Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Security in the Serverless World
Yan Cui
http://theburningmonk.com
@theburningmonk
Principal Engineer @
Independent Consultant
We’re hiring! Visit
engineering.dazn.com
to learn more.
follow @dazneng for
updates about the
engineering team
follow @dazneng for
updates about the
engineering team
We’re hiring! Visit
engineering.dazn.com
to learn more.
WE’RE HIRIN...
AWS user since 2009
http://bit.ly/yubl-serverless
Shared Responsibility Model
Shared Responsibility Model
protection from OS attacks
Amazon automatically apply latest patches to host VMs
still have to patch your code
vulnerable code, 3rd party dependencies, etc.
https://snyk.io/blog/owasp-top-10-breaches
https://snyk.io/blog/owasp-top-10-breaches
Known Vulnerable Components cause 24% of the top 50 data breaches
https://snyk.io/blog/77-percent-of-sites-use-vulnerable-js-libraries
http://bit.ly/2topw5I
sanitise inputs & outputs
(standardise and encapsulate into shared lib)
http://bit.ly/2gSHtay
Broken Access Control
Insecure Direct Object Reference
Information Leakage
GraphQL Injection
http://bit.ly/2uKhGXF
app dependencies
is a
attack surface
BIGGER
than you think
your dependencies
your dependencies
transient dependencies
https://david-dm.org/request/request?view=tree
https://snyk.io
security updates are often
bundled with unrelated
feature and API changes
your security is as strong
as its weakest link
OS
Application
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published ...
OS
Application
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published ...
OS
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published by
pushes to...
people are often the WEAKEST link
in the security chain
OS
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published by
pushes to...
OS
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published by
pushes to...
OS
Dependencies
physical
infrastructure
NPM Authors
Container
runs in
runs in
runs in
has
hosted by published by
pushes to...
http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
…obtained publish access to 14% of npm packages…
http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
debug, request, react, co, express, moment, gulp, mongoose, mysql, bower,
browserify, electron, jasm...
http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
total downloads/month of the unique packages which I got
myself publish access to was 1 972 421 945,...
20% of all monthly NPM downloads…
brute force
known account leaks from other sources
leaked NPM credentials (github, etc.)
http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
662 users had password “123456”
172 — “123”
124 — “password”
WTF!?!?
oh god, that was too easy…
compromised package is a
transient dependency
sigh…
still “works”…
npmjs.com/~hacktask
rm -rf /!!!
NPM default - get latest
“compatible” version, ie. 1.X.X
clean install (eg. on CI server) will
download the latest, compromised
package without any code change…
NPM default - get ...
use npm shrinkwrap
or upgrade to NPM 5 or above
not specific to Node.js or NPM
the attackers are in…
the attackers are in…
what now?
Shared Responsibility Model
who can invoke the function?
what can the function access?
Least Privilege Principle
everything here
is trusted
sensitive data
http://bit.ly/2zHvbcB
always public
access is controlled via IAM
http://bit.ly/2lNInES
adds up to 10s to cold start!!
http://bit.ly/2lNInES
compromised servers allow
attacker to access all of
your sensitive data!
implement authentication
for internal APIs
use AWS_IAM
authentication for
internal APIs
minimise function’s access
requires developer discipline
AWS Lambda
docs
Write your Lambda function
code in a stateless style, and
ensure there is no affinity
between your code and...
S3
AWS IoT
DynamoDB
RDS
EventStore
Elasticsearch Couchbase
Redshift
Neo4j
Google BigQuery
secure sensitive data both
at rest and in-transit
leverage server-side encryption
http://amzn.to/1N3Twb8
http://amzn.to/1xF41eX
http://amzn.to/2tgvFR2
https://amzn.to/2DaXFwA
Least Privilege Principle
Disposability is a virtue
AWS Lambda
docs
Delete old Lambda functions that
you are no longer using.
http://amzn.to/2jzLmkb
easier said than done…
identifying component
ownership in a big IT
organization is challenging
identifying ownership of
individual functions is
much harder
source: http://www.digitalattackmap.com
more likely to scale through
DoS attacks
DoS + per exec billing =
Denial of Wallet problem
have to choose between a
DoS and a DoW problem…
AWS Shield Advanced also gives you access to the AWS DDoS
Response Team (DRT) and protection against DDoS related
spikes i...
async sync
S3
SNS
SES
CloudFormation
CloudWatch Logs
CloudWatch Events
Scheduled Events
CodeCommit
AWS Config
http://amzn.t...
http://bit.ly/2v7F2E4
DoS attack
2+ Retries+
?
DoS attack
Regex DoS attack
long Lambda timeout
2+ Retries+
?
Day 1
Day 2
no long-lived compromised servers
containers are reused, avoid
sensitive data in /tmp
https://www.puresec.io/function-shield
no accidentally exposed directories
http://bit.ly/2tlGTbc
monitor activities in
unused regions using
CloudWatch Events
set up billing alarms in unused regions
watertight compartments that can contain water in
the case of hull breach or other leaks
Michael Nygard
least privilege principle
per function policies
account level isolation
Recap
app dependencies
is a
attack surface
BIGGER
than you think
sanitise inputs and outputs
Least Privilege Principle
here’s your per function policy
NEXT!
S3
AWS IoT
DynamoDB
RDS
EventStore
Elasticsearch Couchbase
Redshift
Neo4j
Google BigQuery
encrypt data at rest
S3
AWS IoT
DynamoDB
RDS
EventStore
Elasticsearch Couchbase
Redshift
Neo4j
Google BigQuery
and in-transit
delete unused functions.
DoS DoW*
* Denial of Wallet
no server*
no OS attacks
no long lived compromised servers
* I know I know, there’s still a server somewhere, but it’s man...
don’t be an unwilling bit miner
don’t be an unwilling bit miner
safeguard your credentials…
prod dev
compartmentalise breaches
people are often the WEAKEST link
in the security chain
@theburningmonk
theburningmonk.com
github.com/theburningmonk
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Security in serverless world
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Security in serverless world

