Ivanka Menken                1
Cloud Computing Introduction                     Welcome
What Is Cloud Computing?
Scale on Demand and NOT Having to Worry
From the Top•   Four Deployment Methods•   Three Service Models•   Five Essential Characteristics
Deployment Models•   Public Clouds•   Community Clouds•   Private Clouds•   Hybrid Clouds
Essential Characteristics•   On-demand self-service•   Broad network access•   Resource pooling•   Rapid elasticity•   Mea...
Cloud ServicesBaaS—Business as a ServiceOaaS—Organization as a ServicePaaS—Platform as a ServiceDaaS—Data as a ServiceSaaS...
Why use Cloud Computing?                                                    Technological               Financial         ...
Managing IT Services                      Organizational                       Perspective             People             ...
High Level Relationships                      Business                Business Processes              IT Service Managemen...
Grid vs. Cloud  http://blogs.southworks.net/mwoloski/files/2008/07/poster-thumb.gif
Service Management in the Cloud•   Understand Strategies•   Understand Business Requirements•   Define the Required Servic...
Cloud Computing Certification Scheme
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Introduction to Cloud Computing part 1


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The Art of Service created a series of 4 short presentations to give a high level introduction into the various concepts of Cloud Computing.

For more information please contact Ivanka Menken at service@theartofservice.com

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  • Hi and Welcome to this program from The Art of Service\n\nWelcome to the first program in the Cloud Computing Certification series. This course will help you to understand the different components of cloud computing and how the services that utilize “the cloud” could be managed effectively. \n
  • Cloud computing sounds simple enough: you open your web browser and everything you need for home, work, and fun is right at your fingertips. The problem is, like spending the day with your friends gazing at clouds in the sky, each cloud seems to take on a different shape and is always changing. \n\nThe other problem is nearly every thing used to describe cloud computing is a technology or framework that has existed for several years; therefore, it hard to say that cloud computing is really a new approach to providing IT services. The underlying principles for cloud computing can be traced back to the 1960s. \n\nAs a concept, cloud computing represents a paradigm shift on how systems are deployed. As a technology, cloud computing refers to the applications and services running on a distributed network using virtualized resources and accessed using Internet protocols and networking standards. \n\nThe key defining features of the cloud - the infrastructure, is entirely virtual, invisible to the user, potentially located anywhere in the world and requires no client installations or special hardware. In the cloud you have access to necessary infrastructure, but the usual burdens of ownership, administration, maintenance and operation of hardware and software fall to the cloud provider, not the end user. \n
  • The visual representation of the Internet as a “cloud” is a product of explaining traffic switching in telecommunications when Virtual Private Networks (VPN) were first introduced in the 1990s. Most people were connecting to the Internet through a dialup connection provided by the phone company. \n\nThe purpose of the cloud in discussions was, and still is, to identify the line between what is the responsibility of the provider and what is the responsibility of the user: everything in the cloud is the responsibility of the provider and is hidden from the user. In cloud computing, the question is what is available in the cloud and, for businesses, especially, how do you manage it. \n\nIt is important to understand that cloud computing is more than offsite IT services. The major reason why businesses and individuals are considering cloud computing is due to the fact that IT resources become scalable on demand and you (as the end user) don’t have to worry about the infrastructure components.\n
  • In September 2011, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published their NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST Special Publication 800-145) after several years of discussion. The definition provided a cloud model consisting of:\n 4 Deployment Methods – Private, Community, Public, and Hybrid Clouds\n 3 Service Models – IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS\n 5 Characteristics – on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service \n
  • The NIST definition identifies four deployment models: public, community, private, and hybrid clouds.\nPublic clouds are designed for open use by the general public. It exists on the premises of a business, academic, government organization who is owns, manages, and operates the offering. \nCommunity clouds are designed for exclusive use by a specific community of users from organizations with shared missions or concerns. One or more of the organizations may own, manage, and operate the offering, or it may be provided by a third party provider, or a combination of the two. The solution may exist on or off the premises.\nPrivate clouds are designed for exclusive by a single organization comprised for multiple consumers. The offering may be owned, managed, or operated by the organization, a third party, of a combination of the two. The solution may be found on or off premise.