ang kakanyahan ng dalawang isang function ay ang pagsusulatan sa
pagitan ng mga elemento ng dalawang set tulad na sa bawat elemento
sa unang hanay ay tumutugma sa eksaktong isang elemento mula sa
pangalawang hanay. kung paano mo maaaring nauugnay ito sa real mga
sitwasyon sa buhay? banggitin hindi bababa sa dalawang mga partikular
The texture is the quality of a surface, often corresponding to its tactile
character, or what may be sensed by touch. Texture may be used, for
example, in portraying fabrics. It can be explicitly rendered, or implied
with other artistic elements such as lines, shading, and variation of color.
It is also about the different patterns and types of lines shading e.g.:
rough,smoothe, and soft in art..
Form is the external appearance of a clearly defined area. Form could
refer to 4th dimensional figures such as in computer generated designs.
Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. Space includes the
background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the
distances or areas around, between or within things. There are two types
of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space
of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the
space around and between the subject matter. Space is also defined as
the distance between identifiable points or planes in a work of art.
Shape pertains to the use of areas in two-dimensional space that can be
defined by edges, setting one flat specific space apart from another.
Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square, circle, hexagon, etc.) or organic
(such as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf, boomerang, etc.) Shapes are
defined by other elements of art: Space, Line, Texture, Value,
Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Defined
as primary colors (red, yellow, blue) which cannot be mixed
in pigmentfrom other hues, secondary colors (green, orange, violet)
which are directly mixed from combinations of primary colors. Further
combinations of primary and secondary colors create tertiary (and more)
hues. Tint and Shade are references to adding variations inValue; other
tertiary colors are derived by mixing either a primary or secondary color
with a neutral color. e.g. Red + White = Pink. Color is the quality of an
object or substance with respect to the one reflected by it, and usually
determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation and brightness of
the reflected light. in simple form, when light strikes an object with color,
then, the color reflects back to your eye. More light means a higher
intensity level of the color. The value and hue vary when light darkens or
Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in
an artwork. Some people also refer the lightness and darkness in an
artwork as tints (light) and shades (dark). Black-and-white photography
depends entirely on value to define its subjects. Value is directly related
to contrast. Value is the relative degree of lightness in the graphic work
of art or painting.
Line is defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or
the path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. As an art
element, line pertains to the use of various marks, outlines and implied
lines in artwork and design, most often used to define shape in twodimensional work. Implied line is the path that the viewer's eye takes as
it follows shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be
continuous or physically connected, such as the line created by a
dancer's arms, torso, and legs when performing an arabesque. Line is
an element of art that is simplest, most ancient, and most universal
means for creating visual arts. A line is an identifiable path created by a
point moving in space. It is two-dimensional and can vary in width,
direction, and length. Lines often define the edges of a form. Lines can
be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, straight or curved, thick or thin.
Movement shows actions, or alternatively, the path the viewer's eye
follows throughout an artwork. Movement is caused by using elements
under the rules of the principles in picture to give the feeling of motion
and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork. In movement an
art should flow, because the artist has the ability to control the viewer's
eye. The artists control what the viewers see and how they see it, like a
path leading across the page to the item the artist wants the viewer's
attention focused on.
Techniques such as scale and proportion can be used to create an effect
of movement in a visual artwork. For instance, an element that is further
into the background is smaller in scale and lighter in value. The same
element repeated in different places within the same image can also
demonstrate the passing of time or movement.
Unity is the concept behind the artwork. An analogy would be the way in
which a conductor directs a wide variety of instruments in an orchestra to
produce a symphony that is recognized as a single comprehensible
piece. Unity is how well different parts of an artwork build on each
Harmony is achieved in a body of work by using similar elements
throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to a piece of
artwork or sculpture.
Color harmony or color theory is also considered a principle through the
application of the design element of color.
Variety is the quality or state of having different forms or types, notable
use of contrast, emphasis, difference in size and color.
(l-r) symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial balance
Balance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers,
or seems heavier than any other part. The three different kinds of
balance are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial. Symmetrical (or
formal) balance is the most stable, in a visual sense. When both sides of
an artwork on either side of the horizontal or vertical axis of the picture
plane are exactly (or nearly exactly the same) the work is said to exhibit
this type of balance.
Contrast is created by using elements that conflict with one another.
Often, contrast is created using complementary colors or extremely light
and dark values. Contrast creates interest in a piece and often draws the
eye to certain areas. It is used to make a painting more visually
Proportion is a measurement of the size and quantity of elements within
a composition. In ancient arts, proportions of forms were enlarged to
show importance. This is why Egyptian gods and political figures appear
so much larger than common people. The ancient Greeks found fame
with their accurately-proportioned sculptures of the human form.
Beginning with the Renaissance, artists recognized the connection
between proportion and the illusion of 3-dimensional space.
Pattern and rhythm
Pattern and rhythm is showing consistency with colors or lines. Putting a
red spiral at the bottom left and top right, for example, will cause the eye
to move from one spiral, to the other, and everything in between. It is
indicating movement by the repetition of elements. Rhythm can make an
artwork seem active.