4. 4. hey guys, vote on this post and I’ll announce a winner at 10PM tonight
  5. 5. 10PM traffic
  6. 6. 10PM traffic 70-100x
  7. 7. low utilisation to leave room for spikes EC2 scaling is slow, so scale earlier
  8. 8. lots of $$$ for unused resources
  9. 9. up to 30 mins for deployment deployment required downtime
  10. 10. - Dan North “lead time to someone saying thank you is the only reputation metric that matters.”
  11. 11. “what would good look like for us?”
  12. 12. be small be fast have zero downtime have no lock-step DEPLOYMENTS SHOULD...
  13. 13. FEATURES SHOULD... be deployable independently be loosely-coupled
  14. 14. WE WANT TO... minimise cost for unused resources minimise ops effort reduce tech mess deliver visible improvements faster
  15. 15. nov, 2016
  16. 16. 170 Lambda functions in prod 1.2 GB deployment packages in prod 95% cost saving vs EC2 15x no. of prod releases per month
  17. 17. time is a good fit
  18. 18. 1st function in prod! time is a good fit
  19. 19. ? time is a good fit 1st function in prod!
  20. 20. ALERTING CI / CD TESTING LOGGING MONITORING
  21. 21. Practices ToolsPrinciples what is good? how to make it good? with what?
  22. 22. Principles outlast Tools
  23. 23. 170 functions ? ? time is a good fit 1st function in prod!
  24. 24. SECURITY DISTRIBUTED TRACING CONFIG MANAGEMENT
  25. 25. rebuilt search
  26. 26. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearch
  27. 27. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
  28. 28. new analytics pipeline
  29. 29. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery
  30. 30. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery 1 developer, 2 days design production (his 1st serverless project)
  31. 31. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery “nothing ever got done this fast at Skype!” - Chris Twamley
  32. 32. - Dan North “lead time to someone saying thank you is the only reputation metric that matters.”
  33. 33. Rebuilt with Lambda
  34. 34. nov, 2016
  35. 35. evolving the PLATFORM
  36. 36. rebuilt search
  37. 37. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearch
  38. 38. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
  39. 39. new analytics pipeline
  40. 40. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery
  41. 41. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery 1 developer, 2 days design production (his 1st serverless project)
  42. 42. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Google BigQuery “nothing ever got done this fast at Skype!” - Chris Twamley
  43. 43. - Dan North “lead time to someone saying thank you is the only reputation metric that matters.”
  44. 44. Rebuilt with Lambda
  45. 45. Expensive operations SNS retries for “free”
  46. 46. nov, 2016
  47. 47. nov, 2016 Decouple using events Small iterative features Proxy old endpoints Focus on delivering value Leverage cloud services recap
  48. 48. getting PRODUCTION READY
  49. 49. choose a tried-and-tested deployment framework, don’t invent your own
  50. 50. http://serverless.com
  51. 51. https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model
  52. 52. http://apex.run
  53. 53. https://apex.github.io/up
  54. 54. https://github.com/claudiajs/claudia
  55. 55. https://github.com/Miserlou/Zappa
  56. 56. http://gosparta.io/
  57. 57. TESTING
  58. 58. amzn.to/29Lxuzu
  59. 59. Level of Testing 1.Unit do our objects do the right thing? are they easy to work with?
  60. 60. Level of Testing 1.Unit 2.Integration does our code work against code we can’t change?
  61. 61. handler
  62. 62. handler test by invoking the handler
  63. 63. Level of Testing 1.Unit 2.Integration 3.Acceptance does the whole system work?
  64. 64. Level of Testing unit integration acceptance feedback confidence
  65. 65. Don’t Mock Types You Can’t Change
  66. 66. Don’t Mock Types You Can’t Change Services
  67. 67. Paul Johnston The serverless approach to testing is different and may actually be easier. http://bit.ly/2t5viwK
  68. 68. LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB
  69. 69. LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB Unit Tests
  70. 70. LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB Unit Tests Mock/Stub
  71. 71. is our request correct? is the request mapping set up correctly?is the API resources configured correctly? are we assuming the correct schema? LambdaAPI Gateway DynamoDB is Lambda proxy configured correctly? is IAM policy set up correctly? is the table created? what unit tests will not tell you…
  72. 72. most Lambda functions are simple have single purpose, the risk of shipping broken software has largely shifted to how they integrate with external services observation
  73. 73. optimize towards shipping working software, even if it means slowing down your feedback loop…
  74. 74. learning the wrong thing faster does not help us deliver working software faster
  75. 75. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda
  76. 76. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda Test Input
  77. 77. Legacy Monolith Amazon Kinesis Amazon Lambda Amazon CloudSearchAmazon API Gateway Amazon Lambda Test Input Validate
  78. 78. integration tests exercise system’s Integration with its external dependencies my code
  79. 79. acceptance tests exercise system End-to-End from the outside my code
  80. 80. integration tests differ from acceptance tests only in HOW the Lambda functions are invoked observation
  81. 81. CI + CD PIPELINE
  82. 82. end-to-end tests exercise both the system and the process by which it’s built and deployed …has to be done anyway repeatedly during the software’s lifetime…
  83. 83. Yan the earlier you consider CI/CD the more time you save in the long run
  84. 84. Yan deployment scripts that only live on the CI box is a disaster waiting to happen…
  85. 85. Jenkins build config deploys and tests unit + integration tests deploy acceptance tests
  86. 86. if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/.bin/sls' deploy -s $STAGE -r $REGION elif [ "$1" = "int-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run int-$STAGE elif [ "$1" = "acceptance-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run acceptance-$STAGE else usage exit 1 fi
  87. 87. if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/.bin/sls' deploy -s $STAGE -r $REGION elif [ "$1" = "int-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run int-$STAGE elif [ "$1" = "acceptance-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run acceptance-$STAGE else usage exit 1 fi install Serverless Framework as dev dependency
  88. 88. if [ "$1" = "deploy" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE 'node_modules/.bin/sls' deploy -s $STAGE -r $REGION elif [ "$1" = "int-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run int-$STAGE elif [ "$1" = "acceptance-test" ] && [ $# -eq 4 ]; then STAGE=$2 REGION=$3 PROFILE=$4 npm install AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE npm run acceptance-$STAGE else usage exit 1 fi install Serverless Framework as dev dependency mitigate version conflicts
  89. 89. build.sh allows repeatable
 builds on both local & CI or NPM script, or Gradle, or …
  90. 90. Auto Auto Manual
  91. 91. nov, 2016 Automate early Reproducible locally & on CI Use version control Release process to fit your team recap
  92. 92. LOGGING
  93. 93. 2016-07-12T12:24:37.571Z 994f18f9-482b-11e6-8668-53e4eab441ae GOT is off air, what do I do now?