\nHybrid clouds are a combination of public, community, and private clouds, bound together using standardized or proprietary technology for data and application portability. An hybrid cloud must be single entity that remains unique. \n\nThe Jericho Forum, a subset of the Open Group, has an expanded model of cloud deployments as part of their current focus – “Securely Collaborating in Clouds”. The cloud model provides for dimensions for distinguishing how clouds are formed and their manner for provisioning services. The four dimensions are:\nInternal/External – defines the physical location of the data: either within an organization’s boundaries or outside the organization’s boundaries. (on or off premise)\nProprietary/Open – defines the state of ownership of the technology used: the means for provisioning cloud services is owned and controlled by the service provider or not. This dimension impacts the portability of solution – the more proprietary the provision, the harder it will be to move from one cloud solution to another.\nPerimeterised/De-perimeterised architectures – defines whether the cloud operates within the traditional IT security perimeter or outside that perimeter.\nInsourced/Outsourced – the cloud service is provided by an organization’s It department exclusively or by a third party. An insourced cloud is typically an internal, proprietary, and perimeterised solution and represents the majority of private clouds. An outsourced could is typically an external, open, de-perimeterised solution and clearly represents a NIST-defined public cloud.\n\n(Cloud Cube Model ver 1.0, Jericho Forum: April 2009)\n\nBoth deployment models and the Jericho dimensions provide evidence about the flexibility and diversity surrounding how clouds are provided, especially in relationship to a business’ current IT infrastructure. \n
  • The NIST definition establishes five essential characteristics for cloud computing. Any specific deployment model, service model, or solution may elaborate on additional characteristics, but these five must always be present. \n\nOn-demand self-service – the customer is able to obtain and expand computing capabilities automatically without any interaction with the service provider.\nBroad network access – All service capabilities are available over the network and accessible through standard mechanisms using thin or thick client platforms, including workstations, laptops, tablets, and mobile phones. \nResource pooling – physical and virtual resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers within a multi-tenant model and dynamically assigned according to customer demand. The customer will generally have no control or knowledge over the exact location of the resourced provided, though a location may be specified at a higher level of abstraction, such as country or state. \nRapid elasticity – capabilities are provided and released elastically, sometimes through automation, to scale according to demand. Customer perception of service may appear that capabilities are unlimited and appropriate in any quantity at any time. \nMeasured service – Resource usage is automatically and transparently monitored, controlled, reported on and optimized through a metering capability at a level of abstraction appropriate to the service type.\n
  • While the NIST definition provides only three service models, the cloud computing is incredibly broad, comprising of software, service capacity, storage, middleware, virtualization, and security and management tools, all delivered as services.\n\nSome of the common lingo for cloud computing marketing in addition to the standard three are four letter acronyms for:\n\nBusiness as a service\nOrganization as a service\nData as a service\nFramework as a service\nHardware as a service\nIdentify as a service\nCompliance as a service\nAnd nothing as a service\n\nSome of these are somewhat ‘tongue in Cheek’ but the important thing to remember is that the main focus is on SERVICE delivery. All the components are seen as a service or service component. This is a change in comparison to how internal IT organisations view these components. Very often the focus is on the product, the tool, the box or piece of software – not the fact that you use these components to deliver a service to your customers and clients.\n
  • The benefits of the cloud influence several areas of concern for the customer. \n \nCapital expenditures represented expanding the IT infrastructure: more servers, more network components, more applications, more licenses, more investments, and more tax burdens. Additionally, more money is spent in planning, purchasing, developing, testing, deploying, and managing the expanding infrastructure. To utilize a cloud solution, the business has no capital expenditure or up front investments; all expenditures are considered operational, which can increase or decrease based on business trends.\n\nSupporting a purely operational business requires a similar model in supporting the business. The elasticity inherent with cloud services enables more resources to be available when required and less resources when they are not. Charges and billing for these resources is based on their consumption during a given period. This is especially important for small- and medium-sized businesses that do not have their own economies of scale to reduce IT costs. \n\nCloud providers are actively adopting and, even leading the development of, emerging technologies and standards. Their large scale operations allows them to take on and absorb risk without impacting the overall operations of the cloud. The result is a continual cycle of improvements that cannot be matched outside the same economy of scale. For a business, these improvements allow for faster performance, greater reliability, and better support for their business processes than they would typically be able to do on their own.