829 views

Published on

AWS has taken over the responsibilities of patching the OS and securing the underlying physical infrastructure that runs your serverless application, so what’s left for you to secure? Quite a bit it turns out.

The OWASP top 10 is as relevant to you as ever; DOS attacks are still a threat even if you can probably brute force your way through it as AWS auto-scales Lambda functions automatically; and did you know attackers can easily steal your AWS credentials via your application dependencies?

In addition to the traditional threats, serverless applications have more granular deployment units and therefore there are more things to configure and secure, and the tools and practices are still catching up with this fast-changing world.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Security in serverless world

  1. 1. Security in the Serverless World
  2. 2. Yan Cui http://theburningmonk.com @theburningmonk Principal Engineer @ Independent Consultant
  3. 3. We’re hiring! Visit engineering.dazn.com to learn more. follow @dazneng for updates about the engineering team
  4. 4. follow @dazneng for updates about the engineering team We’re hiring! Visit engineering.dazn.com to learn more. WE’RE HIRING!
  5. 5. AWS user since 2009
  6. 6. http://bit.ly/yubl-serverless
  7. 7. Shared Responsibility Model
  8. 8. Shared Responsibility Model
  9. 9. protection from OS attacks Amazon automatically apply latest patches to host VMs
  10. 10. still have to patch your code vulnerable code, 3rd party dependencies, etc.
  11. 11. https://snyk.io/blog/owasp-top-10-breaches
  12. 12. https://snyk.io/blog/owasp-top-10-breaches Known Vulnerable Components cause 24% of the top 50 data breaches
  13. 13. https://snyk.io/blog/77-percent-of-sites-use-vulnerable-js-libraries
  14. 14. http://bit.ly/2topw5I
  15. 15. sanitise inputs & outputs (standardise and encapsulate into shared lib)
  16. 16. http://bit.ly/2gSHtay Broken Access Control Insecure Direct Object Reference Information Leakage GraphQL Injection
  17. 17. http://bit.ly/2uKhGXF
  18. 18. app dependencies is a attack surface BIGGER than you think
  19. 19. your dependencies
  20. 20. your dependencies transient dependencies
  21. 21. https://david-dm.org/request/request?view=tree
  22. 22. https://snyk.io
  23. 23. security updates are often bundled with unrelated feature and API changes
  24. 24. your security is as strong as its weakest link
  25. 25. OS Application Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Networking runs on needs Source Code has maintains
  26. 26. OS Application Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Networking needs runs on this is where an attacker will target in a movie Source Code has maintains
  27. 27. OS Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Application A9 Networking runs on needs Source Code has maintains A1, A3, …
  28. 28. people are often the WEAKEST link in the security chain
  29. 29. OS Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Application phishing… Networking runs on needs Source Code has maintains
  30. 30. OS Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Application brute force, known account leaks, … Networking runs on needs Source Code has maintains
  31. 31. OS Dependencies physical infrastructure NPM Authors Container runs in runs in runs in has hosted by published by pushes to Developers develops uses Users guardsprotects Application brute force, known account leaks, … Networking runs on needs Source Code has maintains
  32. 32. http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX …obtained publish access to 14% of npm packages…
  33. 33. http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX debug, request, react, co, express, moment, gulp, mongoose, mysql, bower, browserify, electron, jasmine, cheerio, modernizr, redux, …
  34. 34. http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX total downloads/month of the unique packages which I got myself publish access to was 1 972 421 945, that’s 20% of the total number of d/m directly.
  35. 35. 20% of all monthly NPM downloads…
  36. 36. brute force known account leaks from other sources leaked NPM credentials (github, etc.)
  37. 37. http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX
  38. 38. http://bit.ly/2sFDwYX 662 users had password “123456” 172 — “123” 124 — “password”
  39. 39. WTF!?!?
  40. 40. oh god, that was too easy…
  41. 41. compromised package is a transient dependency sigh…
  42. 42. still “works”…