  94. 94. 2016-07-12T12:24:37.571Z 994f18f9-482b-11e6-8668-53e4eab441ae GOT is off air, what do I do now? UTC Timestamp API Gateway Request Id your log message
  95. 95. CloudWatch Logs are too basic
  96. 96. …but you can stream them somewhere else CloudWatch Logs are too basic
  97. 97. CloudWatch Logs AWS Lambda ELK stack
  98. 98.
  99. 99. AWS CloudTrail
 events on resource operations CloudWatch Events
  100. 100. Serverless Framework
  101. 101. DISTRIBUTED TRACING
  102. 102. a user my followers didn’t receive my new post!
  103. 103. where could the problem be?
  104. 104. correlation IDs* * eg. request-id, user-id, yubl-id, etc.
  105. 105. wrap HTTP client & AWS SDK clients to forward captured correlation IDs
  106. 106. kinesis client http client sns client
  107. 107. use X-Ray for performance tracing
  108. 108. Amazon X-Ray
  109. 109. Amazon X-Ray
  110. 110. X-Ray traces do not span over API Gateway, or async event sources
  111. 111. MONITORING + ALERTING
  112. 112. no place to install agents/daemons
  113. 113. • invocation Count • error Count • latency • throttling • granular to the minute • support custom metrics
  114. 114. • same metrics as CW • better dashboard • support custom metrics https://www.datadoghq.com/blog/monitoring-lambda-functions-datadog/
  115. 115. my code
  116. 116. my code
  117. 117. my code internet internet press button something happens
  118. 118. those extra 10-20ms for sending custom metrics would compound when you have microservices and multiple APIs are called within one slice of user event
  119. 119. Amazon found every 100ms of latency cost them 1% in sales. http://bit.ly/2EXPfbA
  120. 120. no more background processing, other than what the platform provides
  121. 121. console.log(“hydrating yubls from db…”); console.log(“fetching user info from user-api”); console.log(“MONITORING|1489795335|27.4|latency|user-api-latency”); console.log(“MONITORING|1489795335|8|count|yubls-served”); timestamp metric value metric type metric namemetrics logs
  122. 122. CloudWatch Logs AWS Lambda ELK stack logs metrics CloudWatch
  123. 123. don’t forget to setup dashboards & CW alarms
  124. 124. CONFIG MANAGEMENT
  125. 125. design for easy & quick propagation of config changes
  126. 126. me Environment variables make it hard to share configurations across functions.
  127. 127. me Environment variables make it hard to implement fine-grained access to sensitive info.
  128. 128. config service goes here
  129. 129. SSM Parameter Store
  130. 130. sensitive data should be encrypted in-flight, and at-rest
  131. 131. enforce role-based access to sensitive configuration values
  132. 132. SSM Parameter Store HTTPS role-based access encrypted in-flight
  133. 133. SSM Parameter Store encrypt role-based access
  134. 134. SSM Parameter Store encrypted at-rest
  135. 135. HTTPS role-based access SSM Parameter Store encrypted in-flight
  136. 136. invest into a robust client library
  137. 137. fetch & cache at cold-start
  138. 138. invalidate at interval & weak signals
  139. 139. that’s all for now, folks ;-)
  140. 140. API Gateway and Kinesis Authentication & authorisation (IAM, Cognito) Testing Running & Debugging functions locally Log aggregation Monitoring & Alerting X-Ray Correlation IDs CI/CD Performance and Cost optimisation Error Handling Configuration management VPC Security Leading practices (API Gateway, Kinesis, Lambda) Canary deployments http://bit.ly/production-ready-serverless get 40% off with: ytcui
  141. 141. @theburningmonk theburningmonk.com github.com/theburningmonk

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