\n\nThe on-demand self-service and rapid elasticity characteristics of a cloudenables the customer to grow their business without having to worry about having the IT infrastructure in place. This is especially important for businesses that not only want to use SaaS applications but develop them as well. A PaaS, for example, will provide the best combination of programming languages, collaboration tools, development processes, and monitoring and testing methods to the customer. \n\nWith the growth of mobile computing, portability has become a major concern for businesses, both in operating the business and connecting with their customers. Clouds can be accessed anywhere with a simple Internet connection. By default, all a customer needs is a web browser to access the cloud; however, some companies are creating interface applications to be used on tablets and mobile phones, which are available free or for a small price at appropriate stores. \n\nThe economic and technological future for a business has proven fairly unpredictable and uncertain. Cloud can provide a stable infrastructure that is available when it is needed despite the industry and market pressure facing the customer. \n\nWhen adopting a cloud solution, the customer is eliminating capital expenses and transferring ownership of the IT infrastructure to a service provider; but they are also transferring all or some of the risk related to IT management. This can be important for some businesses that are not in the position to address the risk properly or simply not aware of the risks involved because IT is not their business. \n\nWithout the need for capital expenditures in IT, a business can also reduce their expenditures for maintaining an IT environment, such as raised floors, cooling systems, etc. Because cloud services can be accessed anywhere, it is possible to create a true collaborative business without any walls, where all employees work together but remote from each other. \n\nAs the sixth law of cloudonomics indicates, cloud solutions will typically be more secure from attack than most businesses simply because of the size of their operations. Along these lines, cloud providers will also be more likely to comply with government and industry standards and regulations. Therefore, it’s safe to say that a business can increase the success of their business processes by leveraging the resources provided by a cloud provider. \n\nFor businesses that are conscious about their impact outside of the company walls and customer base, cloudsoffer a great opportunity for reducing the company’s carbon footprint. Pooling and sharing resources is a major characteristic of cloud computing. With cloud solutions over a public cloud, a business is sharing resources with other customers. The result is an infrastructure that utilizes less power, less natural resources, and makes less of an imprint on the environment than if each business supported their own infrastructure. \n\nAs mentioned in the tenth law of cloudonomics, cloud providers can easily choose the locations of their data centers on “greenfield sites” and even adopt expensive green technologies. For the business, this requires researching the environmental consciousness of potential cloud providers but, with the right partner, a business can participant in planetary concerns. \n
  • The Organizational Perspective issue ensures that we align the vision, strategy and goals of the business with the delivery of IT services.\n\nThe People issue is without doubt where IT Service Management professionals face their greatest challenges, comprising the people or the ‘soft side’ of IT that carry out day-to-day tasks, management and security.\n\nHistorically, the Technology considerations received the most attention. We now understand that without well defined processes we can often make inappropriate selections in this area.\n\nMore and more people see the importance of Processes as the primary enabler for technologies services. (the primary purpose of this program is to study some of these in detail).\n
  • From an enterprise perspective, it is important to understand the basic relationship the enterprise and cloud services. Cloud services are still a technology solution and therefore part of the enterprise’s IT infrastructure.\n\nThe extent of which the IT infrastructure is made up of cloud services is dependent on the strategies and goals of the business and IT Service Management. A company’s entire IT infrastructure can be comprised of cloud services, or it can be partially comprised and mixed with traditional solutions. \n\nIT Service Management provides guidelines and best practices for ensuring the IT solution meets the desired outcomes of the business. As you will eventually understand later, IT Service Management is also a service to the business as well. \n\nThe business is an entity, but what it makes it unique is the products and services it provides to its customers. To provide these products and services, the business must have business processes that describe the activities involved to create the end-product. These processes themselves utilize tools, people, and subprocesses to complete the desired work which can be viewed as services.\n\nIn short, a business is an entity that uses business processes to provide a product to the market. These business processes may require a technical solution that could be a cloud service. To ensure that the cloud service is providing the desired outcome to the business process and working with other parts of the infrastructure, IT Service Management will provide oversight.\n\n \nHow a business is organized and how they manage their business processes is key to obtaining the most out of the cloud services. The objectives and requirements are translated into service requirements that IT Service Management manages to design, test, deploy, and operate IT solutions, which can include cloud services. \n