  43. 43. npmjs.com/~hacktask
  44. 44. rm -rf /!!!
  45. 45. NPM default - get latest “compatible” version, ie. 1.X.X
  46. 46. clean install (eg. on CI server) will download the latest, compromised package without any code change… NPM default - get latest “compatible” version, ie. 1.X.X
  47. 47. use npm shrinkwrap or upgrade to NPM 5 or above
  48. 48. not specific to Node.js or NPM
  49. 49. the attackers are in…
  50. 50. the attackers are in… what now?
  51. 51. Shared Responsibility Model
  52. 52. who can invoke the function?
  53. 53. what can the function access?
  54. 54. Least Privilege Principle
  55. 55. everything here is trusted
  56. 56. sensitive data
  57. 57. http://bit.ly/2zHvbcB
  58. 58. always public access is controlled via IAM
  59. 59. http://bit.ly/2lNInES
  60. 60. adds up to 10s to cold start!! http://bit.ly/2lNInES
  61. 61. compromised servers allow attacker to access all of your sensitive data!
  62. 62. implement authentication for internal APIs
  63. 63. use AWS_IAM authentication for internal APIs
  64. 64. minimise function’s access
  65. 65. requires developer discipline
  66. 66. AWS Lambda docs Write your Lambda function code in a stateless style, and ensure there is no affinity between your code and the underlying compute infrastructure. http://amzn.to/2jzLmkb
  67. 67. S3 AWS IoT DynamoDB RDS EventStore Elasticsearch Couchbase Redshift Neo4j Google BigQuery
  68. 68. secure sensitive data both at rest and in-transit
  69. 69. leverage server-side encryption
  70. 70. http://amzn.to/1N3Twb8
  71. 71. http://amzn.to/1xF41eX
  72. 72. http://amzn.to/2tgvFR2
  73. 73. https://amzn.to/2DaXFwA
  74. 74. Least Privilege Principle
  75. 75. Disposability is a virtue
  76. 76. AWS Lambda docs Delete old Lambda functions that you are no longer using. http://amzn.to/2jzLmkb
  77. 77. easier said than done…
  78. 78. identifying component ownership in a big IT organization is challenging
  79. 79. identifying ownership of individual functions is much harder
  80. 80. source: http://www.digitalattackmap.com
  81. 81. more likely to scale through DoS attacks
  82. 82. DoS + per exec billing = Denial of Wallet problem
  83. 83. have to choose between a DoS and a DoW problem…
  84. 84. AWS Shield Advanced also gives you access to the AWS DDoS Response Team (DRT) and protection against DDoS related spikes in your ELB, CloudFront or Route 53 charges.
  85. 85. async sync S3 SNS SES CloudFormation CloudWatch Logs CloudWatch Events Scheduled Events CodeCommit AWS Config http://amzn.to/2vs2lIg Cognito Alexa Lex API Gateway pulling DynamoDB Stream Kinesis Stream SQS Lambda handles retries (twice, then DLQ)
  86. 86. http://bit.ly/2v7F2E4
  87. 87. DoS attack 2+ Retries+ ?
  88. 88. DoS attack Regex DoS attack long Lambda timeout 2+ Retries+ ?
  89. 89. Day 1
  90. 90. Day 2
  91. 91. no long-lived compromised servers
  92. 92. containers are reused, avoid sensitive data in /tmp
  93. 93. https://www.puresec.io/function-shield
  94. 94. no accidentally exposed directories
  95. 95. http://bit.ly/2tlGTbc
  96. 96. monitor activities in unused regions using CloudWatch Events
  97. 97. set up billing alarms in unused regions
  98. 98. watertight compartments that can contain water in the case of hull breach or other leaks
  99. 99. Michael Nygard
  100. 100. least privilege principle
  101. 101. per function policies
  102. 102. account level isolation
  103. 103. Recap
  104. 104. app dependencies is a attack surface BIGGER than you think
  105. 105. sanitise inputs and outputs
  106. 106. Least Privilege Principle
  107. 107. here’s your per function policy NEXT!
  108. 108. S3 AWS IoT DynamoDB RDS EventStore Elasticsearch Couchbase Redshift Neo4j Google BigQuery encrypt data at rest
  109. 109. S3 AWS IoT DynamoDB RDS EventStore Elasticsearch Couchbase Redshift Neo4j Google BigQuery and in-transit
  110. 110. delete unused functions.
  111. 111. DoS DoW* * Denial of Wallet
  112. 112. no server* no OS attacks no long lived compromised servers * I know I know, there’s still a server somewhere, but it’s managed and secured by AWS engineers who can do a much better job of it than most of us can; and the servers are ephemeral and short-lived
  113. 113. don’t be an unwilling bit miner
  114. 114. don’t be an unwilling bit miner safeguard your credentials…
  115. 115. prod dev compartmentalise breaches
  116. 116. people are often the WEAKEST link in the security chain
  117. 117. @theburningmonk theburningmonk.com github.com/theburningmonk

×