  • Grid computing has been used in environments where users make few but large allocation requests. For example, a lab may have a 1000 node cluster and users make allocations for all 1000, or 500, or 200. So only a few of these allocations can be serviced at a time and others need to be scheduled for when resources are released. This results in sophisticated batch job scheduling algorithms of parallel computations.\n\nCloud computing really is about lots of small allocation requests. The Amazon EC2 accounts are limited to 20 servers each by default and lots and lots of users allocate up to 20 servers out of the pool of many thousands of servers at Amazon. The allocations are real-time and in fact there is no provision for queuing allocations until someone else releases resources. This is a completely different resource allocation paradigm, a completely different usage pattern, and all this results in completely different method of using compute resources.\n\nThis picture is an animated gif created by somebody else, but we added it because it shows very clearly how the various offerings interact and sometimes overlap. – to view the original picture online, please visit the link shown on the slide.\n
  • Implementation of IT Service Management for Cloud Services must be performed systematically. Some may consider that service management would be either because the ownership and management of the infrastructure and key components of the cloud service lies with the service provider. Unfortunately, the opposite is true. As the IT Infrastructure begins to be owned and managed by a cloud provider, the more IT Service Management is required. By the end of this course, these realization of this statement will be fully understood, but also an understanding of the benefits of cloud computing such that the need for and effective IT Service Management is justified. \n\nThere are several areas that any IT Service Management program must place a priority focus. \n\nREAD SLIDE\n\nEach of these areas will determine the required service model, scope of services, and measured level of service that must be achieved and maintained to support the business.\n\nUnderstanding the strategies for the business and IT is paramount for determining if cloud computing should even be an option, or what type of cloud solution should be pursued. While costs may be reduced by adopting cloud computing, some risks, real and perceived, to the business will increase that may make cloud computing unwarranted, such as security, portability, and lack of ownership. If the benefits and risks associated with cloud computing is not a perfect fit for the strategic direction of the business, any approach to adopt cloud services should be approached with extreme caution. One of the key drivers for effectively adopting cloud services is the structure and drivers of the organization: service-oriented organization will have greater success at adopting cloud services than a functional-based organization, simply because they are in the service mindset.\n\nBusiness requirements on IT should be clearly understand. Ideally, all requirements from all aspects of the business should be known. Some organizations try to adopt cloud services for a part of the business that is not properly positioned to provide the level of value available from the cloud services, when a better choice is actually available. What this does is provide a negative image of how successful cloud computing can be. By knowing and analyzing the full range of business requirements, service management can make the best choice for where to introduce cloud services. Some areas of the business are more likely choices for adopting the cloud than others, especially at the beginning: areas with reputable and proven solutions are high on the list, especially customer relationship management from SaleForce.com or Enterprise Resource Planning from NetSuite. Low on the list should be any area with a direct impact on the critical mission of the business, processes and stores confidential and sensitive data, or any business process that is not clearly defined. \n\nAll services required by the business and IT should be clearly defined. If not all services, than at least those services that are considered for solutions in the cloud. “Clearly defined” means agreement for the scope of the service, identifying and isolating all the activities of the service, distinguishing the exact nature and context of the interfaces to and from the service, and establishing effective measurements for the service that are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timely).\n\nAll the information gathered, defined, and analyzed from the previous three steps must be documented. IT Service Management must maintain a service portfolio/catalog for all proposed and actual services. Like a playbook in football or recipes in cooking, a service portfolio/catalog provides the key ingredients for achieving success inside the current situation. The service portfolio/catalog provides a description of the service from the perspective of the business. The portfolio will also track specific business aspects of the service, such as investments. The catalog provides information about how the service will be realized by the implemented IT solution. It is through the portfolio/catalog that service management will be able to effectively manage the services required by the business. \n\nThe proposed service requirements from the business will be documented within the service portfolio. The role of IT Service Management is to identify an appropriate IT solution to meet the service needs. The plan may be to adopt a cloud solution from a third-party service provider. There are several decisions to be made at this point, such as the scope of the cloud solution: will the service be achieved from an application on a cloud infrastructure or be a cloud application? Will development be required? What is the responsibilities of the cloud provider and the organization’s current IT department? The line of separation will move and be different depending on the solution being sought and offered. Especially in situations where interfacing is required between the cloud solution and other systems, the structure and allowances of the Cloud API will determine any potential risks, incompatibilities, and constraints. Since the Cloud API for different service providers and service models will be different, understanding the Cloud API becomes a critical ingredient to determining the technical viability of the proposed solution.\n\nOnce the technical viability of the proposed solution has been established, the management viability of the proposed solution must be established. This is done through the development, negotiation, and agreement of the contract and service level agreements between the business and service provider. IT Service Management will facilitate and manage this agreement on behalf of the business. \n\nIn most cases, an end-user will simply need to access the cloud service and start doing work. The more isolated the desired service is from the other services required by the business, the easier it will be to find and use a cloud service: an completely isolated service could take as little as thirty minutes. Unfortunately, the ease of finding and accessing a cloud service does not necessarily equate to the organization being ready to use the service. Some planning will need to be considered: more planning will be required based on existing factors such as the organization’s perception, complexity, and critical nature of the service. \n\nRisk will be present with any implementation of a service and the risks are higher when an organization first utilizes a cloud service. Service Management must identify and manage these risks appropriately. They must clearly understand and validate the benefits and value of the cloud service against those risks. \n\nService Improvement for cloud services provides an interesting dilemma. The service level agreement provides the foundation for the minimum expectations on the service and is essentially the only leverage the business has to encourage improvements by the service provider. If the service provider is meeting the service levels, they have no incentive to make improvements from this perspective. On the other hand, any improvements performed by the service provider will benefit the organization whether desired or not. For IT service management, the responsibility for identifying and implementing improvements still remains up to and including the interface with the Cloud API. Some improvements to be considered are the level of participation in the service by the business, documentation and communication of the service to the business, or performing audits to determine maturity of service delivery. Improvements to the business processes may have an impact on the service requirements, which will need to be managed appropriately. \n
  • Once you have passed your CC Foundation exam, you can continue up the pathway towards Cloud Computing Expert certification. Your next steps are the Specialist programs.\n\nIf you require any further information on any further programs, please contact elearning-support@artofservice.com.au.\n
  • Well done again for completing this program, we wish you the best of luck for your next program, and every success in your furture Cloud Computing career!\n
  • Introduction to Cloud Computing part 1

    1. 1. Ivanka Menken 1
    2. 2. Cloud Computing Introduction Welcome
    3. 3. What Is Cloud Computing?
    4. 4. Scale on Demand and NOT Having to Worry
    5. 5. From the Top• Four Deployment Methods• Three Service Models• Five Essential Characteristics
    6. 6. Deployment Models• Public Clouds• Community Clouds• Private Clouds• Hybrid Clouds
    7. 7. Essential Characteristics• On-demand self-service• Broad network access• Resource pooling• Rapid elasticity• Measured service
    8. 8. Cloud ServicesBaaS—Business as a ServiceOaaS—Organization as a ServicePaaS—Platform as a ServiceDaaS—Data as a ServiceSaaS— Software as a ServiceFaaS—Framework as a ServiceHaaS— Hardware as a Service  These are all subcomponents of Cloud Computing
    9. 9. Why use Cloud Computing? Technological Financial Adoption of emerging technologies Capital vs operational expenditures Rapid Scalability Pay-as-you-go features Access Anywhere Reduced IT management costs Insurance against future Competitive Advantage Innovation Internal Environmental Transfer of risk Sharing resources Business without walls Green IT Better security
    10. 10. Managing IT Services Organizational Perspective People Processes Technology
    11. 11. High Level Relationships Business Business Processes IT Service Management IT Infrastructure Cloud Services
    12. 12. Grid vs. Cloud http://blogs.southworks.net/mwoloski/files/2008/07/poster-thumb.gif
    13. 13. Service Management in the Cloud• Understand Strategies• Understand Business Requirements• Define the Required Services• Maintain a Service Portfolio/Catalog• Understand the Cloud API• Set Clear Service Levels Broker• Plan and Implement Find Service Deliver/Publish Service• Manage Risk• Improve Services Invoke Service Customer Provider
    14. 14. Cloud Computing Certification Scheme
    15. 15. Thank you